Answering Jihad: “Fight Against Those Who Do Not Believe” – Quran (9:29)
Mohamad Mostafa Nassar
2. Background on Quran 9:29
3. The Verse – Historical context
4. Jizya (Jizyah)
This article examines chapter 9, verse 29 of the Quran, in its historical context. Some claim that the verse (Q. 9:29) endorses and ‘sanctions Muslims to kill innocent Christians and Jews’. This is simply not true. We undertook the task to investigate the verse (Q. 9:29) as a result of some critics misusing, and twisting the verse to mean something it has never intended to say.
It is only appropriate to respond to their claims, given the fact that, not even Prophet Muhammed (p) interpreted it as such during his own life.
It is agreed by some of the earliest classical to modern commentators on the Quran that this verse (Q. 9:29) was revealed concerning the expedition to Tabuk, to face Byzantine (Roman) Empire’s army (Mujahid Ibn Jabr (645-722 AD), Hud b. Muhakkam Hawwari , Al-Tabari (838-923 AD) , Baghawi (1044-1122 AD), and Ibn Kathir (1301-1373 AD)).
3. The Verse – Historical Context
Let us read the verse [Muhammed Asad Translation]:
“[And] fight against those who – despite having been vouchsafed revelation [aforetime] – do not [truly] believe either in God or the Last Day, and do not consider forbidden that which God and His Apostle have forbidden, and do not follow the religion of truth [which God has enjoined upon them] till they [agree to] pay the exemption tax with a willing hand, after having been humbled [in war].” – Qur’an 9:29
So the verse tells Muhammed (p) to fight against those who were revealed previous scripture. Who does the verse refer to? As mentioned previously, some of the earliest Islamic exegesis on the Quran say that the verse (9:29) was revealed concerning Tabuk expedition.
The Hadith, collections of reports from what Prophet Muhammed (p) said, approved off, or sometimes what the Companions of the Prophet (p) said. According to Sahih Muslim (Hadith) and Riyad us-Saliheen, they report to us that the Tabuk expedition was undertaken as a result of the impending army of the Byzantine’s (Romans) who were advancing on the Syrian border for war. Sahih Muslim:
“I never remained behind Allah’s Messenger from any expedition which he undertook except the Battle of Tabuk and that of the Battle of Badr. So far as the Battle of Badr is concerned, nobody was blamed for remaining behind as Allah’s Messenger and the Muslims (did not set out for attack but for waylaying) the caravan of the Quraish, but it was Allah Who made them confront their enemies without their intention (to do so).
I had the honour to be with Allah’s Messenger on the night of ‘Aqaba when we pledged our allegiance to Islam and it was more dear to me than my participation in the Battle of Badr, although Badr was more popular amongst people as compared with that (Tabuk). And this is my story of remaining back from Allah’s Messenger on the occasion of the Battle of TABUK.
Never did I possess means enough and (my circumstances) more favourable than at the occasion of this expedition. And, by Allah, I had never before this expedition simultaneously in my possession two rides. Allah’s Messenger set out for this expedition in extremely hot season; the journey was long and the land (which he and his army had to cover)
was waterless and HE HAD TO CONFRONT A LARGE ARMY, so he informed the Muslims about the actual situation (they had to face), so that they should adequately equip themselves for this expedition, and he also told them the destination where he intended to go. …” (Sahih Muslim Book 37, Hadith 6670)
“Abdullah bin Ka’b, who served as the guide of Ka’b bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) when he became blind, narrated: I heard Ka’b bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) narrating the story of his remaining behind instead of joining Messenger of Allah when he left for the battle of Tabuk. Ka’b said:
“I accompanied Messenger of Allah in every expedition which he undertook excepting the battle of Tabuk and the battle of Badr. As for the battle of Badr, nobody was blamed for remaining behind as Messenger of Allah and the Muslims, when they set out, had in mind only to intercept the caravan of the Quraish.
Allah made them confront their enemies unexpectedly. I had the honour of being with Messenger of Allah on the night of ‘Aqabah when we pledged our allegiance to Islam and it was dearer to me than participating in the battle of Badr, although Badr was more well-known among the people than that. And this is the account of my staying behind from the battle of TABUK.
I never had better means and more favourable circumstances than at the time of this expedition. And by Allah, I had never before possessed two riding-camels as I did during the time of this expedition.
Whenever Messenger of Allah decided to go on a campaign, he would not disclose his real destination till the last moment (of departure). But on this expedition, he set out in extremely hot weather; the journey was long and the terrain was waterless desert; and HE HAD TO FACE A STRONG ARMY, so he informed the Muslims about the actual position so that they should make full preparation for the campaign.” (Riyad as-Salihin Book 1, Hadith 21)
Notice, in the above two reports we read that the Byzantine army were already there, ready, and equipped to go to war. These following reports (below) also shed information that news had reached the Muslims that the Ghassanid tribe, which was part of the Byzantine (Roman) empire were preparing to attack the Muslim community.
“… I left her (and went home). At that time I had a friend from the Ansar who used to bring news (from the Prophet) in case of my absence, and I used to bring him the news if he was absent. In those days we were afraid of one of the kings of GHASSANID TRIBE.
We heard that he INTENDED TO MOVE AND ATTACK US, so fear filled our hearts because of that. (One day) my Ansari friend unexpectedly knocked at my door, and said, “Open Open!’ I said, ‘Has the king of Ghassan come?’ He said, ‘No, but something worse; God’s Messenger has isolated himself from his wives.’ …” (Sahih al-Bukhari volume 6, Book 60, Hadith 435)
“I had a friend from the Ansar. When I had been absent (from the company of the Prophet) he used to bring me the news and when he had been absent I used to bring him the news, and at that time we dreaded a KING OF GHASSAN. It was mentioned to us that he INTENDED TO ATTACK US, AND OUR MINDS WERE HAUNTED BY HIM.
My friend, the Ansari, came to me, and he knocked at the door and said: Open it, open it. I said: Has the Ghassanid come? He said: (The matter is) more serious than that. The Messenger of Allah has separated himself from his wives. …” (Sahih Muslim Book 9, Hadith 3508)
“‘My house was in Al-Awali among those of Banu Umayya, and I had a neighbour among the Ansar, and he and I would take turns visiting the Messenger of God.’ He said: ‘One day I would visit him and bring the news of the Revelation, and one day he would visit him and bring the same. We heard that GHASSAN WERE PREPARING THEIR HORSES TO ATTACK US. He said:
‘One day he came to me in the evening and knocked on my door, so I went out to him. He said: “A horrible thing has happened.” I said: “Ghassan has come?” He said: “Worse than that. The Messenger of God has divorced his wives.’ … “(Jami` at-Tirmidhi volume 5, Book 44, Hadith 3318)
In relation to this, Ibn Sa’d (784-845 AD), in his book Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir states that news had reached Prophet Muhammed that the Byzantine (Romans) had ‘concentrated large forces’, and Heracluis had sent some his military to ‘Balqa’. This is when the Muhammed (p) ‘summoned’ his people to the expedition of Tabuk:
“They (narrators) saud: It (report) reached the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him, that the ROMANS HAD CONCENTRATED LARGE FORCES IN SYRIA had, that Heraclius had disbursed one year’s salary to his soldiers, and that tribes of Lakhm, Judham, ‘Amilah and Ghassan had joined hands with him.
THEY SENT HAD SENT THEIR VANGUARDS TO AL-BALQA. THE MESSENGER Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him, SUMMONED THE PEOPLE TO MARCH. He set out and informed them about the place which he intended, so that they could make necessary preparations. He sent (messengers) to Makkah and to the tribes of Arabia (asking them) to send help. This took place in the days of intense heat.” (Ibn Sa’d, Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, vol. 2, pp. 203-204) 
9th Century historian Aḥmad Ibn Yaḥya al-Baladhuri (D. 892 AD), also reports in his book, ‘Kitab Futuh Al-Buldan’, in clear words that the Prophet (p) learned that the Byzantine army ‘had assembled against him’:
“Tabuk make terms. When in the year 9 AH the Prophet marched to TABUK in Syria for the invasion of those of the Greeks, Amilah, Lakhm, Judham and others WHOM HE LEARNT HAD ASSEMBLED AGAINST HIM, he met no resistance. So he spent a few days in Tabuk, whose inhabitants made terms with him agreeing to pay poll-tax.” (Kitab Futuh Al-Buldan, vol. 1, p. 92) 
In the version that is narrated by Mu’jam Tabarani (873 – 918 CE), he states that Christians said it is a “appropriate time to attack the Arabs” (Muslims):
“The Battle Of Tabuk
Rajab 9 A. H.
On the authority of Imran Ibn Husayn that the Christian Arabs wrote to Hercules, the King Of Rome that Muhammad passed away and that the people were dying because of the drought that they were experiencing. It was therefore a very appropriate TIME TO ATTACK THE ARABS (MUSLIMS).
Hercules immediately issued the order for preparations. A fully equipped army of 40 000 was prepared.” (Mu’jam az-Zawa’id, volume 6, page 191) (Siratul Mustafa [Translated by Maulana Mahomed Mahomedy – Madrasah Arabia Islamia and Zam Zam Publishers – Fifth Authorized Edition, 2015] by Hadrat Maulana Idris Sahib Kandehlawi, volume 3, page 96)
Fath al-Bari – Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (1372 – 1449):
“The Battle Of Tabuk …the Byzantines had gathered together large forces against them, including fighters from among the Banu Lakhm, Judham,and other Christian Arabs who were under their influence , and that their vanguards had reached Balqa (a region of Syria).
Having learned of this development, the Prophet called his people against the Byzantine army.” (Fath al-Bari, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, volume 8, page 87) (Cited in, “The Jurisprudence Of The Prophetic Biography & A Brief History Of The Rightly Guided Caliphate, [Dar Al Fikr – Translated by Nancy Roberts, 2007] by Dr. M. Sa’id Ramadan al-Buti, page 513 – 514)
Moreover, we also want to include the episode of Masjid al-Dirar, in relation to Tabuk expedition. To get a better understanding of Byzantine army’s intend to attack the Muslim community in Madinah.
Masjid al-Dirar was a mosque built by the hypocrites with the help of Abu Amir (Amr), a Christian monk, who had in previous years fought against the Muslims. Abu Amir went to Syria, and had a close relationship with the Byzantine leader. Abu Amir having hatred and enmity towards Muhammed (p) asked Heraclius to give him men, money and weapons so that he could assassinate Muhammed (p).
With the help of Heraclius, a Mosque was built, and the hypocrites invited the Prophet (p) to come to this Mosque and pray, so that they could assassinate him. However, the Prophet declined and was busy with Tabuk expedition. Ali ibn Ahmad al-Wahidi (d. 1075 AD), states the following:
“… The Banu ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf built a mosque at Quba’ and sent for the Messenger of Allah, to come to them. He went there and prayed in that mosque. Their brothers from the Banu Ghunm ibn ‘Awf envied them resentfully and said: ‘Let us built a mosque and send for the Messenger of Allah, to pray in it as he prayed in the mosque of our brothers, and let Abu ‘Amir al-Rahib (the monk) also pray in it when he comes back from Syria‘. This Abu ‘Amir had embraced Christianity and became a monk in the pre-Islamic period.
But when the Messenger of Allah, moved to Medina, Abu ‘Amir rejected the religion of Islam and showed enmity toward it. The Prophet, called him then Abu ‘Amir al-Fasiq (the corrupt)… ABU AMIR LEFT FOR SYRIA AND THEN SENT A LETTER TO THE HYPOCRITES in which he wrote:
‘PREPARE YOURSELVES AND MAKE READY WHATEVER YOU CAN OF FORCE AND WEAPONS. Built a Mosque for me, for I AM GOING TO THE CAESAR TO REQUEST HIM TO SEND WITH ME BYZANTINE SOLDIERS SO THAT I DRIVE OUT MUHAMMAD AND HIS COMPANIONS‘. And so, they built for him a mosque by the Quba’ mosque.
Those who built this mosque were 12 men: Khidham ibn Khalid (this mosque of opposition was an extension of his house), Tha’labah ibn Hatib, Mu’attib ibn Qushayr, Abu Habibah ibn al-Az’ar, ‘Abbad ibn Hunayf, Jariyah ibn ‘Amir, his two sons Majma’ and Zayd, Nabtal ibn Harith, Bahzaj ibn ‘Uthman, Bijad ibn ‘Uthman and Wadi’ah ibn Thabit.
When they finished building this mosque, they went to the Messenger of Allah, and said: ‘We have built a mosque for the sick and the needy and also for use in rainy and wintry nights, and we would like you to come and pray in it’.” 
The respected scholar Abu l-Fidaʾ Ismail Ibn Umar Ibn Kathir (1301-1373 AD), also mentions that Abu Amir got the backing of Heraclius to launch an attack on the Muslim community:
“Masjid Ad-Dirar and Masjid At-Taqwa
The reason behind revealing these honorable Ayat is that before the Messenger of Allah migrated to Al-Madinah, there was a man from Al-Khazraj called “Abu `Amir Ar-Rahib (the Monk).”
This man embraced Christianity before Islam and read the Scriptures. During the time of Jahiliyyah, Abu Amir was known for being a worshipper and being a notable person among Al-Khazraj.
When the Messenger of Allah arrived at Al-Madinah after the Hijrah, the Muslims gathered around him and the word of Islam was triumphant on the day of Badr, causing Abu `Amir, the cursed one, to choke on his own saliva and announce his enmity to Islam. He fled from Al-Madinah to the idolators of Quraysh in Makkah to support them in the WAR AGAINST THE MESSENGER OF ALLAH.
The Quraysh united their forces and the bedouins who joined them for the battle of Uhud, during which Allah tested the Muslims, but the good end is always for the pious and righteous people. The rebellious Abu Amir dug many holes in the ground between the two camps, into one of which the Messenger fell,
injuring his face and breaking one of his right lower teeth. He also sustained a head injury. Before the fighting started, Abu Amir approached his people among the Ansar and tried to convince them to support and agree with him. When they recognized him, they said, “May Allah never burden an eye by seeing you,
O Fasiq one, O enemy of Allah!” They cursed him and he went back declaring, “By Allah! Evil has touched my people after I left.” The Messenger of Allah called Abu Amir to Allah and recited the Qur’an to him before his flight to Makkah, but he refused to embrace Islam and REBELLED.
The Messenger invoked Allah that Abu Amir die as an outcast in an alien land, and his invocation came true. After the battle of Uhud was finished, ABU AMIR realized that the Messenger’s call was still rising and gaining momentum, so HE WENT TO HERACLIUS, THE EMPEROR OF ROME, ASKING FOR HIS AID AGAINST THE PROPHET. HERACLIUS GAVE HIM PROMISES AND ABU AMIR REMAINED WITH HIM.
He also wrote to several of his people in Al-Madinah, who embraced hypocrisy, promising and insinuating to them THAT HE WILL LEAD AN ARMY TO FIGHT THE MESSENGER OF ALLAH TO DEFEAT HIM AND HIS CALL. He ordered them to establish a stronghold where he could send his emissaries and to serve as an outpost when he joins them later on. These hypocrites built a Masjid next to the Masjid in Quba’, and they finished building it BEFORE the Messenger went to TABUK. They went to the Messenger inviting him to pray in their Masjid so that it would be a proof that the Messenger approved of their Masjid.” 
Similarly, Tafsir al-Jalalayn affirms the Masjid al-Dirar incident:
“And, among them, those who have chosen a mosque — these were twelve men from among the hypocrites — by way of HARM, to cause distress for those of the mosque of Quba’, and disbelief, since they built it on the orders of the monk ABU ‘AMIR, as a sanctuary for him, so that whoever comes from his side may stay there:
HE HAD GONE TO THE BYZANTINE EMPEROR (QAYSAR) TO BRING TROOPS TO FIGHT AGAINST THE PROPHET (s), and to cause division among the believers, who pray in the mosque of Quba’, by having some of these pray in their [the hypocrites’]
mosque, and as an outpost, an observation post, for those who waged war against God and His Messenger before, that is, before it was built — meaning the above-mentioned Abu ‘Amir — they will swear: ‘We desired nothing, by
building it, but, to do, good’, by way of kindness towards the poor in times of [heavy] rain or [extreme] heat and in order to provide [a place of worship] for the Muslims; and God bears witness that they are truly liars, in this [claim of theirs]. They had asked the Prophet (s) to perform prayers in it, and so the following was revealed…” 
Likewise, 9th century Islamic scholar Abu Ja’far Muḥammad ibn Jarir al-Ṭabari (838-923 AD) has this story in his Tafsir, in detail . These incidents were not the first time the Byzantine had engaged in war against the Muslims. When the Prophet (p) sent one of his messenger’s with a letter to the King of Busra, he was intercepted by Shurabbil Ibn Amr al-Ghassani and his men, they executed Muhammed’s messenger, and those who were with him. Which led to the battle of Mu’tah (Mutah).
From the evidences, we gather Muhammed (p) was well aware of the Byzantine army’s approach towards Madinah. What he did not know was that some of the hypocrites, Abu Amir the monk, and with the help of Heraclius, were attempting to assassinate him in the Masjid al-Dinar mosque, in Madinah. All this took place before the Muhammed (p) set out to Tabuk.
In view of all the that has been mentioned so far, all the historical evidences shown supports the fact that the expedition to Tabuk, was started as a consequence of the Byzantine (Roman) Empire’s army advancing, to attack the Muslim community. Thus, 9:29 is understood historically that the verse was aimed at those who were hostile, and aimed to harm the Muslims.
4. Jizya (Jizyah)
Moreover, when the Muslims got to Tabuk, to face the enemy, the Muslims found that the Byzantine army had fled. So what did the Muslims do to those Christians and Jews that were allies of the Byzantine, and had sided with them against the Muslims? Did Muslims start killing them indiscriminately? No harm was inflicted on any Christian or Jew. Sahih al-Bukhari and Kitab Futuh al-Buldan report to us the following:
“We accompanied the Prophet in the Ghazwa of Tabuk and the king of ‘Aila presented a white mule and a cloak as a gift to the Prophet. And the Prophet wrote to him a peace treaty allowing him to keep authority over his country.” (Sahih al-Bukhari vol. 4, Book 53, Hadith 387)
Kitab Futuh Al-Buldan:
“Tabuk make terms. When in the year 9 AH the Prophet marched to Tabuk in Syria for the invasion of those of the Greeks, Amilah, Lakhm, Judham and others whom he learnt had assembled against him, he met no resistance. So he spent a few days in Tabuk, whose inhabitants made terms with him agreeing to pay poll-tax.” (Kitab Futuh Al-Buldan vol. 1, p. 92) 
With the Prophet (p) and his army’s arrival there, we read that he made peace treaties with the tribes that had allegiance to Byzantine Empire. These two reports are very interesting! It thoroughly debunks the myth perpetuated by some that Prophet Muhammed (p) conquered, and converted them the sword.
We have to remember that these tribes were guilty of siding with the Byzantine in harming the Muslims, yet when the Prophet (p) had the opportunity to avenge them for what they did (i.e., siding with Byzantine in killing Muslims), he left them alone.
Part of this peace-treaty was that they will live in their territory peacefully, no harm will come to them as long as they do not harm the Muslims. They also got full protection, and freedom from the Muslim Government.
Another intriguing part of this treaty (which is mentioned in this section, Bukhari quotes) was that the Prophet (P) allowed the Christian King Yuhanna (John) of Aila to have full control over his territory, as long as he remained peaceful and paid the poll-tax due to the Prophet (p).
Some claim that the poll-tax (Jizyah) levied on them was ‘discriminatory’ and ‘oppressive’. For those readers who are not aware of what ‘Jizya’ is, Jizyah is a tax on Christians and Jews who live under the Protection of the Muslim government. This is not imposed on all of them. It is only levied on the men. Women, children, old men and handicapped or the poor are exempted from paying this.
Similarly, the Muslims were also obliged to pay similar tax called ‘Zakat’ yearly. If the non-Muslim men joined the Muslim military service, they were exempt from paying Jizya. Whereas, even if the Muslims paid Zakat, they were still obliged to join military service, it was compulsory on the Muslims.
As mentioned, the non-Muslims got full freedom, and protection from the Islamic Government, as in the case of the Christian King Yuhanna (John) of Aila, he had full control over his territory. Part of this ‘full-protection’ was that if an enemy country were to think of attacking non-Muslims, the Muslims would have protected them. The enemy would have to fight the Muslims first before they could harm the non-Muslim citizens.
This payment (tax) in turn would have paid for hospitals, schools, military defence of the country, helping the poor and needy. Both of these taxes (Jizya and Zakat) was needed for the Government to function, and adequate care for its citizens be met.
The claim that ‘Jizya’ was oppressive is found by those who are pushing a certain agenda to paint the Islamic faith negatively.
In-fact, anyone who hurts or be ‘oppressive’ towards a dhimmi (modern terminology non-Muslim citizen) will be held accountable, and has gone against God and the Prophet’s teachings. The Prophet states, as it is reported in Tabarani:
“He who hurts a dhimmi hurts me, and he who hurts me annoys Allah. (Narrated by at-Tabarani in Al-aswat on good authority)
“Whoever hurts a dhimmi, I am his adversary, and I shall be an adversary to him on the Day of Resurrection.” (Narrated by Khatib on good authority)
“One the Day of Resurrection I shall prove to be wrong anyone who oppresses a person from among the People of the covenant, or infringes on his right, or puts a responsibility on him which is beyond his strength, or takes something from him against his will.” (Narrated By Abu Dawud)
These sayings are from Muhammed’s (p) own mouth, he categorically forbade the harming, hurting or imposing something beyond the ability the non-Muslim citizen. The Prophet’s companions , his successors safeguarded these rights and sanctities of non-Muslim citizens. The Maliki jurist, Shihab ad-din al-Qarafi states:
“The covenant of protection imposes upon us certain obligations toward ahl adh-dhimmah. They are our neighbours, under our shelter and protection upon the guarantee of Allah, His Messenger (p), and the religion of Islam. Whoever violates these obligations against any of them by so much as an abusive word, by slandering his reputation, or by doing him some injury or assisting in it, has breached the guarantee of Allah, His Messenger (p), and the religion of Islam. (Al-Qarafi, Al-furuq)
And Ibn Hazm:
“If the enemy of a dhimmi comes with his forces to take him, it is our obligation to fight this enemy with soldiers and weapons and to give our lives for him, thus honouring the guarantee of Allah and His Messenger (p). To hand him over to the enemy would mean to dishonour this guarantee.” (Ibn Hazm, Maratib al-ijma) 
The Quran calls for non-Muslims to be treated with goodness and be just to them:
“God does not forbid you, with regard to those who do not fight you on account of your religion nor drive you out of your homes, to treat them with goodness and to be just to them; truly, God loves those who are just. …” – Quran 60:8
This same Quran also permits Muslims to marry Christian and Jewish woman:
“… The food of those who were given Scripture (before you) is permitted to you and your food is permitted to them. And (lawful to you in marriage are) chaste women from among the Believers and chaste women from among those who were given the Scripture (Christians and Jews) before you…” – Quran 5:5
In the same book, God Almighty informs us that through marriage HE has put love and mercy between the couple’s.
“…and He has put love and mercy between you.” – Quran 30:21
We see that chapter 9, verse 29 of the Quran, that God Almighty only permitted the fighting, in the context of Byzantine (Roman) Empire’s impending army to attack the Muslims. The verse does not in any-way allow or permit aggression against peaceful people. Rather the injunction in the verse has to be understood within the historical context that it was revealed at the time of Prophet Muhammed (p).
As explained, the context of which was to do with the aggression and the hostilities of the Byzantine Empire’s actions, as we showed in a number of historical reports. Which led to Prophet Muhammed’s (p) decision in confronting the enemy head-on in Tabuk.
For some to claim that the verse allowed aggression and warfare against innocent people, this has no historical truth to it. The evidences shown tell us, Islam respects, and treats those who adhere to other religions with kindness, care and goodness.     
 Striving in the Path of God: Jihad and Martyrdom in Islamic Thought By Asma Afsaruddin, page 75 – 76
 A summary on 9:29 from At-Tabari:
“عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ لا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلا بِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ… حِينَ أُمِرَ مُحَمَّدٌ وَأَصْحَابُهُ بِغَزْوَةِ تَبُوكَ
Mujahid reported concerning the verse, “Fight those who do not believe in Allah and the Last Day…” that it was revealed when Muhammad and his companions were commanded with the expedition of Tabuk. The expedition of Tabuk was preceded by the battle of Mu’tah which began when the emissary of the Prophet was assassinated while delivering a letter to a Roman ally. (Tafseer At-Tabari 9:29 Online source)
 Ibn Sa’d’s Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, Translated by S. Moinul Haq (New Delhi: Kitab Bhavan, 2009) Volume 2, page 203-204
 The origins of the Islamic State, being a translation from the Arabic accompanied with annotations Geographic and historic notes of the Kitab Futuh Al-Buldan of al-Imam Abu’l Abbas Ahmad Ibn Jabir Al Baladhuri, By Phillip Khurti Hitti, PHD, , volume 1, page 92
 Asbab Al-Nuzul by Al-Wahidi, last accessed 28th March 2016: http://altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=86&tSoraNo=9&tAyahNo=107&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=2
 Tafsir Ibn Kathir, last accessed 28th March 2016 : http://www.qtafsir.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1590&Itemid=64
 Tafsir al-Jalalayn, last accessed 28th March 2016: http://altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=74&tSoraNo=9&tAyahNo=107&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=2
 Tafsir al-Tabari, volume 14, page 469 – 475
 The origins of the Islamic State, being a translation from the Arabic accompanied with annotations Geographic and historic notes of the Kitab Futuh Al-Buldan of al-Imam Abu’l Abbas Ahmad Ibn Jabir Al Baladhuri, By Phillip Khurti Hitti, PHD, , volume 1, page 92
 Umar Ibn Khattab: “I also recommend that he do good to the ‘Arab bedouin, as they are the origin of the ‘Arabs and the material of Islam. He should take from what is inferior, amongst their properties and distribute that to the poor amongst them. I also recommend him concerning Allah’s and His Apostle’s protectees (i.e. Dhimmis) to fulfill their contracts and to fight for them and not to overburden them with what is beyond their ability.” (Sahih al-Bukhari vol. 5, Book 57, Hadith 50)
 The quotes from Tabarani, Khatib, al-Qarafi, and Ibn Hazm were taken from Shaykh Yusuf al-Qaradawi’s book, “The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam (Al-Halal Wal Haram Fil Islam)”, page 333 – 341
 Tafsir al-Maraghi – Sh. Ahmad Mustafa al-Maraghi:
“أي قاتلوا من ذكروا حين وجود ما يقتضي القتال كالعتداء عليكم أو علي بلادكم أو اضطهادكم و فتنتكم عن دينكم أو تهديد أمنكم و سلامتكم كما فعل بك الروم و كان ذلك سببا لغزوة تبوك
fight those mentioned when the conditions which necessitate fighting are present, namely, aggression against you or your country, oppression and persecution against you on account of your faith, or threatening your safety and security, as was committed against you by the Byzantines, which was what lead to Tabuk.” ( Tafsir al-Maraghi, by Ahmad Mustafa al-Maraghi, volume 10, page 95)
 “o1 1.4 The minimum non-Muslim poll tax is one deinar (n: 4.235 grams of gold) per person )A: per year). The maximum is whatever both sides agree upon. It is collected with leniency and politeness, as are all debts, and is not levied on women, children, or the insane.” (Reliance of the Traveller – The classic manual of Islamic Sacred Law ‘Umdat al-Salik By Shaykh Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri, page 608)
 “Ibn Abbas states, they should pay the jizya with their own hands and not have it sent, arriving on foot and not mounted on an animal.” (Al-Wasit, by Ali Ibn Ahmad al-Wahidi, volume 2, page 489)
 “No one from the dhimmis would be beaten in extracting jizyah from them; nor would they be made to stand in the sun nor would any persecution be inflicted upon their bodies. Instead kindness will be shown to them. They would be restrained till they paid what was incumbent upon them and they would not be released from this detention till jizyah is taken from them in full.” (Kitab ul-Kharaj, by Abu Yusuf, page 123)
 “In the ninth year of Hijri, the traders who crossed the route between Madinah and Damascus informed the Prophet that Hercules, the Roman Emperor, was preparing an army to attack Madinah. The Prophet took it seriously and took immediate action.” (al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah by Halabi, volume 3, page 99. See also al-Mawahib al-Ludaniyyah, by Qastallani, volume 1, page 346)
What does Islam say about Rape? [Part 1]
What does Islam say about Rape? [Part 2]