Permissible and prohibited Tawassul=Supplication in Islam- Protect your faith from shirk (Polytheism)

Permissible and prohibited Tawassul=Supplication in IslamProtect your faith from shirk (Polytheism)


Mohamad Mostafa Nassar

Twitter:@NassarMohamadMR

Introduction:

Starting this topic with the following glorious Quranic verses (3:128-129) is enough to refute anyone who claim that it is permissible to go to the grave of the Prophet peace be upon him and ask for forgiveness and his intercession on judgment day.

However, we will elaborate trying to refute every angle of the allegations after these sharing these glorious Quranic verses (3:128-129).

Some of the remnants of Prophet’s Ibrahim message was practiced in the Arabic peninsula, prior to the Prophetic mission of our beloved Prophet Muhammed started, some Arabs refused to bow to idols, drink alcohol and commit other prohibited sins which they observed from the teachings of Prophet Ibrahim that passed from generation to generation.

Over centuries paganism start to creep into different aspects of life in the Arabic peninsula and neighbouring regions, the Arabs of Quraish tribe in Mecca was the main custodian of the house of Allah in Mecca where the Kabbah and the Black stone were originally rebuilt by Prophet Ibrahim and his son Prophet Ishmael.

The rest of the Arabs all over the Arabic peninsula used to visit Mecca for trade and visiting the house of Allah as well. The Arab pagans of Quraish tribe start to revere the dead in graves and make idols for them.

Such evolving corrupted belief was a result of gardual following of innovations over centuries and forgetting about the original message of Prophet Ibrahim and his son Prophet Ismae.

When the Arabc pagan of Quraish tribe thougth that those dead people that they were good during their life, would act as mediators between them and Allah exalted, He.

Similarly, Christians believed about Prophet Isa’s son of Maryam to be mediator between them and Allah Exalted He.

In such environment Allah Exalted he choose our beloved Muhammed peace be upon him to be the last and final messenger, Prophet to mankind starting with his own Quraish tribe in Mecca that had strong influence all over the rest of the tribes.

Islam Promote Personal Responsibility and Personal Accountability:

In Islam you reap what you have sown, which means if you personally did good deeds, you will be rewarded and if you did bad deeds you will be punished unless of course if you stop and repent.

Islam personal responsibility and personally accountability, no mediators in Islam between Muslims and Allah Exalted He. This means that anyone who consider taking any dead people as mediators/ intercessors would be committing grand polytheism/Shirk that potentially revoke their Islam unless if repented of course.

In Islam a person who died not Muslim will not go to paradise because they are a relative of the prophet or of a good Muslim. No one carries sins of other in Islam, unlike Christianity that worship human prophet and turned him to be their savior to carry their sins on behalf of them, which means Christianity does not personal responsibility and personally accountability.

Extreme prohibitions in asking the prophet in his grave:

Islam was sent to RECTIFY the corruption occurred to the previous messages of all Prophets and to abolish any mediators between people and Allah. The Glorious Quran in crystal clear noble verses prohibitions to take mediators between you as a Muslim and Allah Exalted He, whether they were Prophets, angels or anything.

Allah Exalted He does owe anyone anything, thefore it is forbidden in Islam to swear or supplicate to Allah by anything, any of his creations or the status of any of his creatuions whether dead or alive including our Beloved Prophet who does not know the unseen unless told to him by Allah Exalted He.

Our Prophet Muhammed peace be upon was grant the grand intercession by Allah which will occur on Judgement day. A Muslim can supplicate to Allah Exalted He by his good deeds or ask a Muslim who is alive that he things to be a good Muslim to include him in his supplication to Allah.

And that exactly what the Mulims used to ask our beloved Prophet during his live to include them in his supplications to Allah seeking forgiveness from Allah and be blessed by Allah to be included among those who are eligible for our beloved Prophet intercessions to Allah on Judgment day.

However A Muslim MUST follow all the teachings of the Glorious Qur’an and Authentic sunnah to please Allah Exalted He and be eligible to Allah’s mercy.

The Prophet himself can’t do anything without Allah granting him such noble status, therefore, when visiting the grave of the Prophet it would be extremely forbidden, shirk and polytheim enough to put you out of Islam if you to Ask the Prophet in his garve for anything. Read the below clarification of Quran (7:188)

Obviously if such extreme prohibitions in asking the prophet in his grave and very bad consequence, I would assume by now, you would know by that it would be extremely very prohibited to ask anyone else in his or her grave. or anything for forgiveness of Allah. Ask Allah alone and directly.

The following noble verse Allah Exalted He warn against taking intercessors/mediators (whether dead or alive) between themselves and Allah:

They worship besides Allah others who can neither harm nor benefit them, and say, “These are our intercessors with Allah.” Ask ˹them, O  Prophet˺, “Are you informing Allah of something He does not know in the heavens or the earth? Glorified and Exalted is He above what they associate ˹with Him˺!” Quran (10:18)

The following noble verse prohibits taking anything as intercessors/mediators which practially would be considered as taking partners or lords beside Allah:

“Indeed, sincere devotion is due ˹only˺ to Allah. As for those who take other lords besides Him, ˹saying,˺ “We worship them only so they may bring us closer to Allah,” surely Allah will judge between all1 regarding what they differed about. Allah certainly does not guide whoever persists in lying and disbelief.” Quran (39:3)

Islam forbids erecting structures over graves, and commands that any such structures should be knocked down.

But it is permitted to put a marker on the grave so that the family and friends of the deceased will know where it is. However, this marker should not be a structure or anything else that is not allowed in sharee’ah. 

It was narrated that Jaabir said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade plastering over graves, sitting on them and erecting structures over them. 

Reference : Sahih Muslim 970a In-book reference : Book 11, Hadith 121 USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 4, Hadith 2116

Prohibition against sitting and praying on graves

Abu Marthad al-Ghanawi reported Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:

Do not sit on the graves and do not pray facing towards them.

Reference : Sahih Muslim 972a In-book reference : Book 11, Hadith 126 USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 4, Hadith 2121

Based on prohibtions mentioned above of taking any form of intercessors/mediators, and the stringent and very strict prohibitions for even praying towards graves or building on them and based on many authentic statements for the Prophet prohibiting us from exaggerating in praising him like Christians did with Prophet Jesus son of Maryam to the point they made him a God, we can understand that Allah Exalted He did not not prohibit taking any intercessors/mediators to replace them with Prophet Muhammed.

Islam NEVER EVER taught us to visit the grave of the Prophet and ask him for forgivness and ask him for his intercession as such action would be leading to grand shirk=polytheism and nullifying someon’es Isla= put a Muslim out of Islam. Rather Islam taught us to ask Allah to forgive as and ask him to grant us the intercession of the Prophet.

The Companions of the Prophet traveled across the world and they never ever visited the Prophet in his grave for forgiveness and intercession

The Glorious Quran is crystal clear when confirmed that the Protect or benefit himself except by Allah will, so how can he benefit or protect after he passed away in his grave?

Say, “I have no power to benefit or protect myself, except by the Will of Allah. If I had known the unknown, I would have benefited myself enormously, and no harm would have ever touched me. I am only a warner and deliverer of good news for those who believe.” Quran (7:188)

There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and Prophet Muhammed peace be upon him is last and final HUMAN Prophet and Messenger. Prophet Muhammed passed away who did not know the unseen by himself, Allah told him

“Every soul will taste death. And you will only receive your full reward on the Day of Judgment. Whoever is spared from the Fire and is admitted into Paradise will ˹indeed˺ triumph, whereas the life of this world is no more than the delusion of enjoyment.” Quran (3:185)

For more Reading about that matter See: Prophet Muhammed (Peace Be Upon Him) – Dead or Alive in the Worldly Sense?

The purity of creed in Islam by ensuring we follow all pillars of Islam, all pillars of faith as per the authentic actions, statements of our beloved Prophet Muhammed peace be upon him, and the authentic actions, statements and understanding of his companions (our pious predecessors=Al Salaf Al-Salih) may Allah be pleased with them, are aimed to worship Allah alone without associating any equals, partners no matter what, is extremely important and without it we would be risking our salvation in both worlds.

The dangers of committing polytheism= shirk in Islam:

Tawhid=monotheism in Islam is paramount and supersedes anything else in Islam, Allah Exalted He warned us against committing polytheism=shirk which if you insist on committing it can nullify your Islam and make you non-Muslim if die on it without repenting.

Here various noble Quranic verses warning us against committing polytheism=shirk:

“Indeed, Allah does not forgive associating others with Him ˹in worship˺,1 but forgives anything else of whoever He wills. And whoever associates others with Allah has indeed committed a grave sin.”  Quran (4:48)

“˹They are˺ those who do not invoke any other god besides Allah, nor take a ˹human˺ life—made sacred by Allah—except with ˹legal˺ right,1 nor commit fornication. And whoever does ˹any of˺ this will face the penalty, their punishment will be multiplied on the Day of Judgment, and they will remain in it forever, in disgrace. As for those who repent, believe, and do good deeds, they are the ones whose evil deeds Allah will change into good deeds. For Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful. And whoever repents and does good has truly turned to Allah properly. 

Quran (25:68-71)

And the authentic Hadith in Muslim:

It is narrated on the authority of Jabir that a man came to the Messenger of Allah () and said:

 Messenger of Allah, what are the two things quite unavoidable? He replied: He who dies without associating anyone with Allah would (necessarily) enter Paradise and he who dies associating anything with Allah would enter the (Fire of) Hell.

Reference : Sahih Muslim 93a In-book reference    : Book 1, Hadith 175 USC-MSA web (English) reference   : Book 1, Hadith 168

Another Hadith On Prohibition of heresies in religion

‘Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported:

Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “If anyone introduces in our matter something which does not belong to it, will be rejected”.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

The narration in Muslim says: “If anybody introduces a practice which is not authenticated by me, it is to be rejected”.

Reference : Riyad as-Salihin 169 In-book reference : Introduction, Hadith 169

No evidence from the Glorious Quran or authentic Sunnah advising us to visit the grave of the Prophet asking HIM for anything:

  • There is no one single Noble Quranic verse advise us to visit the grave of Prophet Muhammed peace be upon him after he passed away asking him for intercession.
  • No one single authentic hadith advise us to visit the grave of Prophet Muhammed peace be upon him after he passed away asking him for intercession.
  • No one of the companions visited the grave of Prophet Muhammed peace be upon him after he passed away asking him for intercession.
  • Umar ibn Al-Khattab during his reign a chronic drought occurred, he never went to the grave of the Prophet asking HIM for help. Read about this incident HERE

In fact, the opposite is true:

Our beloved Prophet Muhammed peace be upon him warned us in SEVERAL hadiths against mimicking and copying Jews and Christians and taking his grave and other graves of Muslims as mosques, as forbidden actions to shirk=polytheism.

Unfortunately, many who claim to be Muslims have deviated to the point of violating the very basic teachings of Islam and those prohibitions of building mosques upon graves and they did build mosques upon graves such as Sufis and Shi’a. Not that only but also, they ask the dead for help which is grand shirk.

Narrated `Aisha and Ibn `Abbas:

On his death-bed Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) put a sheet over his-face and when he felt hot, he would remove it from his face. When in that state (of putting and removing the sheet) he said, “May Allah’s Curse be on the Jews and the Christians for they build places of worship at the graves of their prophets.” (By that) he intended to warn (the Muslim) from what they (i.e. Jews and Christians) had done.

Reference  : Sahih al-Bukhari 3453, 3454 In-book reference     : Book 60, Hadith 121 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Vol. 4, Book 55, Hadith 660

Deviants Twisting the meanings of some Qur’anic verses:

Deviants such as Sufi, Shi’a, and ignorants from various groups who claim to be following the authentic teachings if Islam have been twisting meanings and interpretations of some of the Quranic verses to suit their corrupted narrative of asking the dead in graves which is a major sin in Islam that can lead to nullifying a Muslim faith and put them out of Islam.

Noble Quranic verses misquoted:

Unfortunate some people who have been misquoting the following noble Quranic verses to justify shirk when they go to visit the grave of the Prophet peace be upon him and other graves of people claimed to be pious. Some enemies of Islam use such behaviours to attack Islam and falsely claim that Muslims worship the Prophet.

“O believers! Be mindful of Allah and seek what brings you closer to Him and struggle in His Way, so you may be successful.” Quran (5:35)

Clarification about the above-mentioned noble Quranic verse Quran (5:35)

Those ignorants who justify asking the dead they claim that this part (seek what brings you closer to Him) of the above-mentioned verse allow for asking the dead for help especially if those dead were good Muslims., such claim goes against the teaching of the Glorious Quran, authentic Sunnah, actions of the prophet and his companions.

Scholars of Islam clarify this part (seek what brings you closer to Him) to be all the good deeds a Muslim can do as per the authentic teachings of Islam, authentic statements and actions of the Prophet and the authentic actions and statements of the Prophet’s companions and not asking anyone who died for forgivness or blessings or any thing.


“We only sent messengers to be obeyed by Allah’s Will. If only those ˹hypocrites˺ came to you ˹O Prophet˺—after wronging themselves—seeking Allah’s forgiveness and the Messenger prayed for their forgiveness, they would have certainly found Allah ever Accepting of Repentance, Most Merciful.”

Quran (4:64)

Clarification about the above-mentioned noble Quranic verse Quran (4:64)

Again, ignorants have been using this verse to justify going to the grave of the Prophet peace be upon him asking the Messenger prayed for their forgiveness, such request violates the basic teachings of Tawhid=Pure monotheism, basic teachings of Prophet Muhammed peace be upon him and the actions of his companions.

Moreover, in fact the above-mentioned Noble Qur’anic verse meaning it refers to ˹hypocrites˺ came to you ˹O Prophet˺—after wronging themselves—seeking Allah’s forgiveness (during the life of Prophet Muhammed peace be upon him. So, quoting this verse to justify visiting the Prophet’s grave and ask Him is clear deviance from Tawhid=Pure monotheism as the Prophet taught us.

Some deviants claim that Ibn Kathir has indicated in his clarification of this noble Quranic verse Quran (4:64) that is it acceptable that anyone can go visit the grave of the Prophet and ask HIM for forgiveness and intercession. Truth of the matter is Ibn Kaither NEVER EVER indicated that this verse means that Muslims need to go to the grave of the Prophet and ask HIM for forgiveness and intercession.

Why the Deviants and Ignorants claim that about Ibn Kathir’s Calarification of this nobile verse then?

Ibn kathir quoted a story of

((a Bedouin who went to the grave of the Prophet and said Salam Aalykum O’Prophet I have come to visit your grave asking for forgiveness of my sins from Allah and seek the intercession of you ))

Note:

Quotation of this story in the commentary does NOT mean that Ibn Kaithr approve of it nor that he recomment it, nor does it tell us to go seek forgiveness and intercession from the Prophet DIRECTLY as such wrong action will open the doors for grand polytheism= Al-Shirk Al Akbar which can put a Muslim out if Islam if they do not repent sincerely and never repeat it again.

The Prophet peace be upon him did not prohibit us from visiting the graves and giving Salam- that does NOT mean that as Muslims with the correct faith we understand that NO response is expected from those who passed away.

However WE CAN as we have beeb instructed to ask and supplicate to Allah Exalted He to make us among those who are forgiven and those who are granted the intercession of our beloved Prophet peace be upon him because of our love to the Prophet.

The four Schools of thought ( four madhabs) stance on visiting the Grave of Prophet and asking HIM directly for Forgiveness and Intercession

No doubt that ALL the four schools of thought ( four madhabs) Prohibits a permanent prohibition on visiting the Grave of Prophet and asking HIM directly for Forgiveness and Intercession as such very wrong action is very Prohibited by the crystal clear Glorious Quran, authentic Sunnah, actions of The Prophet and the actions and statements of his companions peace be upon him.

The Prophet was sent to the whole Mankind starting with his very own local community in Mecca, the Arab pagans knew that Allah is the only true God, yet they took the dead in graves who they thougth were Good people as intermediaries or go-between and they also made idols of those dead.

The Prophet Peace be upon him was sent to demolish such false belief which is similar to the corrupt beliefs of Christians about Prophet Jesus son of Mary who they consider as a mediator between them and Allah Exalted He.

Why the Deviants and Ignorants claim that Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal allowed visiting The grave of the Prophet and ask him HIM directly for Forgiveness and Intercession

First, Iman Ahmad ibn Hanbal NEVER EVER advised or allowed anyone to visit The grave of the Prophet and ask him HIM directly for Forgiveness and Intercession. What happend is Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal had discussed an opinion of whether it is acceptable to SWAER by the name of The Prophet or not.

Problem is the deviants and ignorants mixed and minced opinions to the point that they have falsely attributed to Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal what he NEVER EVER said which is He NEVER EVER allowed visiting The grave of the Prophet and ask him HIM directly for Forgiveness and Intercession.

Hypothetically Speaking:

Let us assume that Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal allowed visiting the Grave of Prophet and asking HIM directly for Forgiveness and Intercession. Which by the way NEVER EVER happened that he allowed visiting the Grave of Prophet and asking HIM directly for Forgiveness and Intercession. Assuming that Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal allowed visiting the Grave of Prophet and asking HIM directly for Forgiveness and Intercession.

The response to that hypothetical assumption, is that Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal is NOT infallible, everyone’s speech can be taken from or rejected, EXCEPT our beloved Prophet Muhammed peace be upon him as we all know.

IF, I repeat IF Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal had allowed visiting the Grave of Prophet and asking HIM directly for Forgiveness and Intercession, he would be going against:

-The Glorious Qur’an teachings.

– Authentic Sunnah and actions of the Prophet peace be upon him

-Actions of The companions of the Prophet.

Mixing between what is permitted and what is Prohibited:

Sadly those deviants and ignorants mixing between what’s permitted which is visiting the grave of the Prophet and between asking the Prophet in his grave. Every single Muslim know that the Prophet passed away, is NOT God nor son of God, we do not worship him AND we do NOT have mediators in Islam between us and Allah Exalted He, which Islam came to abolish the pagan idea of a Mediatory between Allah Exalted He and Mankind.

We ask Allah Exalted He to forgive us and grant us our beloved Prophet intercession on Judgement Day, Ameen.

Hadith on Medina: Greeting the Prophet with peace at his grave

The following Hadith is NOT evidence to ask the Prophet in his grave for forgiveness or Intercessions- Simply the hadith shows that we are allowed to visit the grave of the Prophet and give salam and ASK Allah Exalted He to Allah to forgive us and grant us The Prophet’s intercession on Judgement day.

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “None of you greet me with peace but that Allah returns my spirit, that I may return his greeting of peace.

Source: Sunan Abī Dāwūd 2041

Grade: Sahih (authentic) according to Al-Nawawi

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ مَا مِنْ أَحَدٍ يُسَلِّمُ عَلَيَّ إِلَّا رَدَّ اللَّهُ عَلَيَّ رُوحِي حَتَّى أَرُدَّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامَ

2041 سنن أبي داود كتاب المناسك باب زيارة القبور

8/272 المحدث النووي خلاصة حكم المحدث إسناده صحيح في المجموع


Question:

I want to ask about Tawassul=Supplication (invoking Allah, by means of an intermediary), is it permissible in Islam?

Fatwa:

All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and that Muhammed peace be upon him is His Slave and Messenger.

There are two categories of Tawassul=Supplication. One is permissible and the other is prohibited. 

The permissible category has three types:

1- Tawassul=Supplication by means of the Names and Attributes of Allah; Allah Says (what means):

· {And to Allah belong the best names, so invoke Him by them. And leave [the company of] those who practice deviation concerning His names. They will be recompensed for what they have been doing.} [Quran 7:180]

· {O you who have believed, fear Allah and seek the means [of nearness] to Him and strive in His cause that you may succeed.} [Quran 5:35]

2- Tawassul=Supplication to Allah by virtue of a person’s righteous deeds. Ibn ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated on authority of the Prophet peace be upon him the story of the three persons who were blocked inside a cave by a huge stone and each of them supplicated Allah to get them out of the cave by virtue of a good deed he had done.  [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

Note:

The prophet NEVER EVER insutrcuted us to visit his grave and asked HIM for forgivness, intercession or anything.

3- Tawassul=Supplication by a righteous living man supplicating for others. 

It was narrated on the authority of ‘Uthman Ibn Abi Al-‘Aas may Allah be pleased with him that a blind man made Tawassul=Supplication to Allah The Almighty by means of the Prophet peace be upon him saying, “I invoke  You by means of Your Prophet peace be upon him  … so make him intercede for me with You”. [Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah]

This man’s saying “make him intercede for me with You” proves that the meaning of seeking the Tawassul=Supplication of the Prophet peace be upon him, is seeking Tawassul=Supplication by his peace be upon him supplication and NOT with the person of the Prophet peace be upon him.

This is also supported by what ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattab may Allah be pleased with him did when they suffered draught: he sought the Tawassul=Supplication of Al-‘Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet peace be upon him to supplicate Allah and it rained with the permission of Allah. [Al-Bukhari].  Read about this Incident Here.

The Prohibition of Tawassul=Supplication to Allah Exalted He by means of the person of the Prophet peace be upon him after he passed away:

Had pleading to Allah by means of the person of the Prophet peace be upon him been permissible, then they would have made Tawassul=Supplication by means of the person of the Prophet peace be upon him, after his death as well, as his status and honor during his life remained the same after his death.

The prohibited category contains two types:

1. Tawassul=Supplication that is considered a religious innovation, such as making Tawassul=Supplication by means of the person of the prophets or righteous persons.

The evidence for this is that Tawassul=Supplication is an act of worship, and all acts of worship are only done if they are proven by an authentic text, as indicated by the previous narration of ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab may Allah be pleased with him.

Tawassul=Supplication which is considered an act of Shirk [associating partners with Allah], such as making Tawassul=Supplication by means of acts of worship (supplicating, vowing, sacrificing) for the sake of other than Allah, then alleging that this is for the purpose of making them (to whom the act was done) intercede for them with Allah.

Allah Exalted He Says about polytheists (what means):

{We only worship them that they may bring us nearer to Allah in position} [Quran 39:3] 

{And they worship other than Allah that which neither harms them nor benefits them, and they say, “These are our intercessors with Allah} [Quran10:18]

Fatwa answered by: The Fatwa Center at Islamweb

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‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab did not seek the help of Allah by virtue of the status of al-‘Abbaas (may Allah be pleased with him)

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Lightning Strike on Sufis and Shi’as