There is only ONE Qur’an
Mohamad Mostafa Nassar
What is the Muslim’s belief about the Qur’an of Abdulla Ibn Masoud (may God be pleased with him) Someone told me that he did not include Al Fatiha=Chapter the Opener in it, is this true? What about the qira’a=recitation of Ibn Aubay (may God be pleased with him)?
Compilation of the Glorious Holy Qur’an
During the Life of our Beloved Prophet Muhammed peace be upon him the compilation of the Quran was completed for verses within chapters= Prophet Muhammed peace be upon him ordered his great Companions to put verses in the chorological order according to revelations. Each companion had been allocated some surahs=chapters to write and memorize of course.
Remember there was no electronic or digital form of recording, so part of teamwork, each companion of the prophet was allocated some chapters=Surahs to write down and memorize. Memorization and cross examination with each other. Additionally, all the companions’ memorization used to be cross examined by the Prophet himself peace be upon him.
Prophet Muhammed peace be upon him did not put all chapters of the Glorious holy Qur’an in One Book (Mushaf). Because he was not sure until the last minute before he passed away if there is more Quran to be revealed to him or not. Obviously by the passing of the last and final messenger and Prophet, no more divine revelations to be revealed in the world.
Then when The Great Caliph Abu Bakr followed, and some Hippocrates decided to fight Islam and Muslims and abstain from paying Zakat which was collected the Islamic Government of Abu Bakr.
He declared that they cannot be Muslims if they deny One the main pillars of Islam and stopped paying Zakat which goes to support the Islamic Army to defend Muslims and support the poor etc.
During Abu Bakr may Allah be pleased with him war against those Murtads (called apostates War) during that time many of the great hafiz from Companions who have memorized the Quran died – Such death of great companions who have memorized the whole Quran, made all the companions to start to worry and decided that there is a NEED to collect ALL the Surahs=Chapters of the Glorious holy Quran from ALL the Companions and put it ONE BOOK.
Especially that NO more Revelations after the passing of Prophet Muhammed peace be upon him. Abu Bakr may Allah be pleased with hm started the process by appointing one of the great companions Zayd Ibn Thabit to manage group of Companions –
Because he memorized the whole Glorious Quran and recited many times with prophet Muhammed personally and cross examined it and this is the first compilation of the Quran in one book with Surahs.
Misunderstandings about the nature of Uthman ibn Affân compilation of the Glorious holy Quran:
It is common between lots of Muslims and non-Muslims that Great companion Uthman ibn Affân compiled the Quran, and this is not very accurate.
In fact, he compiled the recitation of the Quran, which means due to the difference in Arabic accents (Ahruf) between Muslims from different Arabic tribes they start to pronounce the words of Quran differently.
Uthman ibn Affân may Allah be pleased with him decided that the recitation and how the reading of the Quranic words must be like the ones that were approved by the Prophet.
And therefore, he approved what is agreed upon and anyone start to innovate in the reading of the Quran he did not approve.
Nowadays some deviant people start to say that they want to recite the Quran like a song and even with a Music. That is what Uthman ibn Affan was fearing that people would innovate new wrong ways in recitation of the Glorious holy Quran.
Thank Allah exalted he, for those great efforts of the great companions of our beloved Prophet that we nowadays are unable to fully understand and appreciate.
Uthman ibn Affan and Abdullah Ibn Masood
All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and that Muhammad, Prophet, peace be upon him, is His slave and Messenger.
All Muslims are agreed that the Quran is what all the Companions of the Prophet, peace be upon him, firmly and solely declared to be the Quran exactly as they heard it from the Prophet, Prophet, peace be upon him. This happened during the era of the Caliph Othman Ibn Affan, may Allah be pleased with him.
In other words, the Quran is what is contained in the Mushaf that the Caliph Othman copied in the presence of the Companions of the Prophet, Prophet, peace be upon him, and dispatched it everywhere in the Muslim world at that time. Othman, may Allah be pleased with him, gave an order to destroy all remaining unauthentic copies of the Book.
So, the Quran reached us through an authentic chain which is supported by impeccable evidence. There can be no doubt about it.
In addition to this, the Quran cannot be considered as authentic unless the following three conditions are met:
1 It must be reported from its original source by such a large number of people who cannot be expected to agree on a lie.
2 Being in conformity in its transcription with the Othmani Mushaf.
3 Being in conformity with well-spoken Arabic language.
So, anything that is in the Mushaf of Abdullah Ibn Masood and not included in Othman’s Mushaf is not Quran like it was brought to us through the recurrence of unquestionable transmission.
Here are examples of additions found in Abdullah’s Mushaf: In Chapter (5:88) Abdullah read: “But whosoever cannot afford (that), then he should fast for three days (consecutive)”
This word “consecutive” is not found in Othman’s Mushaf. He also removed “Him who created” in the verse (92:3). Abdullah read “By the night as it envelops and by the day as it appears in brightness and by the male and female”. But the authentic and only true Mushaf of Othman includes the expression:
“By the night as it envelops and by the day as it appears in brightness and by the creation of male and female”. Abdullah’s Mushaf is different from the true Mushaf for one of the following two reasons:
1- Abdullah sometimes added an explanatory word or expression to say what he understood from the verse. In this case he did not add that because he thought it was from the Quran, but rather he wanted to clarify the meaning.
2- Abdullah might not have memorized the last presentation of the Quran so he might have unknowingly kept in his Mushaf what was abrogated in that last presentation.
The transcription of the Quran was committed by Othman to Zaid Ibn Thaabit, may Allah be pleased with him, who recited from memory the last presentation of the Quran to the Prophet, Prophet, peace be upon him, just before the Prophet’s death. Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood did not memorize this last presentation.
On the other hand, it is true that Abdullah ibn Mas’ood did not include the Fatiha=chapter the opener in his Mushaf as stated by authentic sources such as Al Qurtubi. Abdullah was once asked on why he did not include it in his Mushaf, and he replied that he was confident that all Muslims knew it by heart.
As for your question about Ubay’s way of reading the Quran, we would like to inform you that you are misinformed as there is no way of recitation attributed to Ubay Ibn Kaab.
However, there are some words that he is said to have read in a way different from the commonly known way. So, his case is similar to that of Abdullah ibn Mas’ood.
Finally, you should know, dear brother, that the qualified investigators in this field unanimously agree that both Abdullah ibn Mas’ood and Ubay ibn Ka’ab reverted to the Othmani Mushaf. The most sound evidence for this is that most recurring transmissions of the Quran’s recitation were related from these two eminent Scholars.
Also, we draw your attention that the real name of Ubay is Ubay ibn Ka’ab ibn Qays Al-Ansari Al-khazraji.
Someone yesterday asked to prove that the first Quran is the same as the Quran of today, here is proof:
- The earliest is found at the University of Birmingham, carbon dating proved it is about 1500 years old.
- At the Topkapi museum in Istanbul, a copy is on display a copy from the 8th century.
- The earliest Qurans were issued shortly after the death of the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him.
- Although every Muslim house may contain several copies of the Quran, the transmission of the Quran is done orally.
- Three-year-old boys start to memorise the Quran and usually finish by the age of ten.
- Muslims memorise several chapters from the Quran to perform their daily prayers.
- Unlike believers from other faiths, Muslim clerics are able to recite the complete Quran.
- During the month of fasting (Ramadan) Muslims are expected to recite all thirty chapters of the Quran, one chapter every day if they can perhaps more.
- There are committees of eminent Muslim scholars in every Muslim Country that revise every Quran before it is published to make sure it contains no spelling errors.
- Allah States is the Quran that He Will Save it. During the occupation of India, the British destroyed published Qurans that contained misspellings, they weren’t even Muslim!
- The Quran was transmitted in the Arabic language and to this day all Qurans are still printed in the same original language and is taught in the original language to Muslims regardless of their language of birth and with the same pronunciation.
The mere fact that it said that the carbon dating indicated 1500 years when Islam started 1444 years proves that the system used is not very reliable, however the script used was Kufi which was used at the time proves that it was from around that time, later another script was used which is called Naskh, later still another script is used called Riq’ah.
In any case, as I mentioned the Quran is learnt from a master and when the student becomes proficient, he becomes master and teaches other students.
In Islam we use a chain of masters to prove that the master teaching our children is proficient is pronunciation, and in the Arabic Grammar. We don’t learn from a book but from a master.
Every year people of all ages and ethnic background enter into a scheme to see who is the most proficient out of all.
Allah knows best.
Fatwa answered by: The Fatwa Center at Islamweb