𝐉𝐢𝐳𝐲𝐚 𝐢𝐧 𝐉𝐮𝐝𝐚𝐢𝐬𝐦 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐂𝐡𝐫𝐢𝐬𝐭𝐢𝐚𝐧𝐢𝐭𝐲
Jizya across the Islamic History
Mohamad Mostafa Nassar
This is not a secret that enemies of Islam have always been busy 24/7/365 spreading lies, disinformation, and distortion against Islam, especially Jews and Christians. The topic and/or issue of Jizya جزية (in Islam) is one of the topics and/or issues that have been exploited overwhelmingly by the Jews and Christians, mainly, by their clergy.
The irony of this unjust and absurd bigotry is that Jews and Christians (including their clergy) have successfully concealed the fact that Jizya is also a part of their creed found in the Bible, but it is absolutely inhuman. In the treatise, I will Insha’Allah=Allah willing present the evidence from the very Bible (Old Testament & New Testament) unveiling the dark faces of Judaism and Christianity.
We find the mention of Jizya جزية in Old Testament and New Testament (both), therefore, I will begin citing from Old Testament first. Please be advised that in the table right side are the quotes from Arabic Bible and left side are from the English translation, which has further distorted the meaning.
We know that Bible was translated in Arabic first around the advent of Islam. However, English translation of the Bible was not done until 15th century. Christian English translators have deliberately distorted many words in an attempt to be competitive with Islam. Because they knew that Islam is the threat for their falsehood.
Jizya جزية in Old Testament
Genesis 49:15 And he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute.
تكوين 49:15 فرأى المحلّ انه حسن والارض انها نزهة.فاحنى كتفه للحمل وصار للجزية عبدا.
Joshua 16:10 And they drave not out the Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer: but the Canaanites dwell among the Ephraimites unto this day and serve under tribute.
يشوع 16:10 فلم يطردوا الكنعانيين الساكنين في جازر.فسكن الكنعانيون في وسط افرايم الى هذا اليوم وكانوا عبيدا تحت الجزية
Joshua 17:13 Yet it came to pass, when the children of Israel were waxen strong, that they put the Canaanites to tribute; but did not utterly drive them out.
شوع 17:13 وكان لما تشدد بنو اسرائيل انهم جعلوا الكنعانيين تحت الجزية ولم يطردوهم طردا
Judges 1:28 And it came to pass, when Israel was strong, that they put the Canaanites to tribute, and did not utterly drive them out.
قضاة 1:28 وكان لما تشدد اسرائيل انه وضع الكنعانيين تحت الجزية ولم يطردهم طردا.
2 Samuel 20:24 And Adoram was over the tribute: and Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud was recorder:
2 صموئيل 20:24 وادورام على الجزية ويهوشافاط بن اخيلود مسجلا
Ezra 4:13 Be it known now unto the king, that, if this city be builded, and the walls set up again, then will they not pay toll, tribute, and custom, and so thou shalt endamage the revenue of the kings.
عزرا 4:13 ليكن الآن معلوما لدى الملك انه اذا بنيت هذه المدينة وأكملت اسوارها لا يؤدون جزية ولا خراجا ولا خفارة فاخيرا تضر الملوك.
Ezra 4:20 There have been mighty kings also over Jerusalem, which have ruled over all countries beyond the river; and toll, tribute, and custom, was paid unto them.
عزرا 4:20 وقد كان ملوك مقتدرون على اورشليم وتسلطوا على جميع عبر النهر وقد أعطوا جزية وخراجا وخفارة.
tribute beyond the river, forthwith expenses be given unto these men, that they be not hindered.
عزرا 6:8 وقد صدر مني أمر بما تعملون مع شيوخ اليهود هؤلاء في بناء بيت الله هذا.فمن مال الملك من جزية عبر النهر تعط النفقة عاجلا لهؤلاء الرجال حتى لا يبطلوا.
Esther 10:1 And the king Ahasuerus laid a tribute upon the land, and upon the isles of the sea.
استير 10:1 ووضع الملك احشويروش جزية على الارض وجزائر البحر.
Proverbs 12:24 The hand of the diligent shall bear rule: but the slothful shall be under tribute.
امثال 12:24 يد المجتهدين تسود.اما الرخوة فتكون تحت الجزية.
Jizya جزية in New Testament
Matthew 17:25 He saith, Yes. And when he was come into the house, Jesus prevented him, saying, What thinkest thou, Simon? of whom do the kings of the earth take custom or tribute? of their own children, or of strangers?
متى 17:25 قال بلى.فلما دخل البيت سبقه يسوع قائلا ماذا تظن يا سمعان.ممن ياخذ ملوك الارض الجباية او الجزية أمن بنيهم ام من الاجانب.
Matthew 22:17 Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not?
متى 22:17 فقل لنا ماذا تظن.أيجوز ان تعطى جزية لقيصر ام لا.
Matthew 22:19 Shew me the tribute money. And they brought unto him a penny.
متى 22:19 أروني معاملة الجزية.فقدموا له دينارا.
Mark 12:14 And when they were come, they say unto him, Master, we know that thou art true, and carest for no man: for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth: Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not?
مرقس 12:14 فلما جاءوا قالوا له يا معلّم نعلم انك صادق ولا تبالي باحد لانك لا تنظر الى وجوه الناس بل بالحق تعلّم طريق الله.أيجوز ان تعطى جزية لقيصر ام لا.نعطي ام لا نعطي.
Luke 20:22 Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar, or no?
لوقا 20:22 أيجوز لنا ان نعطي جزية لقيصر ام لا.
Luke 23:2 And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ a King.
لوقا 23:2 وابتدأوا يشتكون عليه قائلين اننا وجدنا هذا يفسد الامة ويمنع ان تعطى جزية لقيصر قائلا انه هو مسيح ملك.
رومية 13:6 فانكم لاجل هذا توفون الجزية ايضا.اذ هم خدام الله مواظبون على ذلك بعينه.
Romans 13:7 Render therefore to all their dues: tribute to whom tribute is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honour to whom honour.
رومية 13:7 فاعطوا الجميع حقوقهم.الجزية لمن له الجزية.الجباية لمن له الجباية.والخوف لمن له الخوف والاكرام لمن له الاكرام
At this point I must point out that Jesus in the New Testament commanded to pay Jizya جزيةtoCaesar, as we read in the New Testament,
Matthew 22:17 Tell us therefore,
What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not?
Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar, or no?
And he said unto them,
The above evidence from the New Testament also constitutes that Jesus was not for freedom, sovereignty and liberty of Jews and/or Christians. Jesus endorsed occupation of Romans and/or living under Roman occupation rather being sovereign and free. That would lead us to ask what these Jews and Christians are [and/or have been
Unlike Islam that give a complete freedom to its subjects under Islamic state, Judeo-Christian laws of Jizya جزية also comes with package deals like:
Slaves, obey your earthly masters with deep respect and fear. Serve them sincerely as you would serve Christ. (Ephesians 6:5 NLT)
Christians who are slaves should give their masters full respect so that the name of God and his teaching will not be shamed. If your master is a Christian, that is no excuse for being disrespectful. You should work all the harder because you are helping another believer by your efforts. Teach these truths, Timothy, and encourage everyone to obey them. (1 Timothy 6:1-2 NLT)
The servant will be severely punished, for though he knew his duty, he refused to do it. “But people who are not aware that they are doing wrong will be punished only lightly. Much is required from those to whom much is given, and much more is required from those to whom much more is given.” (Luke 12:47-48 NLT)
The following passage shows that slaves are clearly property to be bought and sold like livestock. And they falsely accuse Islam for slavery!
However, you may purchase male or female slaves from among the foreigners who live among you. You may also purchase the children of such resident foreigners, including those who have been born in your land. You may treat them as your property, passing them on to your children as a permanent inheritance. You may treat your slaves like this, but the people of Israel, your relatives, must never be treated this way. (Leviticus 25:44-46)
Rape of Female Captives (Deuteronomy 21:10-14)
Rape and the Spoils of War (Judges 5:30)
Sex Slaves (Exodus 21:7-11)
God Assists Rape and Plunder (Zechariah 14:1-2)
I must also point out to the readers the other words used in different English translations (of the Bible) for Jizya جزية:
NIV forced laborer
ASV become servant to do the task word
(Nice ways to put it to be politically correct)
NAS forced laborer
NKJV forced laborer
(trib’-ut) (mac, “tribute,” really meaning “forced laborers,” “labor gang” (1 Kings 4:6; 9:15,21); also “forced service,” “serfdom”; possibly “forced payment” is meant in Est 10:1; the idea contained in the modern word is better given by middah (Ezra 6:8; Neh 5:4)): Words used only of the duty levied for Yahweh on acquired spoils are mekhec, “assessment” (Num 31:28,37-41), belo, “excise” (Ezra 4:13,20; Neh 7:24), massa’, “burden” (2 Chron 17:11), and `onesh, “fine”
(from International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, Electronic Database Copyright (c)1996 by Biblesoft)
A compulsory fee or financial contribution levied on an inferior by a superior ruler or nation. Before the establishment of the United Kingdom under David and Solomon, the judge Ehud brought tribute money to Eglon, the king of Moab (Judg 3:15-18).
During the time of the United Kingdom, Israel was strong and received tribute. David received tribute from Moab and Syria (2 Sam 8:2,6; 1 Chron 18:2,6), and Solomon accepted tribute from “all kingdoms from the River [Euphratesl to the land of the Philistines, as far as the border of Egypt” (1 Kings 4:21).
After the division of the kingdom in 931 B.C., King Ahab of the northern kingdom of Israel received tribute from the king of Moab (2 Kings 3:4-5). In the southern kingdom of Judah, Jehoshaphat received tribute from the Philistines and the Arabians (2 Chron 17:11). Uzziah also forced the Ammonites to pay tribute to Judah (2 Chron 26:8).
Even more is reported in the Bible about Israel and Judah paying tribute to foreign nations. Israel’s king Jehoash paid tribute to Hazael of Syria to prevent attack (2 Kings 12:17-18). Hoshea paid tribute to Shalmaneser of Assyria (2 Kings 17:3). Judah’s King Ahaz sent tribute to Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria (2 Kings 16:7-8). King Hezekiah paid tribute to Sennacherib of Assyria (2 Kings 18:13-16).
Jehoiakim paid tribute to Pharaoh Necho of Egypt just before Judah was captured by Babylon (2 Kings 23:33-35). Although Israel was supposed to depend only on God for protection, the nation occasionally depended on foreign kings, paying heavily in tribute
(from Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Copyright (c)1986, Thomas Nelson Publishers)
The irony of Judeo-Christians attacks on Islam based on absolute disinformation and misrepresentation of the truth is that, their clergy and/or churches and temples are perpetrating them. The Christian clergy and Rabbis with degrees in divinity, theology, comparative religions and scriptures uttering absolute lies 24/7/365 in their sermons,
and on TV (religious) and through their audiotapes, videos and books parrot this disinformation to their audiences; rather telling the truth that Judaism and Christianity also have Jizya جزية, which is worst and humiliating to the dignity of mankind contrary to Islam.
In fact, fear mongering by using Islam and/or Muslims has become a multibillion-dollar business in USA alone, which subsequently creates and/or implants the seeds of personal bias and hatred against Islam and Muslims.
And to further spice things up some pseudo-events are often created around the world that are latter used as pretext[s] to attack Islam and Muslims. After the end of cold war West needed another enemy, which they have found under the pretext of Islam and Muslims. I will conclude my treatise quoting Samuel P. Huntington,
“The West won the world not by the superiority of its ideas or values or religion but rather by its superiority in applying organized violence. Westerners often forget this fact, non-Westerners never do.”
Non-Muslims under Islamic ruling don’t HAVE to pay it. They can join Muslims in defense of the land if they choose. If they don’t want to defend the land, they themselves live in then they pay the Jizya. How different is that the concept of the ‘peace core’ as implemented by the USA during the Vietnam war?
It is exactly the same concept – fight for your country or pay some compensation for not fighting.
In fact, Islam allowed for the faith of others which could have disallowed people of other faiths from fighting. Isn’t it better than forcing them to fight?
Missionaries have made a big deal of the Jizya despite it actually being an act of good and mercy upon the non-Muslims who live under Islamic rule
Till this day, in Egypt for example, Christians are not judged in courts of Law according to the normal laws we are judged by, they are judged according to the laws that the CHURCH in Egypt stipulates.
Can a Muslim in the democratic USA demand be to be tried according to Islamic laws rather than the constitution of the USA ?
I really am sometimes amazed at how we can do good to others and find this good being thrown back in our faces and described as an act of evil.
Jizya=Tax paid by non-Muslim citizens living under Islamic law/Sharia Law – Quran (9:29)
“Fight those who do not believe in Allah, nor in the latter day, nor do they prohibit what Allah and His Apostle have prohibited, nor follow the religion of truth, out of those who have been given the Book, until they pay the tax in acknowledgment of superiority, and they are in a state of subjection” Quran (9:29)
In the early days, Jizya was a tribute paid by nations which had fallen under Islamic rule, which was common practice in the old days. And it is to this that Quran is referring to. Later, Jizya became an individual tax paid by non-Muslim citizens: males who could afford it, who are not required to serve in the Muslim army.
Non-Muslims living under a fully Islamic laws, are NOT obliged to pay any of the Islamic religious takes such as the annual wealth-based tax also known by Almsgiving=obligatory charity=Zakat.
In Islam, paying the annual mandatory Almsgiving=Charity=Zakah tax which one of the five pillar of Islam, which is Wealth based tax and NOT income-based tax is compulsory
According to the Hanafi madhab, zakat is 2.5% of wealth that has been in one’s possession for a lunar year, one that wealth reaches the threshold or exceeds the religious definition of under the poverty line annual income. If wealth amounts to less than a threshold figure, termed the threshold= nisab, then no zakat is payable. If wealth amounts to more than the threshold= nisab, zakat becomes obligatory.
According to the Hanafi madhab, zakat is 2.5% of wealth that has been in one’s possession for a lunar year. If wealth amounts to less than a threshold figure, termed the nisab, then no zakat is payable. If wealth amounts to more than the nisab, zakat becomes obligatory.
There is no separation between religion and state in Islam. The US government, on the other hand, is a secular government. We can argue till the cows come home which system of governance is better, but that would get us nowhere. An Islamic state does acknowledge that its non-Muslim minority is not bound by divine laws as the Muslims are.
Therefore, it would be unethical for a Muslim government to ask for charity dues from non-Muslims in whose religion it is not compulsory to give charity. Furthermore, it is immoral to ask a Buddhist, for example, who believes in non-violence to be drafted into the army.
You must agree that if only Muslim citizens pay charity dues and serve in the army and non-Muslims don’t have to do anything, it would be unfair. Hence, non-Muslims (usually males who could afford) were asked to pay a poll tax instead, which by most historical accounts was one gold dinar maximum per year, as compared to the 2.5% of their entire worth that Muslims must pay each year.
Even so, Caliph Omar on his deathbed left the following instruction: “I instruct you to be good to the Dhimmis [non-Muslims] for they are your responsibility. Do not tax them beyond their capacity. Ensure that they pay the Jizya without undue inconvenience…
Regarding the people, I enjoin upon you to administer justice with an even hand. See that all the legitimate requirements of the people are met. Be concerned for their welfare. Ensure the safety of their person and property…Treat all the people as equal.
Be a pillar of strength for those who are weak and oppressed. Those who are strong but do wrong, make them pay for their wrong-doings.” You can find the complete test of his message at this web site:
Furthermore, if any non-Muslim tribes agreed to serve in the military or agreed to pay the Zakat (charity which Muslims pay) they were excluded from paying Jizya.
Allah knows Best.
Bible Commands Christians to Pay Jizyah Tax.
Jizya across the Islamic History
The Truth About Jizyah
The reality of “Jizya”
Non-Muslims Paying Jizyah In a State of Humiliation?
I would encourage you to read this insightful article: Churchs Do NOT Pay Taxes
(1) – “Prophet Muhammed’s Charity To Non-Muslims“
(2) – “Generosity Towards Non-Muslim Neighbours”
(3) – “Social Conditions: Christians And Jews In Early Period Of Islam”
(4) – “The Relationship Of The Muslim With Non-Muslims”
(5) – “What Does Islam Teach about Justice?”
(6) – “Early Expeditions And Battles Of Islam“
(7) – “Most Misinterpreted Verses Of The Quran?“
Understanding Quran 9:29 In Light of The Earliest Historical Sources of Islam