Consensus that the Earth is round

Consensus that the Earth is round


Question

Is there consensus that the Earth is round? If there is, then what is the evidence from the Qur’an or Sunnah that the Earth is round, or egg shaped?

Answer

Praise be to Allah.

Note: Round does Not means 100% Circle but Circular spherical as evidenced this article

The Miracolous concept of Spread out and the Arabic word Dahaha دحاها

Some critics of Islam have hinted out that the Arabic word Dahaha دحاها consider the ONLY meaning of the Arabic word Dahaha دحاها is SPREAD OUT.

The following Quranic Verse:

 “As for the earth, He spread it out as well” Quran (79:30)

Well linguistically speaking Dahaha دحاها mainly means: SPREAD OUT AND spherical, oval or circular shape. The Arabic word Dahaha دحاها has the meaning of make it circular spherical shape by checking the root word Daha دحى and other variations in Arabic as per the screenshots below:

Direct active link to Al Maany Online Arabic Dictionary showing the meaning of the root word Daha دحى t mean make something eggshaped etc.

The trap that the Critics of Islam have placed for themselves:

Let us Assume that Dahaha دحاها means: SPREAD OUT only, well Since The Glorious Holy Qur’an is the Universal message to ALL mankind, which means The Glorious Holy Qur’an and every single verse of it is for all and every single human on Earth Planet Regardless of the location of this human.

When Allah Exalted, He send this Universal Quranic verse to every single human on Earth Planet: “As for the earth, He spread it out as well” Quran (79:30)

This means ALL and every single human on Earth planet will find that the Earth is SPREAD OUT to Him/her REGARDLESS of the Location which means that The Earth Does NOT have sharp Ended Edges, such as the shape of a square, rectangle, triangle, or any other shapes of form of ended Edges that goes against the Quranic Fact that the Earth is SPREAD OUT as per the Glorious Holy Verse:

“As for the earth, He spread it out as well” Quran (79:30)

If the Glorious Quran indicated that the Earth is flat, or has any sharp ended edges, mentioning that it is SPREAD OUT to ALL and every single Human on Earth Planet regardless of their location would not be valid, and that is not that case here.

Proof of the spherical shape of earth in the Holy Quran

Following some Quranic verses which proves beyond any reasonable doubts that Allah Exalted He tells us that Earth is NOT flat only or has any sharp ended Edges, the following Quranic verses need to be read and understood in conjunction the above-mentioned Quranic verse Quran (79:30)

The Holy Quran hinted at the spherical shape of earth in many ways such as:

  1. Sheikh Sharaawy, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “If you say earth is flat then it must occupy a specific area, so when you reach the edge of this area you will be at the border -after which there is only space- but God Almighty says: 

((We spread the earth)) which means that wherever you go on earth’s surface you will see earth spread out before you, so if you go to the south pole, you will see it spread out, if you go to the equator, you will see it spread out and so on and this can never happen except if earth has a spherical shape.

Consequently, when God says: ((We spread the earth)) this is a proof that earth is spherical in shape.

So, whoever explains this verse as a proof that earth is flat and considered the flat shape of earth as a fact ensured by the Holy Quran is totally mistaken so when science proves that earth is spherical, he had the illusion that there is a contradiction between science and religion.

In this case the role of ignorance becomes apparent when some people start to attack the Holy Quran, but if they would only dig a little bit deeper, they would definitely realize that the spherical shape of earth and its rotation were already mentioned in the Holy Quran.”

  • Sheikh Sharaawy, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “let’s consider the verse 5 in surah Az-Zumar where God Almighty says: ((He created the heavens and the earth with reason. He wraps the night around the day, and He wraps the day around the night. And He regulates the sun and the moon, each running along a specific course. He is indeed the Almighty, the Forgiver.)) – Surah Az-Zumar verse 5

Why did God Almighty use the word ((wraps…around))? We know that Gods’ words have to be perfectly precise so why would God use the word ((wraps…around)) and did not say spread out the night and day as long as earth is spread out or for example exchange day and night or any other similar expression?

If you (wrap) something around a sphere you would say that it is wrapped around the sphere which means you made it look like wrapped sphere and if you want a human to make something that looks like a sphere you would tell him to wrap it as a sphere, so he makes it look like a sphere and hence when God Almighty says: 

((wraps the night around the day, and He wraps the day around the night)) means to make them surround earth at all times which is considered as a Quranic miracle. God Almighty did not say ((wraps the night around the day)) and then ((wraps the day around the night)).

But He says ((wraps the night around the day, and He wraps the day around the night)) which means that both day and night co-exist at the same time around the spherical earth…That’s what the Holy Quran said more than fourteen hundred years ago, a fact only lately known to mankind.

  • God says: ((It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor does the night outstrip the day. They float each in an orbit.)) – Surah Yassin verses from 36 to 40 The statement ((nor does the night outstrip (precede) the day)) was revealed to rectify a false notion that prevailed among the early Arabs. It negates something which was not true, although it appeared to be so.

And which therefore needed to be rectified. The Arabs used to say that night always preceded day. Their ‘day’ began with sunset and accordingly the month of Ramadan was confirmed after the sunset of the last day of Sha’ban. But if night preceded day, as the Arabs said, then day could never precede night.

Here we are faced with two statements: the first is that night precedes day, and the second is that day can never precede night. Allah did not refer to the latter statement because it was a true fact; but He corrected the former which was indeed a misconception affirming that ((nor does the night outstrip the day)).

With this answer, Allah affirms that day and night are always present, simultaneously, on both hemispheres. At the same time, He has provided the evidence that the earth is a sphere, for the phenomenon of day and night occurring simultaneously could never happen otherwise. Allah used the correction to tell us more about the earth.

If the earth had been created flat the sun would have been facing the upper surface at the moment of creation, and consequently day would have occurred first; but if, on the other hand, the sun had been facing the lower surface, then night would have occurred first. But Allah states in the above verse that both day and night have been created at the same time.

His saying that neither one preceded the other proves that the earth was created as a sphere, because this is the only shape which allows such a phenomenon to occur. Thus in a few words Allah has revealed to mankind a scientific fact which had remained a mystery for centuries until He deemed it suitable to make it available to science.

Noble Quranic verses 13:3, 20:53 and 15:19 in which God Almighty says that He has spread out the Earth could very well be referring to the spreading out of the continents.   Geologists and archaeologists believe that the Earth’s land-masses were once a single land mass they call Pangea, the super-continent.  Over time, the land was stretched apart into different continents.

This gradual movement of tectonic plates is also the cause of many mountain ranges.   Is it any surprise that God mentions the mountains right after He mentions the “stretching” or “spreading out” of the land?

As for the “flattening” of the Earth, it should be noted that the fact that the Earth’s diameter is longer at the equator than between the poles is caused by Earth’s rotation (At least that appears to be conventional wisdom at this time).  If the Earth were to start spinning faster, it would theoretically get “flatter” or in other words, its ellipsoid properties would be more pronounced.


  • God says: ((And you see the hills you deem solid flying with the flight of clouds: the doing of Allah Who perfects all things)) – Surah al-NamI verse 88.


Mountains are considered to be a kind of stabilizing mass which eliminates the vibration and swaying of the earth. Their massiveness gives the beholder the impression that the earth is motionless and still.

Allah tells us ((you deem)) to dispel such false notions and illuminate our perception, Allah tells us in the above verse that the mountains which may seem to us to be stationary and immobile are in fact moving in the same manner as the clouds sailing above them. But how?

We all know that the wind is the force behind the movement of the clouds. But because the mountains are rooted in the earth they can move only if the earth on which they sit is moving. Nor are the mountains moving slowly; they are ((flying with the flight of clouds.)) Thus in a few words Allah provided science with the established fact that the earth is a sphere which rotates in space.

The word ((solid)) in the above verse needs some explanation for it unfolds a second scientific fact concerning the sensation of motionlessness which one experiences when there is no other body in relation to which it would be possible to estimate the movement of one body. The verse explains our inability to sense the movement of the earth.

The fact that to the beholder, the mountains and the earth are all rotating together, and the absence of a stable background against which he could contrast their movement, make the sensation of immobility quite real. This sensation is felt most acutely when one is flying in an aeroplane. If the aeroplane is flying at a very high altitude beyond all atmospheric disturbances, with all windows sealed, and vibration nonexistent, it becomes difficult to sense the movement or speed of the plane.

This is the sensation implied in the word ((solid)). Allah is actually giving us the reasons underlying our inability to sense or detect the movement of the earth and the mountains sitting on it simply by watching them; the fact that we are all rotating together, and the absence of a contrasting background that can be observed with the naked eye, make the mountains seem to be solid and still.

Allah, anticipating that the knowledge imparted in the above verse would be perplexing, asks us – in this verse ­ not to wonder at His accomplishments: ((…the doing of Allah Who perfects all things)

More than one of the scholars have narrated that there is consensus that the Earth is round.

Note: Round does Not means 100% Circle but Circular spherical as evidenced below and above in this article

For example: 

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) narrated that from Abu’l-Husayn ibn al-Munaadi (may Allah have mercy on him), when he said: 

Imam Abu’l-Husayn Ahmad ibn Ja‘far ibn al-Munaadi narrated from the prominent scholars who are well known for knowledge of reports and major works in religious sciences, from the second level of Ahmad’s companions, that there was no difference of opinion among the scholars that the sky is like a ball. 

He said: Similarly, they were unanimously agreed that the Earth, with all that is contains of land and sea is like a ball. He said: That is indicated by the fact that the sun, moon and stars do not rise and set over those who are in different parts of the earth at the same time; rather that occurs in the east before it occurs in the west.

End quote from Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa (25/195) 

He (may Allah have mercy on him) was asked about two men who disputed about the nature of heaven and earth: were they both round bodies? One of them said that they were, but the other denied that and said there is no basis for that. What is the correct view? 

He replied: 

The heavens are round, according to the Muslim scholars. More than one of the scholars and Muslim leaders narrated that the Muslims are unanimously agreed on that, such as Abu’l-Husayn Ahmad ibn Ja‘far ibn al-Munaadi, one of the leading figures among the second level of the companions of Imam Ahmad, who wrote approximately four hundred books.

Consensus on this point was also narrated by Imam Abu Muhammad ibn Hazm and Abu’l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi. The scholars narrated that with well-known chains of narration (isnaads) from the Sahaabah and Taabi‘een, and they quoted that from the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger. They discussed that in detail with orally transmitted evidence.

There is also mathematical evidence to that effect, and I do not know of anyone among the well-known Muslim scholars who denied that, apart from a few of those who engaged in arguments who, when they debated with the astrologers denied it for the sake of argument and said:

It may be square or hexagonal and so on. They did not deny that it could be round, but they said that the opposite of that was possible. I do not know of anyone who said that it is not round – with any certainty – apart from some ignorant people to whom no one pays any attention.

End quote from Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa (6/586) 

Abu Muhammad ibn Hazm (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Evidence for the earth being round: 

Abu Muhammad said: We are going to discuss some of the arguments against the idea that the earth is round.

They said: There is sound evidence that the earth is round, but the common folk say otherwise. Our response – and Allah is the source of strength – is that none of the leading Muslim scholars who deserve to be called imams or leaders in knowledge (may Allah be pleased with them) denied that the earth is round, and there is no narration from them to deny that.

Rather the evidence in the Qur’an and Sunnah stated that it is round. … and he quoted evidence to that effect.

End quote from al-Fasl fi’l-Milal wa’l-Ahwa’ wa’l-Nihal (2/78) 

The evidence that the earth is round includes the following: 

Note: Round does Not means 100% Circle but Circular spherical as evidenced below and above in this article

Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):

“He created the heavens and earth for a true purpose; He wraps the night around the day and the day around the night”

Quran [az-Zumar 39:5]. 

Ibn Hazm and others quoted this verse as evidence. 

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

The earth is round, based on the evidence of the Qur’an, reality, and scientific views. 

The evidence of the Qur’an is the verse in which Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):

“He created the heavens and earth for a true purpose; He wraps the night around [yukawwir] the day and the day around the night”

Quran [az-Zumar 39:5].

The word yukawwir (translated here as “wraps around” means to make something round, like a turban. It is well-known that night and day follow one another on earth, which implies that the Earth is round, because if you wrap one thing around another thing, and the thing that it is wrapped around is the Earth, then Earth must be round. 

Regarding real-life evidence, this has been proven. If a man were to fly from Jeddah, for example, heading west, he would come back to Jeddah from the east, if he flew in a straight line. This is something concerning which no one differs. 

Regarding the words of the scholars, they stated that if a man died in the west at sunset, and another died in the west at sunset, and there was some distance between them, the one who died in the west at sunset would inherit from the one who died in the east at sunset, if he was one of his heirs.

This indicates that the earth is round, because if the earth were flat, sunset in all regions would occur at the same time. Once this is established, no one can deny it. This is not contradicted by the verses in which Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): 

“Do they not look at the camels, how they are created?

And at the heaven, how it is raised?

And at the mountains, how they are rooted and fixed firm?

And at the earth, how it is spread out?”

Quran [al-Ghaashiyah 88:17-20]

Because the Earth is huge and its curvature cannot be seen from a short distance, it appears to be spread out and one cannot see anything that would make one fear living on it, but this does not contradict the fact that it is round, because it is very big. However, they say that it is not evenly round; rather it is indented or pushed in at the north and south poles. Hence, they say that it is egg-shaped.

End quote from Fataawa Noor ‘ala ad-Darb 

Thus it is known that the Earth is round, and that is not contradicted by the fact that it is like an egg. Rather the false view is that which claims that it is flat, as the Church used to believe and for that reason used to curse and burn those scientists who said that it was round. 

See: al-‘Almaaniyyah: Nash’atuha wa Tatawwuruha (1/130) 

SHAPE OF THE EARTH IS SPHERICAL


In early times, people believed that the earth was flat. For centuries, men were afraid to venture out too far, for fear of falling off the edge! Sir Francis Drake was the first person who proved that the earth is spherical when he sailed around it in 1597. Consider the following Qur’anic verse regarding the alternation of day and night:


اَلَمْ تَرَ اَنَّ اللّٰهَ يُوْ لِجُ الَّيْلَ فِي النَّهَارِ وَيُوْ لِجُ النَّهَارَ فِي الَّيْلِ
“See you not that Allah merges Night into Day and He merges Day into Night?” (Al-Qur’an 31:29)
Merging here means that the night slowly and gradually changes to day and vice versa. This phenomenon can only take place if the earth is spherical.

If the earth was flat, there would have been a sudden change from night to day and from day to night. The following verse also alludes to the spherical shape of the earth:
خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالْاَرْضَ بِالْحَـقِّ ۚ يُكَوِّرُ الَّيْلَ عَلَي النَّهَارِ وَيُكَوِّرُ النَّهَارَ عَلَي الَّيْلِ


“He created the heavens and the earth in true (proportions): He makes the Night overlap the Day, and the Day overlap the Night.” (Al-Qur’an 39:5)


The Arabic word used here is Kawwara meaning ‘to overlap’ or ‘to coil’– the way a turban is wound around the head. The overlapping or coiling of the day and night can only take place if the earth is spherical.


The earth is not exactly round like a ball, but geo-spherical, i.e. it is flattened at the poles. The following verse contains a description of the earth’s shape:
وَالْاَرْضَ بَعْدَ ذٰلِكَ دَحٰىهَا


“And the earth, moreover, hath He made egg shaped.” (Al-Qur’an 79:30)


The Arabic word for egg here is dahaahaa (the Arabic word dahaahaa has been translated by A. Yusuf
Ali as “vast expanse”, which also is correct. This word also means an ostrich-egg) which means an ostrich-egg. The shape of an ostrich-egg resembles the geo-spherical shape of the earth.


Thus the Qur’an correctly describes the shape of the earth, though the prevalent notion when the Qur’an was revealed was that the earth was flat.
(from The Quran and Modern Science, Compatible or Incompatible? by Dr. Zakir Abdul Karim Naik

The Quran Described the Spherical Shape of the Earth and the Light of the Moon being Reflected …

What does Science tells us:

The Scientic Confirms that the Earth shape is NOT 100% Circle But A LITTLE Bit dented towards the North and South Polar and LITTLE Bit Flattened towards the Equator Know by The Equatorial bulge.

The Earth has a rather slight equatorial bulge: it is about 43 km (27 mi) wider at the equator than pole-to-pole, a difference which is close to 1/300 of the diameter. If the Earth were scaled down to a globe with diameter of 1 meter at the equator, that difference would be only 3 millimeters.

Reference: https://www.space.fm/astronomy/earthmoonsun/earthshape.html

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And Allah knows best.