𝐃𝐨𝐞𝐬 𝐐𝐮𝐫𝐚𝐧 (𝟐:𝟔𝟐) 𝐬𝐚𝐲 𝐭𝐡𝐚𝐭 𝐞𝐯𝐞𝐧 𝐍𝐨𝐧-𝐌𝐮𝐬𝐥𝐢𝐦𝐬 𝐰𝐢𝐥𝐥 𝐛𝐞 𝐬𝐮𝐜𝐜𝐞𝐬𝐬𝐟𝐮𝐥 𝐢𝐧 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐡𝐞𝐫𝐞𝐚𝐟𝐭𝐞𝐫?
Mohamad Mostafa Nassar
If we look at the context of the verse…:
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالنَّصَارَى وَالصَّابِئِينَ مَنْ آَمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآَخِرِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
Those who believe (in the Qur’an), and those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Christians and the Sabians,- any who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and work righteousness, shall have their reward with their Lord; on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. (2: 62)
…we come to know this is a part of the section actually addressed to the Jews who had made their faith more of a racist i.e. excluding creed and believed (and they still believe) that only Jews would enter the Blissful Paradise.
Even the Christians have the idea of Vicarious Atonement that suggests that only by belief in Christ one can find salvation otherwise, they say, ‘all your deeds are like filthy rags.’ I remember never in my discussions I found even a single Christian, not even priests, able to categorically explain as to what will happen to those who passed away before Christ’s (PBUH) birth including the Jewish Prophets.
Here the Quran dispels the notion of attributing any such idea to the Noble Faith of Islam for its taste is different. The Jews i.e. Israelites before Christ (PBUH) who believed in Allah and the Last Day were in fact Muslims and thus in the Hereafter, they’ll earn the reward for their Faith and deeds.
The same goes for the Christians before the Last Prophet (PBUH) declared his prophethood and the Sabians as well (we cannot with utmost surety say who they actually were).And this is supported by the reports about the point of revelation of this Ayah.
𝐈𝐛𝐧 𝐊𝐚𝐭𝐡𝐢𝐫 𝐰𝐢𝐭𝐡 𝐫𝐞𝐟𝐞𝐫𝐞𝐧𝐜𝐞 𝐭𝐨 𝐈𝐛𝐧 𝐀𝐛𝐢 𝐇𝐚𝐭𝐢𝐦 𝐧𝐚𝐫𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐬:
…قال سلمان: سألت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عن أهل دين كنت معهم، فذكرتُ من صلاتهم وعبادتهم، فنزلت
‘Salman Farisi (RA) said, ‘This verse was revealed when I made a mention of the of the prayers and fasting of those believers whom I had met before coming to the Holy Prophet (PBUH)’..(Ibn Kathir in his commentary to this verse)
(If we recall the story of Salman Farisi (RA) then we see that it goes exactly in line with what is written above)
𝐏𝐫𝐞𝐫𝐞𝐪𝐮𝐢𝐬𝐢𝐭𝐞 𝐟𝐨𝐫 𝐒𝐚𝐥𝐯𝐚𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐠𝐨𝐨𝐝 𝐝𝐞𝐞𝐝𝐬 𝐨𝐟 𝐧𝐨𝐧-𝐌𝐮𝐬𝐥𝐢𝐦𝐬:
To have an understanding of what the Quran says about goody-goody Jews & Christians, we need to go through the rest of the Quran and authentic Ahadith.
وَمَنْ يَبْتَغِ غَيْرَ الْإِسْلَامِ دِينًا فَلَنْ يُقْبَلَ مِنْهُ وَهُوَ فِي الْآَخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ
“If anyone desires a religion other than Islam, never will it be accepted of him; and in the Hereafter He will be in the ranks of those who have lost (All spiritual good).” (3:85)
عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّهُ قَالَ وَالَّذِي نَفْسُ مُحَمَّدٍ بِيَدِهِ لَا يَسْمَعُ بِي أَحَدٌ مِنْ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ يَهُودِيٌّ وَلَا نَصْرَانِيٌّ ثُمَّ يَمُوتُ وَلَمْ يُؤْمِنْ بِالَّذِي أُرْسِلْتُ بِهِ إِلَّا كَانَ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّارِIt is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) observed: By Him in Whose hand is the life of Muhammad, he who amongst the community of Jews or Christians hears about me, but does not affirm his belief in that with which I have been sent and dies in this state (of disbelief), he shall be but one of the denizens of Hell-Fire. (Sahih Muslim, Hadith 218)
This is conclusive!
GOOD DEEDS OF NON-BELIEVERS: About their good deeds like charity etc Insha’Allah they’ll be rewarded in this world e.g. Mother Tresa got the goodwill and admiration from all people.
But the verse and Hadith above make it clear that a person who has known about the Holy Prophet (PBUH) for him belief in his prophethood along with all the fundamentals is an absolute necessity for salvation.
We may understand it as if good deeds are decimal powers and Faith in Fundamentals are Natural Numbers varying according to the quality of the belief. So the decimal power (the good deeds) is of no use unless there is at least 1 in the leftmost place.
𝐓𝐰𝐨 𝐨𝐭𝐡𝐞𝐫 𝐩𝐨𝐬𝐬𝐢𝐛𝐥𝐞 𝐪𝐮𝐞𝐫𝐢𝐞𝐬 𝐚𝐧𝐬𝐰𝐞𝐫𝐞𝐝
1)Now one may say that here only belief in Allah and the Last Day are mentioned and not the Articles of Faith like belief in the Prophets etc. But the fact of the matter is here the style and context convey that enumerating the Articles of Faith is not the thing dwelt at.
Any such idea is in direct clash with the numerous verses of the Quran and how can one believe in Allah and the Last Day without belief in the Prophets, Angles, and the Revealed Scripts?
Further Belief in Allah is the first of the fundamental beliefs and faith in the Last Day is the last of the fundamentals and the Quran here tells in its unique style that its a must to believe in all the articles from the first to the last.
2)Why are the Muslims mentioned along with Jews, Christians, and Sabeans, isn’t it known that they believe in Allah and all the rest of the fundamentals? Keeping in view the rich Quranic style we see that its just like a King making a new Law that says that it is applicable to all the subjects impartially and whoever will obey them will have its reward irrespective of the fact if he was previously a friend or a foe.
Hope that helps!
INDEED ALLAH KNOWS THE BEST!
…by Waqar Akbar Cheema
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