The Five Pillars of Islam in The Glorious Qur’an

𝐓𝐡𝐞 𝐅𝐢𝐯𝐞 𝐏𝐢𝐥𝐥𝐚𝐫𝐬 𝐨𝐟 𝐈𝐬𝐥𝐚𝐦 𝐢𝐧 𝐓𝐡𝐞 𝐆𝐥𝐨𝐫𝐢𝐨𝐮𝐬 𝐐𝐮𝐫’𝐚𝐧



Mohamad Mostafa Nassar

Twitter:@NassarMohamadMR

Introduction:

The ritual obligations of Muslims in Islam are called the Five Pillars of Islam. They are acknowledged and practiced by Muslims throughout the world, notwithstanding their disparities. They are compulsory for any Muslim who genuinely wish to pursue a life like that which Prophet Muhammed led the last and final Prophet of God to mankind, which was a prudent and mindful life as instructed by Almighty Allah the only true diety worthy of worship.

However, that does not imply that all individuals who regard themselves as Muslims necessarily observe them. Individual participation can vary depending on the individual’s faith; for example, not every individual prays every day, keeps the fast, performs the pilgrimage (Hajj), or donates extensively to charity.

Shortly after Muslim Arabs conquests to new terrains, Muslims started raising mosques and castles and commissioning different commemorations and artifacts as articulations of Islamic faith and culture. The religious practice of Islam, which signifies submission to God, depends on fundamentals that are known as the Five Pillars. 

Each of the five pillars is alluded to in the Glorious Quran, though in various chapters/Surahs. Further insights concerning these commitments are given in the Hadith.

Though comparable practices were performed in pre-Islamic Arabia and by Some of the Jews and Christians who abided by the true messages of Prophet Moses and Prophet Jesus son of Mary, at the time of Prophet Muhammed, the monotheistic practices were confirmed in the Glorious Quran and Hadith, given a carefully monotheistic center, and identified with the life of the Prophet. However any Polytheistic parctices practice by anyone one was rejected in Islam.

In the Glorious Quran, in spite of the fact that the testimony of faith/shahada show up in different noble Qur’anic verses as demonstrated below, Quran 8:20 also urges the individuals who accept to obey God and his Messenger.

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

O believers! Obey Allah and His Messenger and do not turn away from him while you hear ˹his call˺. Quran (8:20)

And

Prayer is alluded to multiple times, with prayer times referenced

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

So be patient ˹O Prophet˺ with what they say. And glorify the praises of your Lord before sunrise and before sunset, and glorify Him in the hours of the night and at both ends of the day,1 so that you may be pleased ˹with the reward˺. Quran (20:130)

And

The demonstrations of bowing and prostrating:

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“Muḥammad is the Messenger of Allah. And those with him are firm with the disbelievers1 and compassionate with one another. You see them bowing and prostrating2 ˹in prayer˺, seeking Allah’s bounty and pleasure. The sign ˹of brightness can be seen˺ on their faces from the trace of prostrating ˹in prayer˺. This is their description in the Torah.3 And their parable in the Gospel is that of a seed that sprouts its ˹tiny˺ branches, making it strong. Then it becomes thick, standing firmly on its stem, to the delight of the planters4—in this way Allah makes the believers a source of dismay for the disbelievers.5 To those of them who believe and do good, Allah has promised forgiveness and a great reward.” Quran 48.29.

In a few chapters, Muslims are urged both to pray and give alms which is the convent that children of Israel failed to uphold, however what, when and to whom gifts ought to be made is clarified in more detail in the hadith

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“Allah made a covenant with the Children of Israel and appointed twelve leaders from among them and ˹then˺ said, “I am truly with you. If you establish prayer, pay alms-tax, believe in My messengers, support them, and lend to Allah a good loan, I will certainly forgive your sins and admit you into Gardens under which rivers flow. And whoever among you disbelieves afterwards has truly strayed from the Right Way.” Quran (5:12)

There is a critical entry on fasting in the Quran (Quran 2:183-187), which alludes to the period of Ramadan and sets out the detail on who ought, and ought not fast, to a certain extent under specific conditions. The Fasting section can be viewed below in detail

Regarding the matter of the pilgrimage=Hajj, the longest Quranic section (Quran 2:196-203) recommends the destination location of the pilgrimage, the lead and exercises of the individuals who participate, urging them to have God as a top priority consistently The pilgrimage section can be viewed below in detail

Unlike many humans who judge others based on how they look like or how much wealth they have, we are starting here by demonstrating the standards that Allah Exalted He consider, before we delve into the main topic of the five pillars of Islam in the Glorious holy Quran and authentic Sunnah

Equality Before Allah Regardless of Gender, Race, Color or Ethnicity:

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

Surely ˹for˺ Muslim men and women, believing men and women,1 devout men and women, truthful men and women, patient men and women, humble men and women, charitable men, and women, fasting men and women, men and women who guard their chastity, and men and women who remember Allah often—for ˹all of˺ them Allah has prepared forgiveness and a great reward.  Quran (33:35)

And

“O humanity! Indeed, we created you from a male and a female, and made you into peoples and tribes so that you may ˹get to˺ know one another. Surely the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous among you. Allah is truly All-Knowing, All-Aware.1 “Quran (49:13)

Usually, many non-Muslims as part of challenging Muslims, they tend to ask about the whereabouts of the five pillars of Islam in the Glorious Quran, which is in fact reflect lack of understanding about the fact that Islam has not only the Glorious Quran as the first divine source, but also, we have the second divine source of Islam which is the authentic statements of Prophet Muhammed peace be upon him ‘ known by Hadith’.

Many non-Muslims would insist on the evidence to be from the Glorious Quran alone, however it is not up to them to put terms and conditions about the location of Islamic evidence and whether it is in the Glorious Quran or authentic Statements of The Prophet known as ‘Hadith’.

We as Muslims present the authentic Islamic evidence from both or one of these two divine sources and it is up to them to accept it or reject, but not to dictate which source should we give them the evidence from.

The Five Pillars of Islam (arkān al-Islām أركان الإسلام; also arkān ad-dīn أركان الدين “pillars of the religion”) are fundamental practices in Islam, considered to be obligatory acts of worship for all Muslims. They are summarized in the famous hadith of Gabriel.

Direction of Prayers:

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“Indeed, We see you ˹O Prophet˺ turning your face towards heaven. Now We will make you turn towards a direction ˹of prayer˺ that will please you. So turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque ˹in Mecca˺—wherever you are, turn your faces towards it. Those who were given the Scripture certainly know this to be the truth from their Lord. And Allah is never unaware of what they do.’ Quran (2:144)

Location of The Sacred House where Prayers are directed Towards:

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“Surely the first House ˹of worship˺ established for humanity is the one at Bakkah—a blessed sanctuary and a guide for ˹all˺ people. In it are clear signs and the standing-place of Abraham. Whoever enters it should be safe. Pilgrimage to this House is an obligation by Allah upon whoever is able among the people.1 And whoever disbelieves, then surely Allah is not in need of ˹any of His˺ creation. Quran (3:96-97)

Narrated Abu Huraira:

One day while the Prophet (ﷺ) was sitting in the company of some people, (The angel) Gabriel came and asked, “What is faith?” Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) replied, ‘Faith is to believe in Allah, His angels, (the) meeting with Him, His Apostles, and to believe in Resurrection.”

Then he further asked, “What is Islam?” Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) replied, “To worship Allah Alone and none else, to offer prayers perfectly to pay the compulsory charity (Zakat) and to observe fasts during the month of Ramadan.”

Then he further asked, “What is Ihsan (perfection)?” Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) replied, “To worship Allah as if you see Him, and if you cannot achieve this state of devotion then you must consider that He is looking at you.” Then he further asked, “When will the Hour be established?” Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) replied, “The answerer has no better knowledge than the questioner. But I will inform you about its portents.

1. When a slave (lady) gives birth to her master.

2. When the shepherds of black camels start boasting and competing with others in the construction of higher buildings. And the Hour is one of five things which nobody knows except Allah.

The Prophet (ﷺ) then recited: “Verily, with Allah (Alone) is the knowledge of the Hour–.” (31. 34) Then that man (Gabriel) left and the Prophet (ﷺ) asked his companions to call him back, but they could not see him. Then the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “That was Gabriel who came to teach the people their religion.” Abu ‘Abdullah said: He (the Prophet) considered all that as a part of faith.

Reference: Sahih al-Bukhari 50

In-book reference: Book 2, Hadith 43

USC-MSA web (English) reference: Vol. 1, Book 2, Hadith 48

In Islam, faith and good works go together.  A mere verbal declaration of faith is not enough, for belief in Allah makes obedience to Him a duty.   Only when your practice is consistent with your profession will you be a true Muslim. 

Faith in Allah will be your strength, and the Qur’an your guide. This is one of the reasons that in multiple verses in the Glorious Quran, usually when Allah Exalted calls starts a verse by “those who believed” usually it is followed by “and made good deeds”

Allah Exalted He said in the Glorious Quran:

“As for those who believe and do good, the Most Compassionate will ˹certainly˺ bless them with ˹genuine˺ love.” Quran (19:96)

The Muslim concept of worship is very broad.  Muslims consider everything they do in this life according to Allah’s will, an act of worship.  Speaking the truth, refraining from gossip, dealing honestly in commercial affairs, treating one’s parents with respect and honor, helping the poor and needy, dealing lovingly and fairly with family members – whatever is done for the sake of Allah is called worship.

Worship of Allah is foremost in a Muslim’s mind all the time.  There are also five formal acts of worship which help strengthen a Muslim’s faith and obedience.  They are often called the “Five Pillars of Islam.”

Testimony of Faith (Shahada)

This is simply the declaration, “I bear witness that there is no deity but Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammed is His servant and messenger.”  As mentioned previously, all of Islam is based on faith in the Unity of God.  When one declares this statement, one testifies to the Unity of Allah, and to the message of the Prophethood. 

When one bears witness that Muhammed is His messenger, one is confirming that all of the prophets before him were also His messengers – Allah is One and His message is one.  A person becomes a Muslim when he or she declares this statement with purity of heart and conviction of faith.

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

Allah ˹Himself˺ is a Witness that there is no god ˹worthy of worship˺ except Him—and so are the angels and people of knowledge. He is the Maintainer of justice. There is no god ˹worthy of worship˺ except Him—the Almighty, All-Wise. Quran (3:18)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“Say, ˹O Prophet, ˺ “He is Allah—One ˹and Indivisible˺; Allah—the Sustainer ˹needed by all˺.

He has never had offspring, nor was He born. And there is none comparable to Him.”1” (Quran 112:1-4)


And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“Your God is ˹only˺ One God. There is no god ˹worthy of worship˺ except Him—the Most Compassionate, Most Merciful.” Quran (2:163)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

 “‘It is truly I. I am Allah! There is no god ˹worthy of worship˺ except Me. So worship Me ˹alone˺, and establish prayer for My remembrance. Quran (20:14)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“and sent to them a messenger from among themselves, ˹declaring,˺ “Worship Allah ˹alone˺. You have no god other than Him. Will you not then fear ˹Him˺?” Quran (23:32)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“Allah! There is no god ˹worthy of worship˺ except Him, the Ever-Living, All-Sustaining. Neither drowsiness nor sleep overtakes Him. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who could possibly intercede with Him without His permission? He ˹fully˺ knows what is ahead of them and what is behind them, but no one can grasp any of His knowledge—except what He wills ˹to reveal˺. His Seat1 encompasses the heavens and the earth, and the preservation of both does not tire Him. For He is the Most High, the Greatest. Let there be no compulsion in religion, for the truth stands out clearly from falsehood.1 So whoever renounces false gods and believes in Allah has certainly grasped the firmest, unfailing hand-hold. And Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.” Quran (2:255-256)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“Muḥammad is not the father of any of your men,1 but is the Messenger of Allah and the seal of the prophets. And Allah has ˹perfect˺ knowledge of all things. Quran (33:40)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

The ˹true˺ believers are only those who believe in Allah and His Messenger—never doubting—and strive with their wealth and their lives in the cause of Allah. They are the ones true in faith. Quran (49:15)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

You have an excellent model in the Messenger of Allah, for all who put their hope in Allah and the Last Day and remember Allah much. Quran (33:21)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“He is Allah—there is no god ˹worthy of worship˺ except Him: Knower of the seen and unseen. He is the Most Compassionate, Most Merciful.” Quran (59:22)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“He is Allah—there is no god except Him: the King, the Most Holy, the All-Perfect, the Source of Serenity, the Watcher ˹of all˺, the Almighty, the Supreme in Might,1 the Majestic. Glorified is Allah far above what they associate with Him ˹in worship˺! He is Allah: the Creator, the Inventor, the Shaper. He ˹alone˺ has the Most Beautiful Names. Whatever is in the heavens and the earth ˹constantly˺ glorifies Him. And He is the Almighty, All-Wise. Quran (59:23-24)

Prayer (Salah)

Formal prayer is the most important act of worship; it is mankind’s connection to Allah through which one gathers strength, guidance, and peace of mind.  Islam prescribes five formal prayers daily, through which Muslims repeat and refresh their beliefs, taking time out of their busy day to remember Allah and renew the effort to follow His guidance. 

Five times each day (before dawn, noon, afternoon, after sunset, and evening) Muslims rise, cleanse with water, and present themselves directly before Allah for prayer.

Far from being a ritualistic and mindless activity, prayer constantly reminds us of the purpose of life itself, refreshes our faith, and keeps our belief in Allah alive and ever-present. 

We go back to our worldly affairs conscious of our duties and strengthened against sin.  Prayers said in congregation bond Muslims together in love and brotherhood.  Prayer also symbolizes the equality of believers; there is no hierarchy, and all stand side-by-side in rows and bow only to Allah.

Aside from the five formal prayers each day, Muslims begin and complete every activity with Allah ever-present in their minds.  The words “Bismillah” (In the name of Allah) precedes every action, and “Alhamdulilah” (Thanks be to Allah) completes it.  Muslims also make private supplications, and words in praise of Allah fall constantly off one’s lips.

Fasting (Sawm)

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

” O believers! Fasting is prescribed for you—as it was for those before you1—so perhaps you will become mindful ˹of Allah˺.˹Fast a˺ prescribed number of days.1 But whoever of you is ill or on a journey, then ˹let them fast˺ an equal number of days ˹after Ramaḍân˺. For those who can only fast with extreme difficulty,2 compensation can be made by feeding a needy person ˹for every day not fasted˺. But whoever volunteers to give more, it is better for them. And to fast is better for you, if only you knew. Ramaḍân is the month in which the Quran was revealed as a guide for humanity with clear proofs of guidance and the standard ˹to distinguish between right and wrong˺. So, whoever is present this month, let them fast. But whoever is ill or on a journey, then ˹let them fast˺ an equal number of days ˹after Ramaḍân˺. Allah intends ease for you, not hardship, so that you may complete the prescribed period and proclaim the greatness of Allah for guiding you, and perhaps you will be grateful.” (Qur’an 2:183-185).

What the prayers seek to do five times a day, fasting in the month of Ramadan (9th month of the lunar year) does once a year.  During this month, Muslims do not eat anything nor drink even a drop of water during the daylight hours. 

Each moment during the fast, we suppress our desires and remember Allah alone.  This places in us a consciousness of duty and a spirit of patience that helps strengthen faith in Allah.  

Discipline and hardship during this month bring us face to face with the realities of life and the suffering of so many throughout the year.  The whole month is filled with increased devotion, piety, and purity of mind, soul, and body.

Almsgiving (Zakat)

Every Muslim whose financial conditions are above a certain specified minimum, must pay annually at least 2.5% of his savings to a deserving needy person, a new convert to Islam, a traveler, or one overwhelmed by debts.  This fosters in a Muslim the quality of sacrifice and rids one of selfishness, greed, and vanity.  As all wealth is a gift from Allah, one has the duty to help his needy brethren when he is able.

Almsgiving (Zakat) is based on the net wealth, after paying all overhead costs, Almsgiving (Zakat) is not calculated on the total income basis.

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

 “Establish prayer, pay alms-tax,1 and bow down with those who bow down.” Quran (2:43)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“But if they repent, perform prayer, and pay alms-tax, then they are your brothers in faith. This is how We make the revelations clear for people of knowledge.” Quran (9:11)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“O believers! Indeed, many rabbis and monks consume people’s wealth wrongfully and hinder ˹others˺ from the Way of Allah. Give good news of a painful torment to those who hoard gold and silver and do not spend it in Allah’s cause.” Quran (9:34)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

Alms-tax is only for the poor and the needy, for those employed to administer it, for those whose hearts are attracted ˹to the faith˺, for ˹freeing˺ slaves, for those in debt, for Allah’s cause, and for ˹needy˺ travellers. ˹This is˺ an obligation from Allah. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.” Quran (9:60)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“Establish prayer, and pay alms-tax. Whatever good you send forth for yourselves, you will ˹certainly˺ find ˹its reward˺ with Allah. Surely Allah is All-Seeing of what you do.” Quran (2:210)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“The mosques of Allah should only be maintained by those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, establish prayer, pay alms-tax, and fear none but Allah. It is right to hope that they will be among the ˹truly˺ guided.” Quran (9:18)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

˹They are˺ those who, if established in the land by Us, would perform prayer, pay alms-tax, encourage what is good, and forbid what is evil. And with Allah rests the outcome of all affairs.” Quran (22:41)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“Righteousness is not in turning your faces towards the east or the west. Rather, the righteous are those who believe in Allah, the Last Day, the angels, the Books, and the prophets; who give charity out of their cherished wealth to relatives, orphans, the poor, ˹needy˺ travellers, beggars, and for freeing captives; who establish prayer, pay alms-tax, and keep the pledges they make; and who are patient in times of suffering, adversity, and in ˹the heat of˺ battle. It is they who are true ˹in faith˺, and it is they who are mindful ˹of Allah˺.” Quran (2:177)

Pilgrimage (Hajj)

Once in a lifetime, a Muslim who is financially and physically able must go on the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, during the month of Hajj (12th month of the lunar year).  Mecca is the spiritual center of the Muslim world.  It was here that Abraham built the first house of worship (the Kaaba), towards which all Muslims stand in unity in their daily prayers.  

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

” Surely the first House ˹of worship˺ established for humanity is the one at Bakkah—a blessed sanctuary and a guide for ˹all˺ people. In it are clear signs and the standing-place of Abraham. Whoever enters it should be safe. Pilgrimage to this House is an obligation by Allah upon whoever is able among the people.1 And whoever disbelieves, then surely Allah is not in need of ˹any of His˺ creation. (Qur’an 3:96-97)

When this house was desecrated into a center of pagan worship, it was the prophet Muhammed that cleansed it of its 300+ idols and rededicated it to the worship of Allah alone.

All pilgrims dress in pure white cloth, and are required to suppress passion, refrain from any bloodshed, and be pure in word and deed.  

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“Complete the pilgrimage and minor pilgrimage for Allah.1 But if prevented ˹from proceeding˺, then ˹offer˺ whatever sacrificial animals you can afford. And do not shave your heads until the sacrificial animal reaches its destination. But if any of you is ill or has a scalp ailment ˹requiring shaving˺, then compensate either by fasting, charity, or a sacrificial offering. In times of peace, you may combine the pilgrimage and minor pilgrimage then make the sacrificial offering you can afford. Whoever cannot afford that ˹offering˺, let them fast three days during pilgrimage and seven after returning ˹home˺—completing ten. These offerings are for those who do not live near the Sacred House. And be mindful of Allah, and know that Allah is severe in punishment. ˹Commitment to˺ pilgrimage is made in appointed months.1 Whoever commits to ˹performing˺ pilgrimage, let them stay away from intimate relations, foul language, and arguments during pilgrimage. Whatever good you do, Allah ˹fully˺ knows of it. Take ˹necessary˺ provisions ˹for the journey˺—surely the best provision is righteousness. And be mindful of Me, O  people of reason! There is no blame on you for seeking the bounty of your Lord ˹during this journey˺.1 When you return from ’Arafât,2 praise Allah near the sacred place3 and praise Him for having guided you, for surely before this ˹guidance˺ you were astray.Qur’an (2:196-198)

And

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“Indeed, ˹the hills of˺ Ṣafa and Marwah1 are among the symbols of Allah. So, whoever performs the pilgrimage or minor pilgrimage,2 let them walk between ˹the two hills˺. And whoever does good willingly, Allah is truly Appreciative, All-Knowing.” Quran (2:158)

The pilgrimage is a great international conference, wherein all people, kings or peasants, black or white, stand before Allah as equals.  During the ten days of the annual pilgrimage, several million Muslims from all over the world, of all nations, languages, and colors come together in the largest spiritual gathering of the world.

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“And ˹remember˺ when We made the Sacred House1 a centre and a sanctuary for the people ˹saying˺, “˹You may˺ take the standing-place of Abraham2 as a site of prayer.” And We entrusted Abraham and Ishmael to purify My House for those who circle it, who meditate in it, and who bow and prostrate themselves ˹in prayer˺. And ˹remember˺ when Abraham said, “My Lord, make this city ˹of Mecca˺ secure and provide fruits to its people—those among them who believe in Allah and the Last Day.” He answered, “As for those who disbelieve, I will let them enjoy themselves for a little while, then I will condemn them to the torment of the Fire. What an evil destination!” And ˹remember˺ when Abraham raised the foundation of the House with Ishmael, ˹both praying,˺ “Our Lord! Accept ˹this˺ from us. You are indeed the All-Hearing, All-Knowing. Our Lord! Make us both ˹fully˺ submit to You1 and from our descendants a nation that will submit to you. Show us our rituals, and turn to us in grace. You are truly the Accepter of Repentance, Most Merciful. Our Lord! Raise from among them a messenger who will recite to them Your revelations, teach them the Book and wisdom, and purify them. Indeed, You ˹alone˺ are the Almighty, All-Wise.” Quran (2:125-129)

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

And

And

Prayer (Salah) and Almsgiving (zakat)

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“Indeed, those who believe, do good, establish prayer, and pay alms-tax will receive their reward from their Lord, and there will be no fear for them, nor will they grieve.”Quran (2:277)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“And ˹remember˺ when Abraham raised the foundation of the House with Ishmael, ˹both praying,˺ “Our Lord! Accept ˹this˺ from us. You are indeed the All-Hearing, All-Knowing. Our Lord! Make us both ˹fully˺ submit to You1 and from our descendants a nation that will submit to you. Show us our rituals, and turn to us in grace. You are truly the Accepter of Repentance, Most Merciful.” (Quran 2:127-128)

Five daily Prayers (Salah) Times in The Glorious Quran:  

Salāt can indeed be found five times within the Glorious Holy Qur’an. Salāt ul-Fajr (17:78, 24:58), Salāt ul-Zhur (17:78), Salāt ul-Asr (11:114). Salāt ul-Maghrib (11:114), Salāt ul-’Ishā’ (17:78).

Fajr is the 1st,Dhuhr the 2nd obligatory prayer is the prayer that is performed in the middle of the day, Asr is the 3rd Maghrib is the 4th prayer and the one that is at the end of the day, and Isha the 5th prayer, is the prayer that is at the first part of the night.

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“And glorify Him morning and evening [the early morning (Fajr) and ‘Asr prayers].  Quran (33:42)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“Observe the ˹five obligatory˺ prayers—especially the middle prayer1—and stand in true devotion to Allah. Quran (2:238)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“Observe the prayer from the decline of the sun until the darkness of the night and the dawn prayer, for certainly the dawn prayer is witnessed ˹by angels˺.1Quran (17:78)

And

Allah Exalted He says in the Glorious Quran:

“Establish prayer ˹O Prophet˺ at both ends of the day and in the early part of the night.1 Surely good deeds wipe out evil deeds. That is a reminder for the mindful.” Quran (11:114) 

Allah knows Best

The six pillars of Imaan (Faith)

Pillars of Islam In the Quran

The Shahadah: The First Pillar of Islam in The Glorious Qur’an

Five Pillars of Islam in the Bible – Islam in the Bible

Why Is Prophet Muhammad Mentioned in the Shahadah?

Does the Quran Specifically Refer to the Five Daily Prayers?

Are the five daily prayers mentioned in the Qur’ân?

What Are the Times of the Five Daily Prayers?