Tafsir of Surah al-Fatihah: Imamย al-Saโ€™di

Tafsir of Surah al-Fatihah: Imam al-Saโ€™di

In the beginning of his book of thematic tafsir, sheikh โ€˜Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Saโ€™di provided the following brief but highly beneficial explanation of surah al-Fatihah. This explanation is slightly more detailed than his previous explanation of surah al-Fatihah in his well-known complete work of tafsirTaysir al-Kareem al-Rahman:

ู€ {ุจูุณู’ู…ู ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ุงู„ุฑูŽู‘ุญู’ู…ูŽู†ู ุงู„ุฑูŽู‘ุญููŠู…ู โ€“ ุงู„ู’ุญูŽู…ู’ุฏู ู„ูู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ุฑูŽุจูู‘ ุงู„ู’ุนูŽุงู„ูŽู…ููŠู†ูŽ โ€“ ุงู„ุฑูŽู‘ุญู’ู…ูŽู†ู ุงู„ุฑูŽู‘ุญููŠู…ู โ€“ ู…ูŽุงู„ููƒู ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ู ุงู„ุฏูู‘ูŠู†ู โ€“ ุฅููŠูŽู‘ุงูƒูŽ ู†ูŽุนู’ุจูุฏู ูˆูŽุฅููŠูŽู‘ุงูƒูŽ ู†ูŽุณู’ุชูŽุนููŠู†ู โ€“ ุงู‡ู’ุฏูู†ูŽุง ุงู„ุตูู‘ุฑูŽุงุทูŽ ุงู„ู’ู…ูุณู’ุชูŽู‚ููŠู…ูŽ โ€“ ุตูุฑูŽุงุทูŽ ุงู„ูŽู‘ุฐููŠู†ูŽ ุฃูŽู†ู’ุนูŽู…ู’ุชูŽ ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ูู…ู’ ุบูŽูŠู’ุฑู ุงู„ู’ู…ูŽุบู’ุถููˆุจู ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ูู…ู’ ูˆูŽู„ูŽุง ุงู„ุถูŽู‘ุงู„ูู‘ูŠู†ูŽ} [ุงู„ูุงุชุญุฉ: 1 โ€“ 7] ู€

ุจูุณู’ู…ู ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู€ู‡ู ุงู„ุฑูŽู‘โ€Œุญู’ู…ูŽู€ูฐู†ู ุงู„ุฑูŽู‘โ€ŒุญููŠู…ู * ุงู„ู’ุญูŽู…ู’ุฏู ู„ูู„ูŽู‘ู€ู‡ู ุฑูŽโ€Œุจูู‘ ุงู„ู’ุนูŽุงู„ูŽู…ููŠู†ูŽ * ุงู„ุฑูŽู‘โ€Œุญู’ู…ูŽู€ูฐู†ู ุงู„ุฑูŽู‘โ€ŒุญููŠู…ู * ู…ูŽุงู„ููƒู ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ู ุงู„ุฏูู‘ูŠู†ู * ุฅููŠูŽู‘ุงูƒูŽ ู†ูŽุนู’ุจูุฏู ูˆูŽุฅููŠูŽู‘ุงูƒูŽ ู†ูŽุณู’ุชูŽุนููŠู†ู * ุงู‡ู’ุฏูู†ูŽุง ุงู„ุตูู‘ุฑูŽโ€ŒุงุทูŽ ุงู„ู’ู…ูุณู’ุชูŽู‚ููŠู…ูŽ * ุตูุฑูŽโ€ŒุงุทูŽ ุงู„ูŽู‘ุฐููŠู†ูŽ ุฃูŽู†ู’ุนูŽู…ู’ุชูŽ ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ูู…ู’ ุบูŽูŠู’ุฑูโ€Œ ุงู„ู’ู…ูŽุบู’ุถููˆุจู ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ูู…ู’ ูˆูŽู„ูŽุง ุงู„ุถูŽู‘ุงู„ูู‘ูŠู†ูŽ

In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful. * [All] praise is [due] to Allah, Lord of the worlds โ€“ * The Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful, * Sovereign of the Day of Recompense. * It is You we worship and You we ask for help. * Guide us to the straight path โ€“ * The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. [1:1-7]

ุฃูŠ: ุฃุจุชุฏุฆ ุจูƒู„ ุงุณู… ู„ู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ุŒ ู„ุฃู† ู„ูุธ โ€ ุงุณู… โ€ ู…ูุฑุฏ ู…ุถุงูุŒ ููŠุนู… ุฌู…ูŠุน ุฃุณู…ุงุก ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุงู„ุญุณู†ู‰ุ› ููŠูƒูˆู† ุงู„ุนุจุฏ ู…ุณุชุนูŠู†ุง ุจุฑุจู‡ุŒ ูˆุจูƒู„ ุงุณู… ู…ู† ุฃุณู…ุงุฆู‡ ุนู„ู‰ ู…ุง ูŠู†ุงุณุจู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุทุงู„ุจุŒ ูˆุฃุฌู„ ู…ุง ูŠุณุชุนุงู† ุจู‡ ุนู„ู‰ ุนุจุงุฏุฉ ุงู„ู„ู‡ุ› ูˆุฃุฌู„ ุฐู„ูƒ ุงู„ุงุณุชุนุงู†ุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ู‚ุฑุงุกุฉ ูƒู„ุงู… ุงู„ู„ู‡ุŒ ูˆุชูู‡ู… ู…ุนุงู†ูŠู‡ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุงู‡ุชุฏุงุก ุจู‡ุฏูŠู‡. ู€

Meaning: I begin with every name of Allah the Exalted, because the word โ€œnameโ€ occurs in the singular and attached state, and it therefore includes all of Allahโ€™s beautiful names. So the slave seeks the aid of his Lord with every one of His names according to what is appropriate for his goals, and the most lofty of things to seek His aid in is the worship of Allah. And the most lofty form of that is to seek His aid in reading the Words of Allah, understanding their meanings and being guided by their guidance.

ู€ (ุงู„ู„ู‡) ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ู…ุฃู„ูˆู‡ ุงู„ู…ุณุชุญู‚ ู„ุฅูุฑุงุฏู‡ ุจุงู„ู…ุญุจุฉ ูˆุงู„ุฎูˆู ูˆุงู„ุฑุฌุงุก ูˆุฃู†ูˆุงุน ุงู„ุนุจุงุฏุฉ ูƒู„ู‡ุงุŒ ู„ู…ุง ุงุชุตู ุจู‡ ู…ู† ุตูุงุช ุงู„ูƒู…ุงู„ุŒ ูˆู‡ูŠ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุฏุนูˆ ุงู„ุฎู„ู‚ ุฅู„ู‰ ุนุจุงุฏุชู‡ ูˆุงู„ุชุฃู„ู‡ ู„ู‡. ู€

โ€œAllahโ€ โ€“ He is the One who is revered, the One deserving to be singled out exclusively with love, fear, hope and all varieties of acts of worship due to what He is characterized with of perfect attributes, and these are what call the creation to worship and revere Him.

ู€ {ุงู„ุฑูŽู‘ุญู’ู…ูŽู†ู ุงู„ุฑูŽู‘ุญููŠู…ู} [ุงู„ูุงุชุญุฉ: 1] ุงุณู…ุงู† ุฏุงู„ุงู† ุนู„ู‰ ุฃู†ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ ุฐูˆ ุงู„ุฑุญู…ุฉ ุงู„ูˆุงุณุนุฉ ุงู„ุนุธูŠู…ุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ูˆุณุนุช ูƒู„ ุดูŠุกุŒ ูˆุนู…ุช ูƒู„ ู…ุฎู„ูˆู‚ุŒ ูˆูƒุชุจ ุงู„ุฑุญู…ุฉ ุงู„ูƒุงู…ู„ุฉ ู„ู„ู…ุชู‚ูŠู† ุงู„ู…ุชุจุนูŠู† ู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุฆู‡ ูˆุฑุณู„ู‡ุ› ูู‡ุคู„ุงุก ู„ู‡ู… ุงู„ุฑุญู…ุฉ ุงู„ู…ุทู„ู‚ุฉ ุงู„ู…ุชุตู„ุฉ ุจุงู„ุณุนุงุฏุฉ ุงู„ุฃุจุฏูŠุฉุŒ ูˆู…ู† ุนุฏุงู‡ู… ู…ุญุฑูˆู… ู…ู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฑุญู…ุฉ ุงู„ูƒุงู…ู„ุฉุŒ ู„ุฃู†ู‡ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุฏูุน ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฑุญู…ุฉ ูˆุฃุจุงู‡ุง ุจุชูƒุฐูŠุจู‡ ู„ู„ุฎุจุฑุŒ ูˆุชูˆู„ูŠู‡ ุนู† ุงู„ุฃู…ุฑุŒ ูู„ุง ูŠู„ูˆู…ู† ุฅู„ุง ู†ูุณู‡. ู€

โ€œal-Rahman al-Raheemโ€ โ€“ These two names show that He possesses the attribute of vast and tremendous Mercy which extends unto everything and encompasses every created being. And He decreed complete mercy for the muttaqoon โ€“ those who follow the His prophets and messengers.

So for those ones, there is unrestricted mercy which leads them to everlasting joy, and whoever opposes them is deprived of this complete mercy because they are the ones who repel this mercy and refuse it by their denial of the message and their turning away from the command, so they only have themselves to blame.

ูˆุงุนู„ู… ุฃู† ู…ู† ุงู„ู‚ูˆุงุนุฏ ุงู„ู…ุชูู‚ ุนู„ูŠู‡ุง ุจูŠู† ุณู„ู ุงู„ุฃู…ุฉ ูˆุฃุฆู…ุชู‡ุง ู…ุง ุฏู„ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ูˆุงู„ุณู†ุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฅูŠู…ุงู† ุจุฃุณู…ุงุก ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูƒู„ู‡ุงุŒ ูˆุตูุงุชู‡ ุฌู…ูŠุนู‡ุงุŒ ูˆุจุฃุญูƒุงู… ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ุตูุงุชุ› ููŠุคู…ู†ูˆู† โ€“ ู…ุซู„ุง โ€“ ุจุฃู†ู‡ ุฑุญู…ู† ุฑุญูŠู…: ุฐูˆ ุงู„ุฑุญู…ุฉ ุงู„ุนุธูŠู…ุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุงุชุตู ุจู‡ุงุŒ ุงู„ู…ุชุนู„ู‚ุฉ ุจุงู„ู…ุฑุญูˆู…ุŒ ูุงู„ู†ุนู… ูƒู„ู‡ุง ู…ู† ุขุซุงุฑ ุฑุญู…ุชู‡ุŒ ูˆู‡ูƒุฐุง ูŠู‚ุงู„ ููŠ ุณุงุฆุฑ ุงู„ุฃุณู…ุงุก ุงู„ุญุณู†ู‰ุ› ููŠู‚ุงู„ ุนู„ูŠู…: ุฐูˆ ุนู„ู… ุนุธูŠู…ุŒ ูŠุนู„ู… ุจู‡ ูƒู„ ุดูŠุกุŒ ู‚ุฏูŠุฑ: ุฐูˆ ู‚ุฏุฑุฉ ูŠู‚ุฏุฑ ุนู„ู‰ ูƒู„ ุดูŠุก . ู€

And you should know that one of the principles which is agreed upon by the salaf and leading scholars of this ummah which is proven in the Book and the Sunnah is: eemaan in all the names of Allah and in all of His attributes and in that which the attributes necessarily entail.

So they believe, for example, that He is Rahman Raheem โ€“ He possesses the attribute of great mercy with which He is characterized and which is related to those upon whom He has mercy.

So all blessings are from the effects of His mercy. And it is said likewise in regards to the rest of the beautiful names. So one says: โ€˜Aleem โ€“ the possessor of great knowledge by which He knows everything. Qadeer โ€“ the possessor of power by which He regulates everything.

ูุฅู† ุงู„ู„ู‡ ู‚ุฏ ุฃุซุจุช ู„ู†ูุณู‡ ุงู„ุฃุณู…ุงุก ุงู„ุญุณู†ู‰ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุตูุงุช ุงู„ุนู„ูŠุงุŒ ูˆุฃุญูƒุงู… ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ุตูุงุชุŒ ูู…ู† ุฃุซุจุช ุดูŠุฆุง ู…ู†ู‡ุง ูˆู†ูู‰ ุงู„ุขุฎุฑ ูƒุงู† ู…ุน ู…ุฎุงู„ูุชู‡ ู„ู„ู†ู‚ู„ ูˆุงู„ุนู‚ู„ ู…ุชู†ุงู‚ุถุง ู…ุจุทู„ุง. ู€

For indeed Allah has affirmed the beautiful names for Himself, as He has for the lofty attributes and what these attributes necessarily entail. So whoever affirms some of them and negates others, then that is a contradictory and false position in light of his differing from the texts and from what the rational intellect indicates.

ู€ {ุงู„ู’ุญูŽู…ู’ุฏู ู„ูู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู} [ุงู„ูุงุชุญุฉ: 2] ุงู„ุญู…ุฏ ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุซู†ุงุก ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุจุตูุงุช ุงู„ูƒู…ุงู„ุŒ ูˆุจุฃูุนุงู„ู‡ ุงู„ุฏุงุฆุฑุฉ ุจูŠู† ุงู„ูุถู„ ูˆุงู„ุนุฏู„ุŒ ุงู„ู…ุดุชู…ู„ุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุญูƒู…ุฉ ุงู„ุชุงู…ุฉุ› ูˆู„ุง ุจุฏ ููŠ ุชู…ุงู… ุญู…ุฏ ุงู„ุญุงู…ุฏ ู…ู† ุงู‚ุชุฑุงู† ู…ุญุจุฉ ุงู„ุญุงู…ุฏ ู„ุฑุจู‡ ูˆุฎุถูˆุนู‡ ู„ู‡ุŒ ูุงู„ุซู†ุงุก ุงู„ู…ุฌุฑุฏ ู…ู† ู…ุญุจุฉ ูˆุฎุถูˆุน ู„ูŠุณ ุญู…ุฏุง ูƒุงู…ู„ุง. ู€

โ€œAll praise is due to Allahโ€ โ€“ al-hamd is praising Allah for His perfect attributes and His actions which result from His favor or His justice and embody complete wisdom. And part of the completeness of oneโ€™s praise for Him involves a close link of the love of that person for his Lord and obedience towards Him, for praise devoid of love and obedience is not complete or true praise.

ู€ {ุฑูŽุจูู‘ ุงู„ู’ุนูŽุงู„ูŽู…ููŠู†ูŽ} [ุงู„ูุงุชุญุฉ: 2] ุงู„ุฑุจ ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ู…ุฑุจูŠ ุฌู…ูŠุน ุงู„ุนุงู„ู…ูŠู† ุจูƒู„ ุฃู†ูˆุงุน ุงู„ุชุฑุจูŠุฉุŒ ูู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุฎู„ู‚ู‡ู… ูˆุฑุฒู‚ู‡ู… ูˆุฃู†ุนู… ุนู„ูŠู‡ู… ุจุงู„ู†ุนู… ุงู„ุธุงู‡ุฑุฉ ูˆุงู„ุจุงุทู†ุฉุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุชุฑุจูŠุฉ ุงู„ุนุงู…ุฉ ู„ุฌู…ูŠุน ุงู„ุฎู„ู‚ุŒ ุจุฑู‡ู… ูˆูุงุฌุฑู‡ู…ุŒ ุจู„ ุงู„ู…ูƒู„ููˆู† ู…ู†ู‡ู… ูˆุบูŠุฑู‡ู…. ู€

โ€œLord of all creationโ€ โ€“ al-Rabb is the Lord who nurtures all of the creation with every type of care and cultivation, for He is the one who created them, provides for them and bestows blessings upon them both openly and concealed. This is the general care and cultivation granted to all created beings โ€“ both the righteous and wicked of them; moreover it is granted both to those charged with fulfilling His commands as well as to those not charged.

ูˆุฃู…ุง ุงู„ุชุฑุจูŠุฉ ุงู„ุฎุงุตุฉ ู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุฆู‡ ูˆุฃูˆู„ูŠุงุฆู‡ุŒ ูุฅู†ู‡ ู…ุน ุฐู„ูƒ ูŠุฑุจูŠ ุฅูŠู…ุงู†ู‡ู… ููŠูƒู…ู„ู‡ ู„ู‡ู…ุŒ ูˆูŠุฏูุน ุนู†ู‡ู… ุงู„ุตูˆุงุฑู ูˆุงู„ุนูˆุงุฆู‚ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุญูˆู„ ุจูŠู†ู‡ู… ูˆุจูŠู† ุตู„ุงุญู‡ู… ูˆุณุนุงุฏุชู‡ู… ุงู„ุฃุจุฏูŠุฉุŒ ูˆุชูŠุณูŠุฑู‡ู… ู„ู„ูŠุณุฑู‰ ูˆุญูุธู‡ู… ู…ู† ุฌู…ูŠุน ุงู„ู…ูƒุงุฑู‡ . ู€

But as for the specific care and cultivation given to His prophets and allies, then along with the aforementioned care He furthermore cultivates their eemaan such that He makes it complete for them and He repels the obstacles and adversities that come between them and their rectification and everlasting joy, and He facilitates ease for them and protects them from all disliked things.

ูˆูƒู…ุง ุฏู„ ุฐู„ูƒ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู†ูุฑุงุฏ ุงู„ุฑุจ ุจุงู„ุฎู„ู‚ ูˆุงู„ุชุฏุจูŠุฑ ูˆุงู„ู‡ุฏุงูŠุฉ ูˆูƒู…ุงู„ ุงู„ุบู†ู‰ุŒ ูุฅู†ู‡ ูŠุฏู„ ุนู„ู‰ ุชู…ุงู… ูู‚ุฑ ุงู„ุนุงู„ู…ูŠู† ุฅู„ูŠู‡ ุจูƒู„ ูˆุฌู‡ ูˆุงุนุชุจุงุฑุŒ ููŠุณุฃู„ู‡ ู…ู† ููŠ ุงู„ุณู…ุงูˆุงุช ูˆุงู„ุฃุฑุถ โ€“ ุจู„ุณุงู† ุงู„ู…ู‚ุงู„ ูˆุงู„ุญุงู„ โ€“ ุฌู…ูŠุน ุญุงุฌุงุชู‡ู…ุŒ ูˆูŠูุฒุนูˆู† ุฅู„ูŠู‡ ููŠ ู…ู‡ู…ุงุชู‡ู…. ู€

And just as this directs one towards singling out of the Rabb with the act of creation, the management of the creation, guidance, and complete freedom from any need, so it also indicates the total and complete dependence of the entire creation upon Allah in every manner and respect.

So whoever is in the heavens or the earth asks Him โ€“ whether by his tongue or by his very situation โ€“ for all of his needs and resort to Him for their important affairs.

ู€ {ู…ูŽุงู„ููƒู ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ู ุงู„ุฏูู‘ูŠู†ู} [ุงู„ูุงุชุญุฉ: 4] ุงู„ู…ุงู„ูƒ ู‡ูˆ ู…ู† ุงุชุตู ุจุงู„ุตูุงุช ุงู„ุนุธูŠู…ุฉ ุงู„ูƒุงู…ู„ุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ูŠุชุญู‚ู‚ ุจู‡ุง ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒุŒ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู…ู† ุขุซุงุฑู‡ุง ุฃู†ู‡ ูŠุฃู…ุฑ ูˆูŠู†ู‡ู‰ุŒ ูˆูŠุซูŠุจ ูˆูŠุนุงู‚ุจุŒ ูˆูŠุชุตุฑู ููŠ ุงู„ุนุงู„ู… ุงู„ุนู„ูˆูŠ ูˆุงู„ุณูู„ูŠ ุงู„ุชุตุฑู ุงู„ุชุงู… ุงู„ู…ุทู„ู‚ ุจุงู„ุฃุญูƒุงู… ุงู„ู‚ุฏุฑูŠุฉ ูˆุงู„ุฃุญูƒุงู… ุงู„ุดุฑุนูŠุฉุŒ ูˆุฃุญูƒุงู… ุงู„ุฌุฒุงุกุŒ ูู„ู‡ุฐุง ุฃุถุงู ู…ู„ูƒู‡ ู„ูŠูˆู… ุงู„ุฏูŠู† ู…ุน ุฃู†ู‡ ุงู„ู…ุงู„ูƒ ุงู„ู…ุทู„ู‚ ููŠ ุงู„ุฏู†ูŠุง ูˆุงู„ุขุฎุฑุฉุ› ูุฅู†ู‡ ูŠูˆู… ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู…ุฉ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠุฏูŠู† ุงู„ู„ู‡ ููŠู‡ ุงู„ุนุจุงุฏ ุจุฃุนู…ุงู„ู‡ู… ุฎูŠุฑู‡ุง ูˆุดุฑู‡ุงุŒ ูˆูŠุฑุชุจ ุนู„ูŠู‡ุง ุฌุฒุงุกู‡ุงุŒ ูˆุชุดุงู‡ุฏ ุงู„ุฎู„ูŠู‚ุฉ ู…ู† ุขุซุงุฑ ู…ู„ูƒู‡ ูˆุนุธู…ุชู‡ ูˆุณุนุชู‡ุŒ ูˆุฎุถูˆุน ุงู„ุฎู„ุงุฆู‚ ูƒู„ู‡ุง ู„ุนุธู…ุชู‡ ูˆูƒุจุฑูŠุงุฆู‡ุŒ ูˆุงุณุชูˆุงุก ุงู„ุฎู„ู‚ ููŠ ุฐู„ูƒ ุงู„ูŠูˆู… ุนู„ู‰ ุงุฎุชู„ุงู ุทุจู‚ุงุชู‡ู… ููŠ ู†ููˆุฐ ุฃุญูƒุงู…ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ู… โ€“ ู…ุง ูŠุนุฑููˆู† ุจู‡ ูƒู…ุงู„ ู…ู„ูƒู‡ุŒ ูˆุนุธู…ุฉ ุณู„ุทุงู†ู‡. ู€

โ€œSovereign of the Day of Recompenseโ€ โ€“ al-Maalik is He who is characterized with attributes of complete and perfect grandeur which entitle Him to sovereignty โ€“ from the effects of which is that He commands and forbids, rewards and punishes, and acts as He wishes towards all manner of created beings with complete and unrestricted freedom in terms of both his divine providential rulings and legislative rulings, as well as the decisions of recompense.

So because of this, He attributed His sovereignty to the Day of Recompense despite being the absolute Sovereign in both this worldly life and in the hereafter, for it is the Day of Standing on which Allah will recompense His slaves according to their deeds โ€“ both good and bad โ€“ and the requital of deeds is predicated on that.

The creation will witness the effects of His sovereignty, grandeur and greatness, and all of the created beings will humble themselves to His grandeur and greatness. And on that day the created beings will be sorted out according to their different levels during the process of Him enacting His judgement upon this โ€“ so that they would thereby know the completeness of His ownership and the greatness of His sovereignty.

ู€ {ุฅููŠูŽู‘ุงูƒูŽ ู†ูŽุนู’ุจูุฏู ูˆูŽุฅููŠูŽู‘ุงูƒูŽ ู†ูŽุณู’ุชูŽุนููŠู†ู} [ุงู„ูุงุชุญุฉ: 5] ุฃูŠ: ู†ุฎุตูƒ ูŠุง ุฑุจู†ุง ูˆุญุฏูƒ ุจุงู„ุนุจุงุฏุฉ ูˆุงู„ุงุณุชุนุงู†ุฉุŒ ูู„ุง ู†ุนุจุฏ ุบูŠุฑูƒุŒ ูˆู„ุง ู†ุณุชุนูŠู† ุจุณูˆุงูƒ . ู€

โ€œIt is You we worship and You we ask for helpโ€ โ€“ meaning: we single You alone out, O our Lord, for worship and seeking aid, so we do not worship any other than You nor do we seek the aid of any besides You.

ูุงู„ุนุจุงุฏุฉ ุงุณู… ุฌุงู…ุน ู„ูƒู„ ู…ุง ูŠุญุจู‡ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูˆูŠุฑุถุงู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฃุนู…ุงู„ ูˆุงู„ุฃู‚ูˆุงู„ุŒ ุงู„ุธุงู‡ุฑุฉ ูˆุงู„ุจุงุทู†ุฉุŒ ูู‡ูŠ ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู… ุจุนู‚ุงุฆุฏ ุงู„ุฅูŠู…ุงู† ูˆุฃุฎู„ุงู‚ู‡ ูˆุฃุนู…ุงู„ู‡ ู…ุญุจุฉ ู„ู„ู‡ ูˆุฎุถูˆุนุง ู„ู‡ . ู€

For al-โ€˜ibaadah (worship) is a word which comprises everything of both actions and words โ€“ both outwardly and inwardly โ€“ which Allah loves and is pleased with. So it is the enactment of the creedal beliefs, manners and acts of al-eemaan, done out of love for Allah and subservience to Him.

ูˆุงู„ุงุณุชุนุงู†ุฉ ู‡ูŠ ุงู„ุงุนุชู…ุงุฏ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ููŠ ุฌู„ุจ ุงู„ู…ู†ุงูุน ูˆุฏูุน ุงู„ู…ุถุงุฑ ู…ุน ุงู„ุซู‚ุฉ ุจู‡ ููŠ ุญุตูˆู„ ุฐู„ูƒุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุชุฒุงู… ู…ู† ุงู„ุนุจุฏ ุจุนุจูˆุฏูŠุฉ ุฑุจู‡ุŒ ูˆุทู„ุจ ู…ู† ุฑุจู‡ ุฃู† ูŠุนูŠู†ู‡ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู… ุจุฐู„ูƒุŒ ูˆุจุฐู„ูƒ ูŠุชูˆุณู„ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ุณุนุงุฏุฉ ุงู„ุฃุจุฏูŠุฉ ูˆุงู„ู†ุฌุงุฉ ู…ู† ุฌู…ูŠุน ุงู„ุดุฑูˆุฑุŒ ูู„ุง ุณุจูŠู„ ู„ุฐู„ูƒ ุฅู„ุง ุจุงู„ู‚ูŠุงู… ุจุนุจุงุฏุฉ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูˆุงู„ุงุณุชุนุงู†ุฉ ุจู‡ุŒ ูˆุนู„ู… ุจุฐู„ูƒ ุดุฏุฉ ุงูุชู‚ุงุฑ ุงู„ุนุจุฏ ู„ุนุจุงุฏุฉ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูˆุงู„ุงุณุชุนุงู†ุฉ ุจู‡. ู€

And seeking His aid is relying upon Allah for the attainment of beneficial matters and repelling of harmful matters while having confidence in His bringing these things about.

This is a commitment on the part of the slave to the role of servitude towards his Lord, and asking his Lord to aid him in the fulfillment of that. Through this, he will attain everlasting joy and rescue from all forms of evil, and there is no way to attain this except through the establishment of worshiping Allah. And because of this, one can know the severity of a slaveโ€™s great need to worship Allah and seek His aid in doing so.

ู€ {ุงู‡ู’ุฏูู†ูŽุง ุงู„ุตูู‘ุฑูŽุงุทูŽ ุงู„ู’ู…ูุณู’ุชูŽู‚ููŠู…ูŽ} [ุงู„ูุงุชุญุฉ: 6] ุฃูŠ: ุฏู„ู†ุง ูˆุฃุฑุดุฏู†ุงุŒ ูˆูˆูู‚ู†ุง ู„ู„ุนู„ู… ุจุงู„ุญู‚ ูˆุงู„ุนู…ู„ ุจู‡ุŒ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุตุฑุงุท ุงู„ู…ุณุชู‚ูŠู…ุŒ ุงู„ู…ุนุชุฏู„ ุงู„ู…ูˆุตู„ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูˆุฅู„ู‰ ุฌู†ุชู‡ ูˆูƒุฑุงู…ุชู‡ุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ูŠุดู…ู„ ุงู„ู‡ุฏุงูŠุฉ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ุตุฑุงุทุŒ ูˆู‡ูŠ ุงู„ุชูˆููŠู‚ ู„ู„ุฒูˆู… ุฏูŠู† ุงู„ุฅุณู„ุงู…ุŒ ูˆุชุฑูƒ ู…ุง ุณูˆุงู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฃุฏูŠุงู† ุงู„ุจุงุทู„ุฉุŒ ูˆูŠุดู…ู„ ุงู„ู‡ุฏุงูŠุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ุตุฑุงุท ูˆู‚ุช ุณู„ูˆูƒู‡ ุนู„ู…ุง ูˆุนู…ู„ุงุ› ูู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฏุนุงุก ู…ู† ุฃุฌู…ุน ุงู„ุฃุฏุนูŠุฉ ูˆุฃู†ูุนู‡ุง ู„ู„ุนุจุฏุŒ ูˆู„ู‡ุฐุง ุฃูˆุฌุจู‡ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูˆูŠุณุฑู‡ . ู€

โ€œGuide us to the straight pathโ€ โ€“ meaning: show us, direct us and grant us the accord to have knowledge of the truth and to act  accordingly โ€“ that is the Straight Path, moderate and leading unto Allah and to His Jannah and generosity.

And this includes guidance unto the path, which is being granted the accord to adhere to the religion of Islam and to abandon any other false religions. And it also includes guidance upon the path while one is traversing it with both knowledge and actions. So this supplication is one of the most comprehensive and beneficial supplications for the slave to make, and so for this reason Allah has obligated it and facilitated it.

ูˆู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุตุฑุงุท ู‡ูˆ ุทุฑูŠู‚ ูˆ {ุตูุฑูŽุงุทูŽ ุงู„ูŽู‘ุฐููŠู†ูŽ ุฃูŽู†ู’ุนูŽู…ู’ุชูŽ ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ูู…ู’} [ุงู„ูุงุชุญุฉ: 7] ุจุงู„ู†ุนู…ุฉ ุงู„ุชุงู…ุฉ ุงู„ู…ุชุตู„ุฉ ุจุงู„ุณุนุงุฏุฉ ุงู„ุฃุจุฏูŠุฉุŒ ูˆู‡ู… ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุก ูˆุงู„ุตุฏูŠู‚ูˆู† ูˆุงู„ุดู‡ุฏุงุก ูˆุงู„ุตุงู„ุญูˆู† . ู€

And this path is the route and โ€œThe path of those upon whom You have bestowed favorโ€ with a complete blessing with results in everlasting joy. And these ones are the prophets, the siddeeqoon, the martyrs, and the righteous ones.

ู€ {ุบูŽูŠู’ุฑู ุงู„ู’ู…ูŽุบู’ุถููˆุจู ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ูู…ู’} [ุงู„ูุงุชุญุฉ: 7] ูˆู‡ู… ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ุนุฑููˆุง ุงู„ุญู‚ ูˆุชุฑูƒูˆู‡ ูƒุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ูˆู†ุญูˆู‡ู… . ู€

โ€œNot of those who have evoked [Your] angerโ€ and these are those who know the truth but abandon it, such as the Jews and those like them.

  ู€ {ูˆูŽู„ูŽุง ุงู„ุถูŽู‘ุงู„ูู‘ูŠู†ูŽ} [ุงู„ูุงุชุญุฉ: 7] ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ุถู„ูˆุง ุนู† ุงู„ุญู‚ ูƒุงู„ู†ุตุงุฑู‰ ูˆู†ุญูˆู‡ู…. ู€

โ€œNor of those who are astrayโ€ and these are those who are misguided from the truth, such as the Christians and those like them.

ูู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุณูˆุฑุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ุฅูŠุฌุงุฒู‡ุง ู‚ุฏ ุฌู…ุนุช ุนู„ูˆู…ุง ุฌู…ุฉุŒ ุชุถู…ู†ุช ุฃู†ูˆุงุน ุงู„ุชูˆุญูŠุฏ ุงู„ุซู„ุงุซุฉ: ุชูˆุญูŠุฏ ุงู„ุฑุจูˆุจูŠุฉ ูŠุคุฎุฐ ู…ู† ู‚ูˆู„ู‡: {ุฑูŽุจูู‘ ุงู„ู’ุนูŽุงู„ูŽู…ููŠู†ูŽ} [ุงู„ูุงุชุญุฉ: 2] . ู€

So this surah, despite its brevity, has gathered a great amount of religious knowledge. It includes the three categories of al-TawheedTawheed al-Ruboobiyyah [singling Allah out in Lordship] is taken from Allahโ€™s statement, โ€œLord of the worldsโ€œ.

ูˆุชูˆุญูŠุฏ ุงู„ุฃู„ูˆู‡ูŠุฉ ู…ู† ู‚ูˆู„ู‡: {ุฅููŠูŽู‘ุงูƒูŽ ู†ูŽุนู’ุจูุฏู ูˆูŽุฅููŠูŽู‘ุงูƒูŽ ู†ูŽุณู’ุชูŽุนููŠู†ู} [ุงู„ูุงุชุญุฉ: 5] ูู‡ูˆ ุงู„ู…ุฃู„ูˆู‡ ุจุนุจุงุฏุชู‡ ูˆุงู„ุงุณุชุนุงู†ุฉ ุจู‡ . ู€

And Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah [singling Allah out in worship] in taken from His statement, โ€œIt is You we worship and You we ask for helpโ€œ, for He is revered through worship and seeking aid directly from Him.

ูˆุชูˆุญูŠุฏ ุงู„ุฃุณู…ุงุก ูˆุงู„ุตูุงุช ุจุฃู† ูŠุซุจุช ู„ู„ู‡ ุตูุงุช ุงู„ูƒู…ุงู„ ูƒู„ู‡ุง ุงู„ุชูŠ ุฃุซุจุชู‡ุง ู„ู†ูุณู‡ุŒ ูˆุฃุซุจุชู‡ุง ู„ู‡ ุฑุณูˆู„ู‡ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู…. ู€

And Tawheed al-Asmaaโ€™ waโ€™l-Sifaat [singling Allah out in His names and attributes] in affirming all of the perfect attributes for Allah which Allah has affirmed for Himself and which His messenger (๏ทบ) has affirmed for Him.

ูˆู‚ุฏ ุฏู„ ุนู„ู‰ ุฐู„ูƒ ุฅุซุจุงุช ุงู„ุญู…ุฏ ู„ู„ู‡ุ› ูุฅู† ุงู„ุฃุณู…ุงุก ุงู„ุญุณู†ู‰ ูˆุงู„ุตูุงุช ุงู„ุนู„ูŠุง ูˆุฃุญูƒุงู…ู‡ุง ูƒู„ู‡ุง ู…ุญุงู…ุฏ ูˆู…ุฏุงุฆุญ ู„ู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ . ู€

And this surah demonstrates an affirmation that all of the praise belongs to Allah, for the beautiful names, lofty attributes and what they necessarily entail are all praise and exaltation of Allah the Exalted.

ูˆุชุถู…ู†ุช ุฅุซุจุงุช ุงู„ุฑุณุงู„ุฉ ููŠ ู‚ูˆู„ู‡: {ุงู‡ู’ุฏูู†ูŽุง ุงู„ุตูู‘ุฑูŽุงุทูŽ ุงู„ู’ู…ูุณู’ุชูŽู‚ููŠู…ูŽ} [ุงู„ูุงุชุญุฉ: 6] ู„ุฃู†ู‡ ุงู„ุทุฑูŠู‚ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ู†ุจูŠ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู…ุŒ ูˆุฐู„ูƒ ูุฑุน ุนู† ุงู„ุฅูŠู…ุงู† ุจู†ุจูˆุชู‡ ูˆุฑุณุงู„ุชู‡ . ู€

And this surah includes an affirmation of prophethood in His statement, โ€œGuide us to the straight pathโ€ for that is the route which the Prophet (๏ทบ) was upon, and that is a part of having eemaan in his prophethood and messengership.

ูˆุชุถู…ู†ุช ุฅุซุจุงุช ุงู„ุฌุฒุงุกุŒ ูˆุฃู†ู‡ ุจุงู„ุนุฏู„ุŒ ูˆุฐู„ูƒ ู…ุฃุฎูˆุฐ ู…ู† ู‚ูˆู„ู‡: {ู…ูŽุงู„ููƒู ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ู ุงู„ุฏูู‘ูŠู†ู} [ุงู„ูุงุชุญุฉ: 4] ู€

And this surah includes an affirmation of the recompense, and that it is done with justice. That is taken from Allahโ€™s statement, โ€œSovereign of the Day of Recompenseโ€œ.

ูˆุชุถู…ู†ุช ุฅุซุจุงุช ู…ุฐู‡ุจ ุฃู‡ู„ ุงู„ุณู†ุฉ ูˆุงู„ุฌู…ุงุนุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ู‚ุฏุฑุŒ ูˆุฃู† ุฌู…ูŠุน ุงู„ุฃุดูŠุงุก ุจู‚ุถุงุก ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูˆู‚ุฏุฑู‡ุŒ ูˆุฃู† ุงู„ุนุจุฏ ูุงุนู„ ุญู‚ูŠู‚ุฉุŒ ู„ูŠุณ ู…ุฌุจูˆุฑุง ุนู„ู‰ ุฃูุนุงู„ู‡ุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ูŠูู‡ู… ู…ู† ู‚ูˆู„ู‡: {ุฅููŠูŽู‘ุงูƒูŽ ู†ูŽุนู’ุจูุฏู ูˆูŽุฅููŠูŽู‘ุงูƒูŽ ู†ูŽุณู’ุชูŽุนููŠู†ู} [ุงู„ูุงุชุญุฉ: 5] ูู„ูˆู„ุง ุฃู† ู…ุดูŠุฆุฉ ุงู„ุนุจุฏ ู…ุถุทุฑ ููŠู‡ุง ุฅู„ู‰ ุฅุนุงู†ุฉ ุฑุจู‡ ูˆุชูˆููŠู‚ู‡ ู„ู… ูŠุณุฃู„ ุงู„ุงุณุชุนุงู†ุฉ. ู€

And this surah includes an affirmation of the belief of Ahl al-Sunnah waโ€™l-Jamaaโ€™ah in regards to al-Qadr; and that all things are according to the pre-determination and divine decree of Allah, and that the slave is the true performer of his actions โ€“ he is not compelled to perform them.

And this is understood from Allahโ€™s statement, โ€œIt is You we worship and You we ask for helpโ€œ. For if it were the case that the slaveโ€™s will was forced to seek the aid and assistance of his Lord, then he did not (really) seek His aid.

ูˆุชุถู…ู†ุช ุฃุตู„ ุงู„ุฎูŠุฑ ูˆู…ุงุฏุชู‡ุŒ ูˆู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุฅุฎู„ุงุต ุงู„ูƒุงู…ู„ ู„ู„ู‡ ููŠ ู‚ูˆู„ ุงู„ุนุจุฏ: ุฅูŠุงูƒ ู†ุนุจุฏ ูˆุฅูŠุงูƒ ู†ุณุชุนูŠู†. ู€

And this surah includes the foundation and very substance of goodness, which is complete ikhlaas to Allah. This is in the slaveโ€™s statement, โ€œIt is You we worship and You we ask for help.โ€

ูˆู„ู…ุง ูƒุงู†ุช ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุณูˆุฑุฉ ุจู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุนุธู…ุฉ ูˆุงู„ุฌู„ุงู„ุฉ ุฃูˆุฌุจู‡ุง ุงู„ุดุงุฑุน ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู…ูƒู„ููŠู† ููŠ ูƒู„ ุฑูƒุนุฉ ู…ู† ุตู„ุงุชู‡ู… ูุฑุถุง ูˆู†ูู„ุง . ู€

And due to the greatness and majesty of this surah, the Divine Legislator made it obligatory for those tasked with enacting His legislation to recite this surah in every unit of their prayers, whether they be obligatory prayers or optional ones.

ูˆููŠู‡ุง ุชุนู„ูŠู… ุงู„ู„ู‡ ู„ุนุจุงุฏู‡ ูƒูŠู ูŠุญู…ุฏูˆู†ู‡ ูˆูŠุซู†ูˆู† ุนู„ูŠู‡ุŒ ูˆูŠู…ุฌุฏูˆู†ู‡ ุจู…ุญุงู…ุฏู‡ุŒ ุซู… ูŠุณุฃู„ูˆู† ุฑุจู‡ู… ุฌู…ูŠุน ู…ุทุงู„ุจู‡ู…. ูููŠู‡ุง ุฏู„ูŠู„ ุนู„ู‰ ุงูุชู‚ุงุฑู‡ู… ุฅู„ู‰ ุฑุจู‡ู… ููŠ ุงู„ุฃู…ุฑูŠู†: ู…ูุชู‚ุฑูŠู† ุฅู„ูŠู‡ ููŠ ุฃู† ูŠู…ู„ุฃ ู‚ู„ูˆุจู‡ู… ู…ู† ู…ุญุจุชู‡ ูˆู…ุนุฑูุชู‡ุŒ ูˆู…ูุชู‚ุฑูŠู† ุฅู„ูŠู‡ ููŠ ุฃู† ูŠู‚ูˆู… ุจู…ุตุงู„ุญู‡ู… ูŠูˆูู‚ู‡ู… ู„ุฎุฏู…ุชู‡ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุญู…ุฏ ู„ู„ู‡ ุฑุจ ุงู„ุนุงู„ู…ูŠู†. ู€

And this surah contains instruction from Allah to His slaves about how they should first praise, exalt and glorify Him with His praises, and then ask their Lord for all of their needs. So it contains a proof of the slavesโ€™ dire need for their Lord regarding two affairs: 1) their dire need for Him to fill their hearts with love for Him and knowledge of Him, and 2) their dire need for Him to enact their best interests and to grant them to accord to serve Him. And all praise is due to Allah, the Lord of all creation.

[Taysir al-Lateef al-Manaan pg. 27-32]This translation is part of a series of sound explanations of surah al-Fatihah, which also includes:

For more information about each of these explanations, please

see: Tafsir of Surah al-Fatihah Guide.

See also: Ibn Kathirโ€™s brief remarks on the contents of Surah al-Fatihah 

See also: The Seven Oft-Repeated Verses: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

See also: The Levels of the Believers: Tafsir al-Saโ€™di

See also: Tafsir of Surah al-โ€˜Asr: Imam al-Saโ€™di

See also: Explanation of Ayah al-Kursi: Imam al-Saโ€™di

See also: Six Basic Guidelines for Understanding the Qurโ€™an: Imam al-Saโ€™di

12 thoughts on โ€œTafsir of Surah al-Fatihah: Imam al-Saโ€™diโ€

Tafsir of Surah al-Fatihah: al-Tafsir al-Muyassar |

 Tafsir of Surah al-โ€˜Asr: Imam al-Saโ€™di

 Tafsir of Surah al-Fatihah: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

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Ten Important Commandments from the End of Surah al-Anโ€™aam: Tafsir al-Saโ€™di

 Khutbah on the Fundamentals of the Religion: Imam al-Saโ€™di

 The Names and Revelation of Surah al-Fatihah: Tafsir al-Baghawi

The Principles of al-Salafiyyah in Surah al-Fatihah: Sheikh Muhammad Bazmool |

 Explanation of Ayah al-Kursi: Imam al-Saโ€™di

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