𝐂𝐀𝐓𝐄𝐆𝐎𝐑𝐈𝐄𝐒 𝐎𝐅 𝐓𝐀𝐖𝐇𝐄𝐄𝐃 𝐏𝐑𝐎𝐕𝐄𝐃 𝐁𝐘 𝐐𝐔𝐑𝐀𝐍 𝐀𝐍𝐃 𝐒𝐀𝐇𝐈𝐇 𝐈𝐒𝐍𝐀𝐃 𝐇𝐀𝐃𝐈𝐓𝐇
Mohamad Mostafa Nassar
1. Oneness of Lordship (tawhid al-rubbubiyyah),
2. Oneness of Godship (tawhid al-uluhiyyah),
3. Oneness of Names and Attributes (tawhid al-asma’ wal-sifat).
𝟏. 𝐎𝐍𝐄𝐍𝐄𝐒𝐒 𝐎𝐅 𝐋𝐎𝐑𝐃𝐒𝐇𝐈𝐏 (𝐓𝐀𝐖𝐇𝐈𝐃 𝐀𝐋-𝐑𝐔𝐁𝐁𝐔𝐁𝐈𝐘𝐘𝐀𝐇)
Tawheed al-ruboobiyyah means affirming that Allaah is One and Unique in His actions, such as creation, sovereignty, controlling affairs, provision, giving life and death, sending down the rain, and so on. A person’s Tawheed is not complete unless he affirms that Allaah is the Lord, Sovereign, Creator and Provider of all things, that He is the Giver of life and death, the One Who brings benefit and causes harm, the only One Who answers prayers, the One Who is in control of all things, in Whose hand is all goodness, the One Who is able to do whatever He wills – which also includes believing in the divine will and decree (al-qadar), both good and bad.
QURAN :- 43:9
وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُم مَّنْ خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ خَلَقَهُنَّ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلْعَلِيمُ
And indeed if you ask them, “Who has created the heavens and the earth?” They will surely say: “The All-Mighty, the All-Knower created them.”
QURAN :- 79:24
فَقَالَ أَنَا۠ رَبُّكُمُ ٱلْأَعْلَىٰ
Saying: “I am your lord, most high.”
QURAN :- 17:102
قَالَ لَقَدْ عَلِمْتَ مَآ أَنزَلَ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ إِلَّا رَبُّ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ بَصَآئِرَ وَإِنِّى لَأَظُنُّكَ يَـٰفِرْعَوْنُ مَثْبُورًا
[Mûsâ (Moses)] said: “Verily, you know that these signs have been sent down by none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth (as clear evidence i.e. proofs of Allâh’s Oneness and His Omnipotence.). And I think you are, indeed, O Fir‘aun (Pharaoh) doomed to destruction (away from all good)!”
𝟐. 𝐎𝐍𝐄𝐍𝐄𝐒𝐒 𝐎𝐅 𝐆𝐎𝐃𝐒𝐇𝐈𝐏 (𝐓𝐀𝐖𝐇𝐈𝐃 𝐀𝐋-𝐔𝐋𝐔𝐇𝐈𝐘𝐘𝐀𝐇)
Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah means devoting all acts of worship, both inward and outward, in word and deed, to Allah Alone, and not worshipping anything or anyone other than Allah, no matter who he is.
QURAN :- 17:23
۞ وَقَضَىٰ رَبُّكَ أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوٓا۟ إِلَّآ إِيَّاهُ وَبِٱلْوَٰلِدَيْنِ إِحْسَـٰنًا ۚ إِمَّا يَبْلُغَنَّ عِندَكَ ٱلْكِبَرَ أَحَدُهُمَآ أَوْ كِلَاهُمَا فَلَا تَقُل لَّهُمَآ أُفٍّ وَلَا تَنْهَرْهُمَا وَقُل لَّهُمَا قَوْلًا كَرِيمًا
And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of disrespect, nor shout at them but address them in terms of honour.
QURAN :- 4:36
۞ وَٱعْبُدُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا۟ بِهِۦ شَيْـًٔا ۖ وَبِٱلْوَٰلِدَيْنِ إِحْسَـٰنًا وَبِذِى ٱلْقُرْبَىٰ وَٱلْيَتَـٰمَىٰ وَٱلْمَسَـٰكِينِ وَٱلْجَارِ ذِى ٱلْقُرْبَىٰ وَٱلْجَارِ ٱلْجُنُبِ وَٱلصَّاحِبِ بِٱلْجَنۢبِ وَٱبْنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ وَمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَـٰنُكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ مُخْتَالًا فَخُورًا
Worship Allâh and join none with Him (in worship); and do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, Al-Masâkîn (the poor), the neighbour who is near of kin, the neighbour who is a stranger, the companion by your side, the wayfarer (you meet), and those (slaves) whom your right hands possess. Verily, Allâh does not like such as are proud and boastful.
It is called Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah because it is based on ta-alluh lillah which is worship and devotion of Allah accompanied by love and veneration.
It is also called Tawhid al-‘Ibadah (oneness of worship) because it means that a person worships Allah by doing what He has commanded and avoiding that which He has forbidden.
It is also called Tawhid al-Talab wa’l-Qasd wa’l-Iradah (Oneness of goal, purpose and will) because it means that a person does not seek anything except the Face of Allah, so he worships Him sincerely.
𝟑. 𝐎𝐍𝐄𝐍𝐄𝐒𝐒 𝐎𝐅 𝐍𝐀𝐌𝐄𝐒 𝐀𝐍𝐃 𝐀𝐓𝐓𝐑𝐈𝐁𝐔𝐓𝐄𝐒 (𝐓𝐀𝐖𝐇𝐈𝐃 𝐀𝐋-𝐀𝐒𝐌𝐀’ 𝐖𝐀𝐋-𝐒𝐈𝐅𝐀𝐓).
Allah must be known through the Name and Attributes with which He described Himself in the Quran and Sunnah. For this knowledge, we cannot depend upon flawed philosophical reasoning to ‘derive’ the attributes of Allah, but instead we can only acquire this knowledge through divine revelation from a trustworthy messenger. We have such a credible source in Prophet Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him.
اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ
Allah, there is no God but Him. To Him belong the best names.
Surat Ta Ha 20:8
Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:
لِلَّهِ تِسْعَةٌ وَتِسْعُونَ اسْمًا مَنْ حَفِظَهَا دَخَلَ الْجَنَّةَ
Allah has ninety-nine names and whoever preserves them will enter Paradise.
Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 6597, Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi
Hence, Allah has perfect names (asma’) and flawless attributes (sifat) that belong only to Him and not to anything else in existence. For example, Allah is exclusively the Creator (Al-Khaliq) in the absolute sense of the word. Every other creature who creates things in this world only does so by the will and ability given to them by the uncreated Creator. Likewise, Allah is exclusively the Most Merciful (Al-Rahman). People can surely be merciful too, but their mercy first originated with Allah. And, unlike the perfect mercy of the Most Merciful, the mercy of people is always flawed to some degree.
Conversely, believers must negate any comparison, similarity, or likeness between Allah and His creation. Allah is perfect, complete, and absolute in a manner befitting His majesty and to an extent which the human mind cannot fully comprehend.
وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ
There is no one comparable to Him.
Surat al-Ikhlas 112:4
And Allah said:
فَاطِرُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا وَمِنَ الْأَنْعَامِ أَزْوَاجًا ۖ يَذْرَؤُكُمْ فِيهِ ۚ لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ ۖ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ
He is the Originator of the heavens and the earth. He has made for you mates among yourselves and mates among the cattle, by which He multiplies you. There is nothing like Him, for He is the Hearing and the Seeing.
Surat al-Shura 42:11
This verse expresses the principle of negating comparisons (tamthil) to Allah and His creation with respect to the language used to described Him. One of Allah’s beautiful names in the verse is the Hearing (Al-Sami’), and while hearing is a human attribute, it is understood that Allah’s Hearing is perfect, flawless, and absolute.
Creatures can only hear because Allah granted them the capacity to hear, and no creature can hear anything with the same perfection as Allah. Only the linguistic vehicle of ‘hearing’ and other words is similar; not the different realities which they describe when applies to the Creator or His creation.