The Disagreements Between Alī and Mu’āwiyah may Allah be pleased with Both (Battle of Siffin)

The Disagreements Between Alī and Mu’āwiyah may Allah be pleased with Both (Battle of Siffin)


Please explain the story of Mu’āwiyah and Alī may Allah be pleased with both in detail about what happened and [did]

they [fight] each other for [ruling the Caliphate]?


In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

Before we answer your query, it is important to understand that both ‘Alī and Mu’āwiyah may Allah be pleased with both, were illustrious companions of the Holy Prophet peace be upon him. Being granted the rank of a Sahabi=companion of the prophet means that both along with the rest of the Sahabah=companions of the Prophet.

May Allah be pleased with them, hold a great status in the sight of Allah Almighty as apparent from numerous Qur’anic verses and Ahādīth expressing the virtues of the Sahabah=companions of the Prophet may Allah be pleased with them, [1]

As such, neither do we have the right to look down at any of their actions nor can we criticize the decision made by any of the Sahabah =companions of the Prophet may Allah be pleased with them, after Allah Almighty himself has attested to their piety and uprightness.

Now we shall briefly outline the events surrounding the battle between ‘Alī and Mu’āwiyah may Allah be pleased with them more commonly known as “The Battle of Siffīn”:

After the martyrdom of the great companion ‘Uthmān may Allah be pleased with him in the year 35 AH, the khilāfah=Caliphate was handed over to ‘Alī may Allah be pleased with him. Many pledged their allegiance to him such as the Ansār and Muhājirīn, but there were some who were unwilling to do so until the perpetrators and conspirers behind the martyrdom of ‘Uthmān may Allah be pleased with him were first dealt with.[2] 

Out of these people was Mu’āwiyah may Allah be pleased with him who was currently situated as the governor of Shām=Lebanon, Syria, and surroundings region.[3] 


The Ansar (Arabic: الأنصار‎, romanized: al-Anṣār, lit. ‘The Helpers’) were the local inhabitants of Medina who, in Islamic tradition, took the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers (the Muhajirun) into their homes when they emigrated from Mecca during the hijra= The Prophet and early Muslims migration from Mecca to Medina.

As a close relative of ‘Uthmān, he also desired that the first initiative of ‘Alī may Allah be pleased with him should be to put these perpetrators to task.[4] 

‘Alī may Allah be pleased with him also desired the same, but he felt that the current situation demanded that the empire is first brought into control before taking the next step. Those who conspired against ‘Uthmān may Allah be pleased with him were high in numbers and if dealt with too early would have struck an uproar and caused further fitnah=rebellion throughout the land.[5]

As such, when Mu’āwiyah may Allah be pleased with him demanded that action be taken against these people, ‘Alī may Allah be pleased with him did not respond in the affirmative and further disagreed with Mu’āwiyah’s may Allah be pleased with him plan of action. 

Those who were with Mu’āwiyah may Allah be pleased with him told him that ‘Alī may Allah be pleased with him was only stalling and did not want to go after the conspirers of ‘Uthmān’s may Allah be pleased with him martyrdom at all.

 This was further aggravated by some misinforming Mu’āwiyah may Allah be pleased with him that ‘Alī may Allah be pleased with him made way for the conspirators to take down ‘Uthmān.[6] 

Misunderstanding ‘Alī’s may Allah be pleased with him stance, Mu’āwiyah may Allah be pleased with him made the decision to go ahead with his own agenda even if ‘Alī may Allah be pleased with him did not agree.[7]

When ‘Alī may Allah be pleased with him heard about Mu’āwiyah’s may Allah be pleased with him plan of action, he first sent envoys to negotiate with Mu’āwiyah may Allah be pleased with him. Upon failure, he made a decision to gather his army and head towards Mu’āwiyah may Allah be pleased with him to stop him and take control of the situation before it weakens the Muslim empire. Soon, this resulted in a confrontation between the two armies around a place called Siffīn in Syria. It first began with negotiations [8] 

but eventually led to a full out battle with many casualties on both sides. As ‘Alī’s may Allah be pleased with him army gained the upper hand, a proposal was made by the army of Mu’āwiyah may Allah be pleased with him to have peace negotiations and cease fighting.[9] 

At the persistence of some people from his army, ‘Alī may Allah be pleased with him decided to go ahead with the negotiations. It was decided that each party would choose one person to represent them and make these negotiations, otherwise known as tahkīm. ‘Amr bin al-Ās may Allah be pleased with him was chosen to represent the army of Mu’āwiyah may Allah be pleased with him while Abu Mūsā al-Ash’rī may Allah be pleased with him was chosen to represent the army of ‘Alī.[10] 

It was further decided that the fighting will cease, and the final decision will be made during Ramadan [11] of the same year (i.e. 37 AH).[12]

As Ramadan came about, ‘Amr bin al-Ās may Allah be pleased with him and Abu Mūsā al-Ash’rī may Allah be pleased with him met and attempted to make peace by coming to a mutual decision regarding the caliphate and the future of the Muslim empire. In the end, these negotiations did not bear any fruit and both parties left without any probable conclusion.[13]

This concludes the summary of the battle that took place between ‘Alī and Mu’āwiyah may Allah be pleased with them. We do not wish to give further details since such information is only based off historical narrations that include many weak narrations as well. 

Furthermore, this is a matter of creed and belief in regard to the Sahabah may Allah be pleased with them and as stated before, the Qur’an outlines the great status of the Sahabah may Allah be pleased with them. As such, we cannot disregard our beliefs about the dignity and honor of Sahabah may Allah be pleased with them based on simple historical analyses of the events that took place during that time.[14]

Before we conclude, we advise you to keep the following points in mind:

1) Mu’āwiyah may Allah be pleased with him was a great companion [15] of the Holy Prophet peace be upon him whom the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم himself made Du’a for in the following words:

اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْهُ هَادِيًا مَهْدِيًّا وَاهْدِ بِهِ

“O Allah, make him a means of guidance, one who is guided and guide (others) through him.” [16]

2) Both parties were fighting for the sake of religion and for what they believed to be right. Nevertheless, it is the belief of the Ahl as-Sunnah that Mu’āwiyah may Allah be pleased with him erred in his decision and ‘Alī may Allah be pleased with him was on the true path of justice. This does not mean that Mu’āwiyah may Allah be pleased with him was sinful; it only means that he erred in his decision but was excused because it was for the sake of what he believed was right at that time.[17] 

This does not discredit his status as a Sahābī=Companion in any way; rather, it shows us that when discord occurs there is always one side that’s on the true path leaving scope for the other side as well. We must show gratitude to both Mu’āwiyah and ‘Alī may Allah be pleased with them for their sacrifices and their efforts in the path of religion.

In support of the above, consider the following two narrations:

Regarding this event, the Holy Prophet peace be upon him said:

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «لاَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ حَتَّى يَقْتَتِلَ فِئَتَانِ دَعْوَاهُمَا وَاحِدَةٌ»

“The Day of (Judgment) will not be established till there is a war between two groups whose claims will be the same.”

Hāfidh Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalānī writes in his commentary on Sahih al-Bukhārī that the above mentioned hadith refers to ‘Alī and Mu’āwiyah ي الله عنهما and this “claim” refers to both of them fighting for the same Deen=religion, i.e. Islam.[18]

It is reported in the Tarīkh of ibn Khaldūn that when ‘Alī may Allah be pleased with him was asked about the martyrs of the battle of Siffīn, he responded in the following words:

«والّذي نفسي بيده لا يموتنّ أحد من هؤلاء وقلبه نقيّ إلّا دخل الجنّة»

“I swear by the being who controls my life that none from these people (i.e., the martyrs) shall pass away while their hearts are still pure without being assured entrance into Jannah.” [19]

3) When reading material on such matters, we should always keep an open mind and never let our tongues be soiled by making mention of any Sahābī in a negative manner.

We shall conclude with words of wisdom expressed by the great caliph ‘Umar bin ‘Abdul ‘Azīz:

تِلْكَ دِمَاءٌ طَهَّرَ اللَّهُ أَيْدِينَا مِنْهَا فَلَا نُلَوِّثُ أَلْسِنَتَنَا بِهَا

“This is the blood (referring to the battles between the Sahabah) from which Allah the Almighty has kept our hands clean from. So, it is not suitable for us to soil our tongues by mentioning such matters.” [20]

Comprehensive Video about:

 Battles of the Camel and Battle of Siffin= The Fitna- Al-Jamal and As-Siffin

Brief video about the topic to watch:

Details about the war between Ali & Muawiya (May Allah be pleased with them) – Assim al hakeem

Why did the Battle of Siffin take place between Hazrat Ali and Hazrat Muawiyah?

Allah Knows Best



[1] Mu’āwiyah Aur Tārikhī Haqāiq, page. 11, Maktabah Ma’ariful Quran

[2] Al-Kāmil fi at-tārikh, vol. 2, pg. 461- 466, Dār al-Hadīth

[3] Ibid., pg. 468, 469.

Al-Mawsū’at al-Muyassarah fi at-Tārīkh al-Islāmī, vol. 1, pg.161, Muwaswah Iqra

[4] قَالَ: وَخَرَجَ أَبُو الدَّرْدَاءِ وَأَبُو أُمَامَةَ فَدَخَلَا على معاوية فقالا له: يا معاوية على ما تقاتل هذا الرجل؟ فوالله إنه أقدم منك ومن أبيك إسلاماً، وَأَقْرَبُ مِنْكَ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَأَحَقُّ بِهَذَا الْأَمْرِ مِنْكَ. فَقَالَ: أُقَاتِلُهُ عَلَى دَمِ عُثْمَانَ وَأَنَّهُ أَوَى قَتَلَتَهُ، فَاذْهَبَا إِلَيْهِ فَقُولَا لَهُ فَلْيُقِدْنَا مِنْ قَتَلَةِ عثمان ثم أنا أول من بايعه مَنْ أَهْلِ الشَّام

(البداية و النهاية لإبن كثير، ج ٨، ص ٣٦، دار ابن رجب)

[5] Fatawa Mahmudiyyah, vol. 2, pg. 73, Darul Iftaa Jami’ah Faruqiyyah

[6] فَسَارَ جَرِيرٌ إِلَى مُعَاوِيَةَ، فَلَمَّا قَدِمَ عَلَيْهِ مَاطَلَهُ وَاسْتَنْظَرَهُ وَاسْتَشَارَ عَمْرًا، فَأَشَارَ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يَجْمَعَ أَهْلَ الشَّامِ، وَيُلْزِمَ عَلِيَّا دَمَ عُثْمَانَ وَيُقَاتِلَهُ بِهِمْ، فَفَعَلَ مُعَاوِيَةُ ذَلِكَ، وَكَانَ أَهْلُ الشَّامِ لَمَّا قَدِمَ عَلَيْهِمُ النُّعْمَانُ بْنُ بَشِيرٍ بِقَمِيصِ عُثْمَانَ الَّذِي قُتِلَ فِيهِ مَخْضُوبًا بِالدَّمِ بِأَصَابِعِ زَوْجَتِهِ نَائِلَةَ، إِصْبَعَانِ مِنْهَا وَشَيْءٌ مِنَ الْكَفِّ وَإِصْبَعَانِ مَقْطُوعَتَانِ مِنْ أُصُولِهِمَا، وَنِصْفُ الْإِبْهَامِ، وَضَعَ مُعَاوِيَةُ الْقَمِيصَ عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ، وَجَمَعَ الْأَجْنَادَ إِلَيْهِ، فَبَكَوْا عَلَى الْقَمِيصِ مُدَّةً وَهُوَ عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ، وَالْأَصَابِعُ مُعَلَّقَةٌ فِيهِ، وَأَقْسَمَ رِجَالٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الشَّامِ أَنْ لَا يَمَسَّهُمُ الْمَاءُ إِلَّا لِلْغُسْلِ مِنَ الْجَنَابَةِ، وَأَنْ لَا يَنَامُوا عَلَى الْفُرُشِ حَتَّى يَقْتُلُوا قَتَلَةَ عُثْمَانَ، وَمَنْ قَامَ دُونَهُمْ قَتَلُوهُ. فَلَمَّا عَادَ جَرِيرٌ إِلَى أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلِيٍّ، وَأَخْبَرَهُ خَبَرَ مُعَاوِيَةَ، وَاجْتِمَاعَ أَهْلِ الشَّامِ مَعَهُ عَلَى قِتَالِهِ،

 وَأَنَّهُمْ يَبْكُونَ عَلَى عُثْمَانَ وَيَقُولُونَ: إِنَّ عَلِيًّا قَتَلَهُ وَآوَى قَتَلَتَهُ، وَأَنَّهُمْ لَا يَنْتَهُونَ عَنْهُ حَتَّى يَقْتُلَهُمْ أَوْ يَقْتُلُوهُ، قَالَ الْأَشْتَرُ لِعَلِيٍّ: قَدْ كُنْتُ نَهَيْتُكَ أَنْ تُرْسِلَ جَرِيرًا، وَأَخْبَرْتُكَ بِعَدَاوَتِهِ وَغِشِّهِ، وَلَوْ كُنْتَ أَرْسَلْتَنِي لَكَانَ خَيْرًا مِنْ هَذَا الَّذِي أَقَامَ عِنْدَهُ حَتَّى لَمْ يَدَعْ بَابًا يَرْجُو فَتْحَهُ إِلَّا فَتْحَهُ، وَلَا بَابًا يَخَافُ مِنْهُ إِلَّا أَغْلَقَهُ. فَقَالَ جَرِيرٌ: لَوْ كُنْتَ ثَمَّ لَقَتَلُوكَ، لَقَدْ ذَكَرُوا أَنَّكَ مِنْ قَتَلَةِ عُثْمَانَ. فَقَالَ الْأَشْتَرُ: وَاللَّهِ لَوْ أَتَيْتُهُمْ لَمْ يُعْيِنِي جَوَابُهُمْ وَلَحَمَلْتُ مُعَاوِيَةَ عَلَى خُطَّةٍ أُعْجِلُهُ فِيهَا عَنِ الْفِكْرِ، وَلَوْ أَطَاعَنِي [فِيكِ] أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ لِحَبَسَكَ وَأَشْبَاهَكَ حَتَّى يَسْتَقِيمَ هَذَا الْأَمْرُ

(الكامل في التاريخ لإبن الأثير ج ٢، ص ٥٢٣-٥٢٤، دار الحديث)

[7] Ibid.

Al-Kāmil fi at-tārikh, vol. 2, pg. 464- 466 & 469-470, Dār al-Hadīth

وَقِيلَ: إِنَّ عَمْرًا لَمَّا بَلَغَهُ قَتْلُ عُثْمَانَ قَالَ: أَنَا أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، أَنَا قَتَلْتُهُ، وَأَنَا بَوَادِي السِّبَاعِ، إِنْ يَلِ هَذَا الْأَمْرَ طَلْحَةُ فَهُوَ فَتَى الْعَرَبِ سَيْبًا، وَإِنْ يَلِهِ ابْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ فَهُوَ أَكْرَهُ مَنْ يَلِيهِ إِلَيَّ. فَبَلَغَهُ بَيْعَةُ عَلِيٍّ، فَاشْتَدَّ عَلَيْهِ، وَأَقَامَ يَنْتَظِرُ مَا يَصْنَعُ النَّاسُ، فَأَتَاهُ مَسِيرُ عَائِشَةَ، وَطَلْحَةَ، وَالزُّبَيْرِ، فَأَقَامَ يَنْتَظِرُ مَا يَصْنَعُونَ، فَأَتَاهُ الْخَبَرُ بِوَقْعَةِ الْجَمَلِ، فَأُرْتِجَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْرُهُ، فَسَمِعَ أَنَّ مُعَاوِيَةَ بِالشَّامِ لَا يُبَايِعُ عَلِيًّا، وَأَنَّهُ يُعَظِّمُ شَأْنَ عُثْمَانَ، وَكَانَ مُعَاوِيَةُ أَحَبَّ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ عَلِيٍّ، فَدَعَا ابْنَيْهِ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ وَمُحَمَّدًا فَاسْتَشَارَهُمَا وَقَالَ: مَا تَرَيَانِ؟ أَمَّا عَلِيٌّ فَلَا خَيْرَ عِنْدَهُ، وَهُوَ يَدُلُّ بِسَابِقَتِهِ، وَهُوَ غَيْرُ مُشْرِكِي فِي شَيْءٍ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ. فَقَالَ لَهُ ابْنُهُ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ: تُوُفِّيَ النَّبِيُّ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – وَأَبُو بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرَ وَهُمْ عَنْكَ رَاضُونَ، فَأَرَى أَنْ تَكُفَّ يَدَكَ وَتَجْلِسَ فِي بَيْتِكَ حَتَّى يَجْتَمِعَ النَّاسُ [عَلَى إِمَامٍ فَتُبَايِعَهُ] 

. وَقَالَ لَهُ ابْنُهُ مُحَمَّدٌ: أَنْتَ نَابٌ مِنْ أَنْيَابِ الْعَرَبِ وَلَا أَرَى أَنْ [يَجْتَمِعَ هَذَا الْأَمْرُ] وَلَيْسَ لَكَ فِيهِ صَوْتٌ. فَقَالَ عَمْرٌو: أَمَّا أَنْتَ يَا عَبْدَ اللَّهِ فَأَمَرْتَنِي بِمَا هُوَ خَيْرٌ لِي فِي آخِرَتِي وَأَسْلَمُ لِي فِي دِينِي، وَأَمَّا أَنْتَ يَا مُحَمَّدُ فَأَمَرْتَنِي بِمَا هُوَ خَيْرٌ لِي فِي دُنْيَايَ، وَشَرٌّ لِي فِي آخِرَتِي. ثُمَّ خَرَجَ وَمَعَهُ ابْنَاهُ حَتَّى قَدِمَ عَلَى مُعَاوِيَةَ، فَوَجَدَ أَهْلَ الشَّامِ يَحُضُّونَ مُعَاوِيَةَ عَلَى الطَّلَبِ بِدَمِ عُثْمَانَ، وَقَالَ عَمْرٌو: أَنْتُمْ عَلَى الْحَقِّ، اطْلُبُوا بِدَمِ الْخَلِيفَةِ الْمَظْلُومِ، وَمُعَاوِيَةُ لَا يَلْتَفِتُ إِلَيْهِ، فَقَالَ لِعَمْرٍو ابْنَاهُ: أَلَا تَرَى مُعَاوِيَةَ لَا يَلْتَفِتُ إِلَيْكَ؟ فَانْصَرِفْ إِلَى غَيْرِهِ. فَدَخَلَ عَمْرٌو عَلَى مُعَاوِيَةَ فَقَالَ لَهُ: وَاللَّهِ لَعَجَبٌ لَكَ! إِنِّي أَرْفِدُكَ بِمَا أَرْفِدُكَ وَأَنْتَ مُعْ عَنِّي، [أَمَا وَاللَّهِ] إِنْ قَاتَلْنَا مَعَكَ نَطْلُبُ بِدَمِ الْخَلِيفَةِ إِنَّ فِي النَّفْسِ [مِنْ ذَلِكَ] مَا فِيهَا، حَيْثُ تُقَاتِلُ مَنْ تَعْلَمُ سَابِقَتَهُ وَفَضْلَهُ وَقَرَابَتَهُ، وَلَكِنَّا أَرَدْنَا هَذِهِ الدُّنْيَا. فَصَالَحَهُ مُعَاوِيَةُ وَعَطَفَ عَلَيْهِ.

(الكامل في التاريخ لإبن الأثير) ج ٢، ص ٥٢٢-٥٢٣، دار الحديث)

[8] Al-Mawsū’at al-Muyassarah fi at-Tārīkh al-Islāmī, vol. 1, pg.163, Muwaswah Iqra;

وَمَكَثَ عَلِيٌّ يَوْمَيْنِ لَا يُرْسِلُ إِلَيْهِمْ أَحَدًا وَلَا يَأْتِيهِ أَحَدٌ، ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلِيًّا دَعَا أَبَا عَمْرٍو بَشِيرَ بْنَ عَمْرِو بْنِ مِحْصَنٍ الْأَنْصَارِيَّ، وَسَعِيدَ بْنَ قَيْسٍ الْهَمْدَانِيَّ، وَشَبَثَ بْنَ رِبْعِيٍّ التَّمِيمِيَّ، فَقَالَ لَهُمْ: ائْتُوا هَذَا الرَّجُلَ وَادْعُوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ، وَإِلَى الطَّاعَةِ وَالْجَمَاعَةِ. فَقَالَ لَهُ شَبَثٌ: يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَلَا تُطْمِعُهُ فِي سُلْطَانٍ تَوَلِّيهِ إِيَّاهُ، أَوْ مَنْزِلَةٍ تَكُونُ لَهُ بِهَا أَثَرَةٌ عِنْدِكَ إِنْ هُوَ بَايَعَكَ؟ قَالَ: انْطَلِقُوا إِلَيْهِ وَاحْتَجُّوا عَلَيْهِ، وَانْظُرُوا مَا رَأْيُهُ. وَهَذَا فِي أَوَّلِ ذِي الْحِجَّةِ. فَأَتَوْهُ فَدَخَلُوا عَلَيْهِ، فَابْتَدَأَ بَشِيرُ بْنُ عَمْرٍو الْأَنْصَارِيُّ فَحَمِدَ اللَّهَ وَأَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ وَقَالَ: يَا مُعَاوِيَةَ إِنَّ الدُّنْيَا عَنْكَ زَائِلَةٌ، وَإِنَّكَ رَاجِعٌ إِلَى الْآخِرَةِ، وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ مُحَاسِبُكَ بِعَمَلِكَ وَمُجَازِيكَ عَلَيْهِ، وَإِنِّي أَنْشُدُكَ اللَّهَ أَنْ تُفَرِّقُ جَمَاعَةَ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةَ وَأَنْ تَسْفِكَ دِمَاءَهَا بَيْنَهَا.

فَقَطَعَ عَلَيْهِ مُعَاوِيَةُ الْكَلَامَ وَقَالَ: هَلَّا أَوْصَيْتَ بِذَلِكَ صَاحِبَكَ؟ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَمْرٍو: إِنَّ صَاحِبِي لَيْسَ مِثْلَكَ، إِنَّ صَاحِبِي أَحَقُّ الْبَرِّيَّةِ كُلِّهَا بِهَذَا الْأَمْرِ، فِي الْفَضْلِ وَالدِّينِ وَالسَّابِقَةِ فِي الْإِسْلَامِ وَالْقَرَابَةِ بِالرَّسُولِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ -. قَالَ: فَمَاذَا يَقُولُ؟ قَالَ: يَأْمُرُكَ بِتَقْوَى اللَّهِ (وَأَنْ تُجِيبَ) ابْنَ عَمِّكَ إِلَى مَا يَدْعُوكَ إِلَيْهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ، فَإِنَّهُ أَسْلَمُ لَكَ فِي دُنْيَاكَ، وَخَيْرٌ لَكَ فِي عَاقِبَةِ أَمْرِكَ! قَالَ مُعَاوِيَةُ: وَنَتْرُكُ دَمَ بْنِ عَفَّانَ؟ لَا وَاللَّهِ لَا أَفْعَلُ ذَلِكَ أَبَدًا.

(الكامل في التاريخ لإبن الأثير) ج ٢، ص ٥٣٠، دار الحديث)

[9] Al-Kāmil fi at-tārikh, vol. 2, pg. 552-553, Dār al-Hadīth

[10] Ibid., pg. 555-556;

Al-Mawsū’at al-Muyassarah fi at-Tārīkh al-Islāmī, vol. 1, pg.163, Muwaswah Iqra;

فكتب الكاتب: هَذَا مَا تَقَاضَى عَلَيْهِ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ وَمُعَاوِيَةُ بْنُ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ، قَاضَى عَلِيٌّ عَلَى أَهْلِ الْعِرَاقِ وَمَنْ مَعَهُمْ مِنْ شِيعَتِهِمْ وَالْمُسْلِمِينَ، وَقَاضَى مُعَاوِيَةُ عَلَى أَهْلِ الشَّامِ وَمَنْ كَانَ مَعَهُ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمِينَ إِنَّا نَنْزِلُ عند حكم الله وكتابه ونحيي ما أحيى الله، وَنُمِيتُ مَا أَمَاتَ اللَّهُ فَمَا وَجَدَ الْحَكَمَانِ في كتاب الله – وهما أبو موسى الْأَشْعَرِيُّ وَعَمْرُو بْنُ الْعَاصِ -، عَمِلَا بِهِ وَمَا لَمْ يَجِدَا فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ فَالسُّنَّةُ الْعَادِلَةُ الْجَامِعَةُ غَيْرُ الْمُتَفَرِّقَةِ.

(البداية و النهاية، ج ٨، ص ٥٦، دار ابن رجب)

[11] According to Imam al-Wāqidī, the month they actually met in was Sha’bān.

[Al-Bidayah wa an-Nihāyah, vol. 8, pg. 62, Dar Ibn Rajab]

[12] ثُمَّ أَخَذَ الْحَكَمَانِ مِنْ علي ومعاوية ومن الجندين العهود والمواثيق أَنَّهُمَا آمِنَانِ عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمَا وَأَهْلِهِمَا، وَالْأُمَّةُ لَهُمَا أنصار على الذي يتقاضيان عليه، وَعَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمِينَ مِنَ الطَّائِفَتَيْنِ كِلَيْهِمَا عَهْدُ الله وميثاقه أنهما عَلَى مَا فِي هَذِهِ الصَّحِيفَةِ، وَأَجَّلَا الْقَضَاءَ إلى رمضان وإن أحبا أن يوخرا ذَلِكَ عَلَى تَرَاضٍ مِنْهُمَا، وَكُتِبَ فِي يَوْمِ الأربعاء لثلاث عشر خَلَتْ مِنْ صَفَرٍ سَنَةَ سَبْعٍ وَثَلَاثِينَ، عَلَى أَنْ يُوَافِيَ عَلِيٌّ وَمُعَاوِيَةُ مَوْضِعَ الْحَكَمَيْنِ بِدُومَةِ الْجَنْدَلِ فِي رَمَضَانَ، وَمَعَ كُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنَ الْحَكَمَيْنِ أَرْبَعُمِائَةٍ مِنْ أَصْحَابِهِ، فَإِنْ لَمْ يَجْتَمِعَا لِذَلِكَ اجْتَمَعَا مِنَ الْعَامِ الْمُقْبِلِ بِأَذْرُحَ

(البداية و النهاية، ج ٨، ص ٥٦، دار ابن رجب)

[13] Al-Bidayah wa an-Nihāyah, vol. 8, pg. 64-65, Dar Ibn Rajab.

وَأَرَادَ عَمْرٌو بِذَلِكَ كُلِّهِ أَنْ يُقَدِّمَهُ فِي خَلْعِ عَلِيٍّ، فَلَمَّا أَرَادَهُ عَمْرٌو عَلَى ابْنِهِ وَعَلَى مُعَاوِيَةَ فَأَبَى، وَأَرَادَ أَبُو مُوسَى ابْنَ عُمَرَ فَأَبَى عَمْرٌو، قَالَ لَهُ عَمْرٌو: خَبِّرْنِي مَا رَأْيُكَ؟ قَالَ: أَرَى أَنْ نَخْلَعَ هَذَيْنِ الرَّجُلَيْنِ وَنَجْعَلَ الْأَمْرَ شُورَى، فَيَخْتَارَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ لِأَنْفُسِهِمْ مَنْ أَحَبُّوا. فَقَالَ عَمْرٌو: الرَّأْيُ مَا رَأَيْتَ. فَأَقْبَلَا إِلَى النَّاسِ وَهُمْ مُجْتَمِعُونَ، فَقَالَ عَمْرٌو: يَا أَبَا مُوسَى أَعْلِمْهُمْ أَنَّ رَأَيْنَا قَدِ اتَّفَقَ. فَتَكَلَّمَ أَبُو مُوسَى فَقَالَ: إِنَّ رَأَيْنَا قَدِ اتَّفَقَ عَلَى أَمْرٍ نَرْجُو أَنْ يُصْلِحَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَمْرَ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ. …وَكَانَ أَبُو مُوسَى مُغَفَّلًا فَقَالَ: إِنَّا قَدِ اتَّفَقْنَا، وَقَالَ: أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، إِنَّا قَدْ نَظَرْنَا فِي أَمْرِ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ، فَلَمْ نَرَ أَصْلَحَ لِأَمْرِهَا وَلَا أَلَمَّ لِشَعَثِهَا مَنْ أَمْرٍ قَدْ أَجْمَعَ رَأْيِي وَرَأْيُ عَمْرٍو عَلَيْهِ، وَهُوَ أَنْ نَخْلَعَ عَلِيًّا وَمُعَاوِيَةَ، وَيُوَلِّي النَّاسُ أَمْرَهُمْ مَنْ أَحَبُّوا، وَإِنِّي قَدْ خَلَعْتُ عَلِيًّا وَمُعَاوِيَةَ…وَأَقْبَلَ عَمْرٌو فَقَامَ وَقَالَ: إِنَّ هَذَا قَدْ قَالَ مَا سَمِعْتُمُوهُ وَخَلْعَ صَاحِبَهُ، وَأَنَا أَخْلَعُ صَاحِبَهُ كَمَا خَلَعَهُ، وَأُثْبِتُ صَاحِبِي مُعَاوِيَةَ، فَإِنَّهُ وَلِيُّ ابْنِ عَفَّانَ، وَالطَّالِبُ بِدَمِهِ، وَأَحَقُّ النَّاسِ بِمَقَامِهِ.

(الكامل في التاريخ، ج ٢، ص ٥٦٥-٥٦٦، دار الحديث)

[14] Mu’āwiyah Aur Tārikhī Haqāiq, page. 135, Maktabah Ma’ariful Quran

[15] Fatawa Darul ‘Uloom Deoband, vol. 12, pg. 256, Darul Isha’at;

Fatawa Rahimiyyah, vol. 3, pg. 87, Darul Isha’at

[16] Sunan at-Tirmidhi, 3842, The Chapters on Praises

[17] Mu’āwiyah Aur Tārikhī Haqāiq, page. 139, Maktabah Ma’ariful Quran.

وَمَذْهَبُ أَهْلِ السُّنَّةِ وَالْحَقُّ إِحْسَانُ الظَّنِّ بِهِمْ وَالْإِمْسَاكُ عَمَّا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ وَتَأْوِيلُ قِتَالِهِمْ وَأَنَّهُمْ مُجْتَهِدُونَ مُتَأَوِّلُونَ لَمْ يَقْصِدُوا مَعْصِيَةً ولامحض الدُّنْيَا بَلِ اعْتَقَدَ كُلُّ فَرِيقٍ أَنَّهُ الْمُحِقُّ وَمُخَالِفُهُ بَاغٍ فَوَجَبَ عَلَيْهِ قِتَالُهُ لِيَرْجِعَ إِلَى أَمْرِ اللَّهِ وَكَانَ بَعْضُهُمْ مُصِيبًا وَبَعْضُهُمْ مُخْطِئًا مَعْذُورًا فِي الْخَطَأِ لِأَنَّهُ لِاجْتِهَادٍ وَالْمُجْتَهِدُ إِذَا أَخْطَأَ لَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ وَكَانَ عَلِيٌّ  هُوَ الْمُحِقُّ الْمُصِيبُ فِي تِلْكِ الْحُرُوبِ هَذَا مَذْهَبُ أَهْلِ السُّنَّةِ وَكَانَتِ الْقَضَايَا مُشْتَبِهَةٌ حَتَّى إِنَّ جَمَاعَةً مِنَ الصَّحَابَةِ تَحَيَّرُوا فِيهَا فَاعْتَزَلُوا الطَّائِفَتَيْنِ وَلَمْ يُقَاتِلُوا وَلَمْ يَتَيَقَّنُوا الصَّوَابَ ثُمَّ تَأَخَّرُوا عَنْ مُسَاعَدَتِهِ مِنْهُمْ

(شرح النووي علي صحيح مسلم، حديث ٢٨٨٨، كتاب الفتن و أشراط الساعة)

[18] وَقَوْلُهُ فِئَتَانِ بِكَسْرِ الْفَاءِ بَعْدَهَا هَمْزَةٌ مَفْتُوحَةٌ تَثْنِيَةُ فِئَةٍ أَيْ جَمَاعَةٍ وَوَصَفَهُمَا فِي الرِّوَايَةِ الْأُخْرَى بِالْعِظَمِ أَيْ بِالْكَثْرَةِ وَالْمُرَادُ بِهِمَا مَنْ كَانَ مَعَ عَلِيٍّ وَمُعَاوِيَةَ لَمَّا تَحَارَبَا بِصِفِّينَ وَقَوْلُهُ دَعْوَاهُمَا وَاحِدَةٌ أَيْ دِينُهُمَا وَاحِدٌ لِأَنَّ كُلًّا مِنْهُمَا كَانَ يَتَسَمَّى بِالْإِسْلَامِ أَوِ الْمُرَادُ أَنَّ كُلًّا مِنْهُمَا كَانَ يَدَّعِي أَنَّهُ الْمُحِقُّ

(فتح الباري، ج ٦، ص ٦٩٥-٦٩٦، دار الحديث)

[19] Muqaddimah of Tārīkh of ibn Khaldūn, pg. 174, Dar Ihyā at-Turāth

[20] Mirqāt al-Mafātīh Sharh of Mishkāt al-Masābīh, vol. 8, pg. 3397, Darul Fikr

Comprehensive Video about:

 Battles of the Camel and Battle of Siffin= The Fitna- Al-Jamal and As-Siffin

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Details about the war between Ali & Muawiya (May Allah be pleased with them) – Assim al hakeem

Why did the Battle of Siffin take place between Hazrat Ali and Hazrat Muawiyah?

Credit: Bilal Mohammad

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