𝐄𝐚𝐫𝐥𝐲 𝐄𝐱𝐩𝐞𝐝𝐢𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧𝐬 𝐀𝐧𝐝 𝐁𝐚𝐭𝐭𝐥𝐞𝐬 𝐎𝐟 𝐈𝐬𝐥𝐚𝐦
Mohamad Mostafa Nassar
This series of articles follows the expeditions of the Prophet Muhammad (p), which he ordered or participated in during his lifetime. It fulfils a burgeoning need at a time when critics and Orientalists alike have developed a culture of misrepresenting the life of the Prophet, casting him in a negative light, typecasting Islam as a religion of violent beginnings. This series dismisses their claims about the Prophet’s (p) expeditions.
The sources used in these articles are the following: the Qur’an, the Hadith corpus and the Maghazi-Sirah literature. The Qur’an is the most authoritative book in Islam. It is very rich in narratives pertaining to the battles of the Prophet (p), otherwise known as Ghazwat al Rasool, explaining why they started, why they took place and how they happened.
The passages of the Qur’an describe the harsh conditions the early Muslims faced, describing how they were constantly being attacked and persecuted by the different tribes in Arabia for merely proclaiming, and believing in the message of Islam: there is no god but one God.
The Hadith corpus is the second most authoritative source after the Qur’an in Islam. The collections of Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim are undoubtedly (speaking from a historical perspective) authentic, and are held in a very high regard by all scholars from the medieval period to the present day.
The other Hadith collections used in this series includes, the Sunan of Abu Dawud, the Sunan of Ibn Majah, Jami’ at-Tirmidhi, and the Sunan of an-Nasa’i. These aforementioned Hadith books are also considered to be authentic i.e., the sources can be corroborated to the life of the Prophet pertaining to all the early battles, except in the traditions for which the scholars have found deficiencies in their chains of transmission.
For the purposes of this work, only traditions from the Hadith corpus which were considered to be authentic by scholars (using the Science of Hadith – ‘Uloom al Hadith) were used. The oldest texts we possess regarding the Sirah (Biography of the Prophet Muhammad (p) were written over a century after his demise. One specific text used, belongs to the Maghazi genre (early records of the nascent Islamic community’s expeditions), it was authored by Muḥammad ibn Isḥaq ibn Yasar ibn Khiya, commonly known Ibn Ishaq.
The book is of itself no longer extant, and is now only known via the rescinded Sirah by Ibn Hisham. Several other Islamic works used in this series includes Ibn Sa’ds Tabaqat al-Kabir and Ma’mar Ibn Rashid’s Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi (according to the recension of ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-San’ani). The former biography details expeditions (Ghazwat) which the Prophet (p) partook in or commanded his companions to do.
The narrations recorded in Ibn Sa’d’s Tabaqat are critically regarded as fabrications unless there are chains of transmissions included. Ibn Sa’d’s Tabaqat has been used in this series to refute the misuse of his quotes by some to score points against Muslims, by maliciously attempting to present the view that the Prophet Muhammad (p) was a violent man.
The vast majority of the time when his work has been used by critics of Islam, they have completely misrepresented the context of his writings. To remedy this symptomatic abuse of his work, actual quotations in their contexts and citations have been used in this series, so as to expose the lies attributed to the Prophet.
The latter biography about the Prophet (p), that is, Mamar ibn Rashid’s expeditions pertains to the period after the nascent Islamic community fled to Madinah (then known as Yathrib) to protect themselves, only to be hunted down once again by the Makkans and their allies. This series is quite extensive in its depth of historical research, and aims to provide a sound basis for Muslims who would like respond to the dishonest claims being circulated about the Prophet Muhammad (p) by the contemporary critics of Islam.
1. LINK – Expedition Of Hamza To Al-Is – Caravan Raid?
2. LINK – Batn Rabigh Caravan Raid? The Prophet (p) sent an expedition under the leadership of Ubaydah Ibn al-Harith to Batn Rabigh, to confront Abu Sufyan Ibn Harb who was an arch enemy of the Muslims.
3. LINK – Expedition Of Sa’d B. Waqqas – Kharar Caravan Raid?
4. LINK – Invasion of Waddan? The Prophet (p) set out to Waddan to confront the Quraysh.
5. LINK – Invasion of Buwat? The Prophet (p) led an expedition to Buwat area in search of the Quraysh.
6. LINK – Invasion of Dul Ashir (Al-Ashayra) – Quraysh’s Caravan?
7. LINK – Invasion of Safwan? Expedition Against Kurz B. Jabir Al-Fihri. (First Badr)
9. LINK – Battle of Badr.
11. LINK – Assassination of Abu Afak? Instigated war.
14. LINK – Al Kudr Invasion? The Banu Saleem and Ghatafan tribe had mobilised troops in order to attack the Muslim community.
15. LINK – Invasion Of Thi Amr (Dhu Amarr)? – News had reached the Prophet that Banu Muharib and Banu Talabah tribes, who were in alliance together, were planning to raid Madina and harm the Prophet (p). Third Year Hijri (3 AH/625AD)
16. LINK – Assassination of Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf?
17. LINK – Invasion of Bahran (Buhran Or Bahrain)? Banu Sulaym were assembling an army to launch an attack against the Muslims.
18. LINK – Nejd (Najd) Caravan Raid? Zaid Ibn Haritha was sent on this expedition to Al-Qarada. Third year Hijri (3 AH/624 AD).
19. LINK – Expedition of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Atik Abu Rafi’ ibn Abi Al-Huqaiq.
20. LINK – The Battle Of Uhud. The Quraysh declared war on the Muslims and set out to Madinah to fight the Muslims. Third year Hijri 625 AD (3 AH/625AD)
21. LINK – Invasion Of Hamra al-Asad? After the battle of Uhud, the Quraysh retreating had second thoughts and decided to go back and kill more Muslims. Third Year Hijri (3AH/625AD)
22. LINK – Expedition Of Qatan (Katan). Prophet Muhammed (p) received intelligence that some people among the tribe of Banu Asad bin Kuzaymah, were trying to attack the Muslim community
23. LINK – Expedition of Abdullah Ibn Unais to Nakhlah (or Urana). Prophet Muhammed (p) learned that Khalid b. Sufyan al-Hudhali (or Sufyan Ibn Khalid) was inciting and collecting people at Nakhlah (or Urana) to attack the Muslims in Madinah
24. LINK – The Expedition Of Al-Raji – Treachery.
25. LINK – The Mission of Amr bin Umayyah al-Damri to Abu Sufyan.
27. LINK – Invasion of Banu Nadir. They broke the pact, treachery, assassination attempt on the Prophet’s life. Siding with the enemy against the Muslims. Refusing to renew the treaty and engaged in war against the Muslims. They were exiled in the end.
28. LINK – Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa. The Banu Ghatafan tribe who were assembling troops to attack the Muslim community.
29. LINK – Invasion Of Badr (Third Badr)?
30. LINK – Invasion of Dumatul Jandal? Highway robberies and an eminent attack on Madinah.
31. LINK – Battle Of The Trench (al-Khandaq – al-Ahzab). The Banu Nadir’s leaders aided and incited the Quraysh to attack Muslims in Madinah. The Fifth Year (5 A.H./627 AD)
32. LINK – Invasion of Banu Qurayza? Treachery, siding with and arming the enemy against the Muslims. Broke their treaty.
33. LINK – Expedition Of Muhammad Ibn Maslamah To Banu Bakr. The Prophet (p) sent a team of thirty companions under the leadership of Muhammed Ibn Maslama on a mission to confront Banu Bakr (Banu Bakr bin Wa’il). Sixth Year Hijri (6AH/627AD)
34. LINK – The Expedition Of Ukasha Bin Al-Mihsan To Banu Asad bin Qhuzayma (or Khuzayma) .
35. LINK – First Raid On Banu Thalabah? – Muhammed Ibn Maslamah was sent. The Banu Thalaba incident at Dhu Qassah took place as a consequence of this tribe’s continued hostilities against the believers.
36. LINK – Second Raid On Banu Thalabah? – Abu Ubaydah Bin Al-Jarrah was sent on this expedition.
37. LINK – Invasion Of Banu Lahyan (Lihyan)? The Banu Lahyan tribe (and other tribes) treacherously murdered many Muslims.
38. LINK – Raid on al-Ghabah? Uyainah Ibn Hisn al-Fazari, the leader of the Banu Ghatafan, raided outskirts of Madina with his men, robbed camels, murdered a shepherd who was looking after them, and kidnapped a woman.
39. LINK – The Expedition of Dhu Qarad. Uyayna Ibn Hisn al-Fazari raided outskirts of Madinah and murdered the shepherd of the Prophet (p). Sixth Year Hijri (6AH/628AD)
40. LINK – Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Al-Jumum) To Banu Sulaym. Sixth Year Hijri (6AH/628 AD)
41. LINK – Third Raid on Banu Thalabah? – Zayd Ibn Harithah was sent on this expedition. The ongoing war against the Banu Thalaba tribe was mainly as a result that they had killed nine Muslims.
42. LINK – Expedition Of Zaid Ibn Haritha (Hisma). Some robbers attacked the Prophet’s (p) envoy.
43. LINK – Expedition Of Zaid Ibn Haritha To Wadi al-Qura (Kura). Zaid Ibn Haritha was sent out to Syria for business related matters. On the way there, they were ambushed by the Banu Fazara tribe, whose leader was Umm Qirfa. The merchandise was robbed and all the companions who set out with Zayd Ibn Haritha were murdered, except for Zaid Ibn Harithah who was wounded and made it back to Madinah.
44. LINK – Invasion of Banu Mustaliq? The Banu Mustaliq tribe were planning to attack the Muslim community.
45. LINK – Expedition of Fadak (Fidak). Ali Ibn Abi Talib was sent on this expedition. Sixth Year Hijri (6AH/627AD)
46. LINK – Second Expedition of Wadi al-Qura? Umm Qirfa the robber and murderer.
47. LINK – Expedition of Kurz bin Jabir Al-Fihri was sent to capture eight criminals of ‘Uraina (or Ukil) who committed the crimes of robbery, torture, murder and rape (Quran 5:33)
48. LINK – Expedition of Abdullah ibn Rawaha sent after Al-Yusayr ibn Rizam. 628 AD
49. LINK – The Treaty Of Hudaybiyyah. Sixth Year Hijri (6AH/628AD)
50. LINK – The battle of Khaybar (Khaibar).
51. LINK – Third Expedition Of Wadi al Qura (After Khaybar).
52. LINK – Expedition Of Umar Ibn Al-Khatab To Turabah (Turba).
53. LINK – The Expedition Of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq To Banu Kilab.
54. LINK – Expedition Of Ghalib Ibn Abdullah Al-Laithi To Mayfah.
55. LINK – The Expedition Of Bashir Ibn Sa’d al-Ansari To Yemen.
56. LINK – Expedition Of Ibn Abi Al-Awja Al-Sulami.
57. LINK – The Expedition Of Shuja Ibn Wahb Al-Asadi.
58. LINK – Expedition Of Ka’b ibn ‘Umair Al-Ghifari.
59. LINK – The Battle Of Mu’tah (Mutah)
60. LINK – Expedition Of Amr Ibn al-As To Banu Qudah (Salasil).
61. LINK – The Expedition Of Abu Ubaidah Ibn Al-Jarrah (Caravan).
62. LINK – Expedition of Abi Hadrad al-Aslami. Rifa’ah Bin Qays Incited Other Tribe(s) To Go To War Against Muslims.
63. LINK – Expedition Of Abu Qatadah Ibn Rab’i Al-Ansari Khadirah (khudrah)
64. LINK – The Conquest Of Mecca (Makkah). Eighth Year Hijri (8AH/629AD)
65. LINK – Expedition Of Khalid Ibn Al-Walid To Banu Jadhimah.
66. LINK – The Battle Of Hunayn (Hunain).
67. LINK – The Battle Of Autas (Awtas).
68. LINK – The Expedition Of Abu Musa Al-Ashari (Hunayn).
69. LINK – The Siege Of Ta’if (Taif).
70. LINK – The Expedition Of Uyainah Bin Hisn (Banu Tamim).
71. LINK – The Expedition Of Qutbah Ibn Amir (Khath’am)
72. LINK – The Expedition Of Dahhak al-Kilabi.
73. LINK – Expedition of Alqammah bin Mujazziz. Expedition of Alqammah was sent to deal with a group of Abyssinian (Ethiopians) pirates.
74. LINK – Third Expedition of Dhu Qarad in Ghaba area.
75. LINK – Expedition Of Ukasha Bin Al-Mihsan Al-Asadi To Udhrah And Baliy (Balli).
78. LINK – The Demolition Of Masjid Al-Dirar (Tabuk).
79. LINK – Expedition Of Khalid Ibn Al-Walid To Abdul-Madan (Najran)
80. LINK – Expedition Of Ali Ibn Abi Talib To Yemen (Mudhij or Madhij)
81. LINK – The Expedition Of Ali ibn Abi Talib To Hamdan
82. LINK – The Expedition Of Usama Bin Zayd.
What does Islam say about Rape? [Part 1]
What does Islam say about Rape? [Part 2]