𝐃𝐢𝐝 𝐏𝐫𝐨𝐩𝐡𝐞𝐭 𝐌𝐮𝐡𝐚𝐦𝐦𝐚𝐝 𝐜𝐮𝐫𝐬𝐞 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐨𝐫𝐩𝐡𝐚𝐧 𝐠𝐢𝐫𝐥?
Mohamad Mostafa Nassar
Br. Bassam Zawadi
𝐅𝐢𝐫𝐬𝐭, 𝐛𝐞𝐟𝐨𝐫𝐞 𝐰𝐞 𝐝𝐢𝐬𝐜𝐮𝐬𝐬 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐦𝐢𝐬𝐜𝐨𝐧𝐜𝐞𝐩𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 𝐭𝐡𝐚𝐭 𝐏𝐫𝐨𝐩𝐡𝐞𝐭 𝐌𝐮𝐡𝐚𝐦𝐦𝐞𝐝 𝐩𝐞𝐚𝐜𝐞 𝐛𝐞 𝐮𝐩𝐨𝐧 𝐡𝐢𝐦 𝐜𝐮𝐫𝐬𝐞, 𝐰𝐞 𝐧𝐞𝐞𝐝 𝐭𝐨 𝐫𝐞𝐚𝐝 𝐰𝐡𝐚𝐭 𝐏𝐫𝐨𝐩𝐡𝐞𝐭 𝐌𝐮𝐡𝐚𝐦𝐦𝐞𝐝 𝐩𝐞𝐚𝐜𝐞 𝐛𝐞 𝐮𝐩𝐨𝐧 𝐡𝐢𝐦 𝐡𝐢𝐦𝐬𝐞𝐥𝐟 𝐬𝐚𝐢𝐝:
𝐇𝐚𝐝𝐢𝐭𝐡 𝐨𝐧 𝐂𝐡𝐚𝐫𝐚𝐜𝐭𝐞𝐫: 𝐇𝐨𝐧𝐨𝐫 𝐠𝐮𝐞𝐬𝐭𝐬, 𝐨𝐫𝐩𝐡𝐚𝐧𝐬, 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐲𝐨𝐮𝐫 𝐧𝐞𝐢𝐠𝐡𝐛𝐨𝐫𝐬
Al-Sa’ib ibn Abdullah reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said to him, “O Sa’ib, look at the character of your deeds in the time of ignorance and continue them in Islam: honor the guest, be generous to the orphan, and be good to your neighbor.”
Source: Musnad Aḥmad 15074
Grade: Rijal al-Sahih (narrators are reliable) according to Al-Haythami
عَنِ السَّائِبِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ قَالَ قَالَ لَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَا سَائِبُ انْظُرْ أَخْلَاقَكَ الَّتِي كُنْتَ تَصْنَعُهَا فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ فَاجْعَلْهَا فِي الْإِسْلَامِ أَقْرِ الضَّيْفَ وَأَكْرِمْ الْيَتِيمَ وَأَحْسِنْ إِلَى جَارِكَ
15074 مسند أحمد مسند المكيين
8/193 المحدث الهيثمي خلاصة حكم المحدث رجال رجال في مجمع الزوائد
𝐇𝐚𝐝𝐢𝐭𝐡 𝐨𝐧 𝐑𝐢𝐠𝐡𝐭𝐬: 𝐆𝐮𝐚𝐫𝐝𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐫𝐢𝐠𝐡𝐭𝐬 𝐨𝐟 𝐰𝐨𝐦𝐞𝐧, 𝐜𝐡𝐢𝐥𝐝𝐫𝐞𝐧, 𝐨𝐫𝐩𝐡𝐚𝐧𝐬
Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “O Allah, I have issued a warning in regards to the rights of two vulnerable groups: orphans and women.”
Source: Sunan Ibn Mājah 3678
Grade: Sahih (authentic) according to Al-Suyuti
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أُحَرِّجُ حَقَّ الضَّعِيفَيْنِ الْيَتِيمِ وَالْمَرْأَةِ
3678 سنن ابن ماجه كتاب الأدب باب حق اليتيم
2636 المحدث السيوطي خلاصة حكم المحدث صحيح في التنوير شرح الجامع الصغير
𝐇𝐚𝐝𝐢𝐭𝐡 𝐨𝐧 𝐎𝐫𝐩𝐡𝐚𝐧𝐬: 𝐓𝐡𝐞 𝐏𝐫𝐨𝐩𝐡𝐞𝐭 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐜𝐚𝐫𝐞𝐭𝐚𝐤𝐞𝐫𝐬 𝐭𝐨𝐠𝐞𝐭𝐡𝐞𝐫 𝐢𝐧 𝐏𝐚𝐫𝐚𝐝𝐢𝐬𝐞
Sahl ibn Sa’d reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Myself and the caretaker of an orphan will be in Paradise like this,” and he held his two fingers together.
Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 5659
Grade: Sahih (authentic) according to Al-Bukhari
عَنْ سَهْل بْن سَعْدٍ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ أَنَا وَكَافِلُ الْيَتِيمِ فِي الْجَنَّةِ هَكَذَا وَقَالَ بِإِصْبَعَيْهِ السَّبَّابَةِ وَالْوُسْطَى
5659 صحيح البخاري كتاب الأدب باب فضل من يعول يتيما
𝐇𝐚𝐝𝐢𝐭𝐡 𝐨𝐧 𝐎𝐫𝐩𝐡𝐚𝐧𝐬: 𝐂𝐚𝐫𝐞 𝐟𝐨𝐫 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐨𝐫𝐩𝐡𝐚𝐧𝐬, 𝐟𝐫𝐞𝐞 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐬𝐥𝐚𝐯𝐞𝐬
Malik ibn Al-Harith reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Whoever embraces an orphan of two Muslim parents by feeding him and giving him drink until he is independent of him, Paradise will certainly be necessary for him. Whoever emancipates a Muslim man, he will be his freedom from the Hellfire; he will be rewarded for every limb of his in equal measure.”
Source: Musnad Aḥmad 19855
Grade: Sahih li ghayri (authentic due to external evidence) according to Al-Albani
عَنْ مَالِكِ بْنِ الْحَارِثِ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ مَنْ ضَمَّ يَتِيمًا بَيْنَ أَبَوَيْنِ مُسْلِمَيْنِ إِلَى طَعَامِهِ وَشَرَابِهِ حَتَّى يَسْتَغْنِيَ عَنْهُ وَجَبَتْ لَهُ الْجَنَّةُ الْبَتَّةَ وَمَنْ أَعْتَقَ امْرَأً مُسْلِمًا كَانَ فِكَاكَهُ مِنَ النَّارِ يُجْزَى بِكُلِّ عُضْوٍ مِنْهُ عُضْوًا مِنْهُ
19855 مسند أحمد بن حنبل مسند العشرة المبشرين بالجنة
2543 المحدث الألباني خلاصة حكم المحدث صحيح لغيره في صحيح الترغيب
𝐇𝐚𝐝𝐢𝐭𝐡 𝐨𝐧 𝐎𝐫𝐩𝐡𝐚𝐧𝐬: 𝐁𝐞 𝐤𝐢𝐧𝐝 𝐭𝐨 𝐨𝐫𝐩𝐡𝐚𝐧𝐬 𝐟𝐨𝐫 𝐚 𝐬𝐨𝐟𝐭 𝐡𝐞𝐚𝐫𝐭
Abu Darda reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Bring the orphan close to you, pat his head, and feed him with the same food you eat. It will soften your heart and fulfill your need.”
Source: Makārim al-Akhlāq lil-Kharā’iṭī 661
Grade: Hasan (fair) according to Al-Albani
عَنْ أَبِي الدَّرْدَاءِ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَدْنِ الْيَتِيمَ مِنْكَ وَامْسَحْ بِرَأْسِهِ وَأَطْعِمْهُ مِنْ طَعَامِكَ يَلِنْ قَلْبُكَ وَتَقْدِرْ عَلَى حَاجَتِكَ
661 مكارم الأخلاق للخرائطي
250 المحدث الألباني خلاصة حكم المحدث حسن في صحيح الجامع
𝐍𝐨𝐰 𝐭𝐨 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐦𝐚𝐢𝐧 𝐐𝐮𝐞𝐬𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐜𝐥𝐚𝐢𝐦 𝐚𝐛𝐨𝐮𝐭 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐜𝐮𝐫𝐬𝐞 𝐨𝐟 𝐚𝐧 𝐎𝐫𝐩𝐡𝐚𝐧 𝐆𝐢𝐫𝐥
Anas b. Malik reported that there was an orphan girl with Umm Sulaim (who was the mother of Anas).
Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) saw that orphan girl and said:
O, it is you; you have grown young. May you not advance in years! That slave girl returned to Umm Sulaim weeping.
Umm Sulaim said:
O daughter, what is the matter with you? She said: Allah’s Apostle (ﷺ) has invoked curse upon me that I should not grow in age and thus I would never grow in age, or she said, in my (length) of life.
Umm Sulaim went out wrapping her head-dress hurriedly until she met Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ). He said to her: Umm Sulaim, what is the matter with you? She said:
Allah’s Apostle, you invoked a curse upon my orphan girl. He said: Umm Sulaim, what is that? She said: She (the orphan girl) states you have cursed her saying that she might not grow in age or grow in life. Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) smiled and then said: Umm Sulaim, don’t you know that I have made this term with my Lord?
And the term with my Lord is that I said to Him: 1 am a human being and I am pleased just as a human being is pleased and I lose temper just as a human being loses temper, so for any person from amongst my Ummah whom I curse and he in no way deserves it, let that, O Lord, be made a source of purification and purity and nearness to (Allah) on the Day of Resurrection.
(Sahih Muslim 2603)
Do we have more details about how that orphan girl made him lose his temper?
𝐃𝐞𝐭𝐚𝐢𝐥𝐬 𝐨𝐟 𝐀𝐫𝐠𝐮𝐦𝐞𝐧𝐭
Addressing the Argument: Was Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) an Abusive Invoker of Curses?
The hadith literature portrays Muhammad as someone who abuses innocent people as could be seen in the following ahaadeeth:
A’isha reported that two persons visited Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) and both of them talked about a thing, of which I am not aware, but that annoyed him and he invoked a curse upon both of them and hurled malediction, and when they went out I said: Allah’s Messenger, the good would reach everyone but it would not reach these two.
Why so? I said: Because you have invoked curse and hurled malediction upon both of them.
He said: Don’t you know that I have made condition with my Lord saying thus: O Allah, I am a human being and that for a Muslim upon whom I invoke curse or hurl malediction make it a source of purity and reward. [Sahih Muslim, Book 32, Hadith 6285]
Salim, the freed slave of Nasriyyin, said: I heard Abu Huraira saying that he heard Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: O Allah, Muhammad is a human being.
I lose my temper just as human beings lose temper, and I have held a covenant with Thee which Thou wouldst not break:
For a believer whom I give any trouble or invoke curse or beat, make that an expiation (of his sins and a source of) his nearness to Thee on the Day of Resurrection. [Sahih Muslim, book 32, Hadith 6293]
Anas b. Malik reported that there was an orphan girl with Umm Sulaim (who was the mother of Anas).
Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) saw that orphan girl and said: O, it is you; you have grown young. May you not advance in years!
That slave girl returned to Umm Sulaim weeping. Umm Sulaim said: O daughter, what is the matter with you? She said:
Allah’s Apostle (ﷺ) has invoked a curse upon me that I should not grow in age and thus I would never grow in age, or she said, in my (length) of life.
Umm Sulaim went out wrapping her head-dress hurriedly until she met Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ). He said to her: Umm Sulaim, what is the matter with you?
She said: Allah’s Apostle, you invoked curse upon my orphan girl. He said: Umm Sulaim, what is that?
She said: She (the orphan girl) states you have cursed her saying that she might not grow in age or grow in life. Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) smiled and then said:
Umm Sulaim, don’t you know that I have made this term with my Lord?
And the term with my Lord is that I said to Him: I am a human being, and I am pleased just as a human being is pleased and I lose temper just as a human being loses temper.
So, for any person from amongst my Ummah whom I curse and he in no way deserves it, let that, O Lord, be made a source of purification and purity and nearness to (Allah) on the Day of Resurrection. [Sahih Muslim, Book 32, Hadith 6297]
𝐓𝐡𝐞 𝐏𝐫𝐨𝐩𝐡𝐞𝐭 (𝐩𝐞𝐚𝐜𝐞 𝐛𝐞 𝐮𝐩𝐨𝐧 𝐡𝐢𝐦) 𝐰𝐚𝐬 𝐍𝐎𝐓 𝐤𝐧𝐨𝐰𝐧 𝐭𝐨 𝐛𝐞 𝐚𝐧 𝐚𝐛𝐮𝐬𝐞𝐫:
Narrated Anas: Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) was neither a Fahish (one who had a bad tongue) nor a Sabbaba (one who abuses others)… [Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 8, Book 73, Hadith 72]
𝐒𝐨 𝐡𝐨𝐰 𝐝𝐨 𝐰𝐞 𝐭𝐡𝐞𝐧 𝐦𝐚𝐤𝐞 𝐬𝐞𝐧𝐬𝐞 𝐨𝐟 𝐭𝐡𝐢𝐬 𝐢𝐧 𝐥𝐢𝐠𝐡𝐭 𝐨𝐟 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐚𝐟𝐨𝐫𝐞𝐦𝐞𝐧𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧𝐞𝐝 𝐭𝐫𝐚𝐝𝐢𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧𝐬?
When it comes to the first hadeeth mentioned above, the Prophet (peace be upon him) could have sincerely made Ijtihaad and reached the conclusion that those two men were worthy of being cursed, for the Prophet (peace be upon him) could only judge by that which is apparent and doesn’t know that which is hidden .
What confirms the fact that the Prophet (peace be upon him) judges by the apparent and could possibly be mistaken in doing so is the following tradition:
Umm Salamah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “Verily, I am only a human, and the claimants bring to me (their disputes); perhaps some of them are more eloquent than others.
I judge according to what I hear from them). So, he whom I, by my judgment, (give the undue share) out of the right of a Muslim, I in fact give him a portion of (Hell) Fire”. [Reported in Bukhari and Muslim]
𝐇𝐞 𝐞𝐦𝐩𝐡𝐚𝐬𝐢𝐳𝐞𝐝 𝐭𝐡𝐚𝐭 𝐡𝐞 𝐝𝐨𝐞𝐬𝐧’𝐭 𝐣𝐮𝐝𝐠𝐞 𝐛𝐲 𝐰𝐡𝐚𝐭 𝐢𝐬 𝐨𝐧 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐢𝐧𝐬𝐢𝐝𝐞:
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: I have not been commanded to pierce through the hearts of people, nor to split their bellies (insides). [Sahih Bukhari, Book 5, Hadith 2319]
𝐀𝐬 𝐟𝐨𝐫 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐏𝐫𝐨𝐩𝐡𝐞𝐭’𝐬 (𝐩𝐞𝐚𝐜𝐞 𝐛𝐞 𝐮𝐩𝐨𝐧 𝐡𝐢𝐦) 𝐬𝐭𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐦𝐞𝐧𝐭:
“Don’t you know that I have made condition with my Lord saying thus:
O Allah, I am a human being and that for a Muslim upon whom I invoke curse or hurl malediction make it a source of purity and reward.”, this is in reference to those whom he has wrongly cursed.
This is due to the possibility that the outward state of the cursed person didn’t reflect his inward state, which is what the Prophet (peace be upon him) is judging upon.
Now we move on to the second and third ahaadeeth and the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) remark that he loses his temper just as any human being loses his temper.
This is to be understood as “anger for the sake of Allah” in the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) regard. It may be that the Prophet (peace be upon him) favored cursing the individual over punishing him for committing a sin.
Also, the Prophet (peace be upon him) is also pointing out to his Ummah that anger may at times result in crossing the bounds of Allah .
As mentioned earlier, it’s possible for the Prophet (peace be upon him) to be mistaken in his judgment and as a result of his mistake, Allah will transform his curse into a blessing upon the person.
So, at the end of the day, the Prophet (peace be upon him) is really hurting nobody unjustly.
It has also been suggested that what the Prophet (peace be upon him) was truly worried about was mistakenly saying something which appeared to be a curse – but actually wasn’t – actually befalling upon someone.
It was the habit of Arabs during that time to say things that appear to be a curse (but weren’t) in order to drive a certain point.
For example, we read in Sunan an-Nasa’i, Vol. 4, Book 26, Hadith 3232:
Narrated Abu Hurairah: It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said:
“Women are married for four things: their wealth, their nobility, their beauty, and their religious commitment. Choose the one who is religiously committed, may your hands be rubbed with dust.”
“Hands being rubbed with dust” entails one is so poor that he has nothing in his hands except for dust. In no way does anyone understand that the Prophet (peace be upon him) is praying for anyone to be poor, rather it’s a phrase Arabs were used to saying, whilst not intending it to be a prayer .
The phrase “may your hands be rubbed with dust” was used by the Prophet (peace be upon him) in different contexts and they weren’t meant to be a negative prayer upon the person .
Let’s look at another example from Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 2783:
A’isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported: We went with the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) and we did not see but that he (intended to perform) Hajj (only), but when we reached Mecca we circumambulated the House, and the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) commanded that he who did not have with him a sacrificial animal should put off Ihram.
She (A’isha) said: (And consequently) those who did not bring the sacrificial animals with them put off Ihram; and among his wives (too) who had not brought the sacrificial animals with them put off Ihram.
I entered my period and could not (therefore) circumambulate the House.
𝐖𝐡𝐞𝐧 𝐢𝐭 𝐰𝐚𝐬 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐧𝐢𝐠𝐡𝐭 𝐨𝐟 𝐇𝐚𝐬𝐛𝐚 𝐬𝐡𝐞 𝐬𝐚𝐢𝐝:
Messenger of Allah, people are coming back (after having performed both) Hajj and’Umra, whereas I am coming back only with Hajj, whereupon he said:
Did you not circumambulate (the Ka’ba) that very night we entered Mecca? She (A’isha) said: No, whereupon he said:
Go along with your brother to Tan’im and put on the Ihram for Umra, and it is at such and such a place that you can meet (us). (In the meanwhile) Safiyya (the wife of the Holy Prophet) said:
I think, I will detain you (since I have entered in the monthly) period, and you shall have to wait for me for the farewell circuit).
Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: May you be wounded, and your head shorn did you not circumambulate on the Day of Sacrifice (10th of Dhu’l-Hijja)?
She said: Yes. The Prophet (ﷺ) said: There is no harm. You should go forward. ‘A’isha said:
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) was going upwards to the side of Mecca, whereas I was coming down from it, or I was going upward, whereas he was coming down. Isbiq said: She was climbing down, and he was climbing down.
Once again we see the Prophet (peace be upon him) said something which apparently appears to be a curse of some sort… “May you be wounded, and your head shorn”.
However, if we take it literally, we are left scratching our heads wondering why the Prophet (peace be upon him) would curse his wife when the entire context of the story shows that she did absolutely nothing wrong!
Clearly, this wasn’t literal as this phrase over time with the Arabs was not being used in a literal fashion anymore .
So in light of this, we can see that it was very possible that the Prophet (peace be upon him) was wary of this and worried that these may become prayers that actually get answered despite them not being intentional.
As a result, the Prophet (peace be upon him) prayed that they be turned into blessings.
So in conclusion, we see that the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to judge people by that which is apparent when they commit sins, and he would do so feeling angry for the sake of Allah for believing that the individual committed wrong.
However, it’s possible that the Prophet (peace be upon him) judged a person whose outward actions didn’t reflect his inward state.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) was aware of this and out of precaution asked Allah to turn any unjustified curses into blessings for those people.
It was also a habit of the Arabs to say phrases that appeared to be cursed but were not intended to be so literal. The Prophet (peace be upon him) may have possibly been worried that these could turn into answered prayers.
So once again out of precaution, the Prophet (peace be upon him) asked Allah to turn any such uttered phrases into blessings for those people.
So in reality what we see here is actually the God-fearing, merciful & just nature of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and not an abusive person who just invokes curses and innocents.
1) Imam an-Nawawi in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim said:
أحدهما أن المراد ليس بأهل لذلك عند الله تعالى , وفي باطن الأمر , ولكنه في الظاهر مستوجب له , فيظهر له صلى الله عليه وسلم استحقاقه لذلك بأمارة شرعية , ويكون في باطن الأمر ليس أهلا لذلك , وهو صلى الله عليه وسلم مأمور بالحكم بالظاهر , والله يتولى السرائر.
Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani in his Fathul Baari, quotes al-Maaziri as saying:
ان قيل كيف يدعو صلى الله عليه و سلم بدعوة على من ليس لها بأهل
قيل ا لمراد بقوله ليس لها بأهل عندك في باطن امره لا على ما يظهر مما يقتضيه حاله وجنايته حين دعائي عليه فكأنه يقول من كان باطن امره عندك انه ممن ترضى عنه فاجعل دعوتي عليه التي اقتضاها ما ظهر لي من مقتضى حاله حينئذ طهورا وزكاة قال
وهذا معنى صحيح لا احالة فيه لأنه صلى الله عليه و سلم كان متعبدا بالظواهر وحساب الناس في البواطن على الله انتهى وهذا مبني على قول من قال انه كان يجتهد في الاحكام ويحكم بما أدى إليه اجتهاده واما من قال كان لا يحكم الا بالوحي فلا يتأتى منه هذا الجواب
2) Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani in his Fathul Baari, quotes al-Maaziri as saying:
فإن قيل فما معنى قوله وأغضب كما يغضب البشر فإن هذا يشير إلى أن تلك الدعوة وقعت بحكم سورة الغضب لا أنها على مقتضى الشرع فيعود السؤال فالجواب أنه يحتمل أنه أراد أن دعوته عليه أو سبه أو جلده كان مما خير بين فعله له عقوبة للجاني أو تركه والزجر له بما سوى ذلك فيكون الغضب لله – تعالى – بعثه على لعنه أو جلده ولا يكون ذلك خارجا عن شرعه .
قال ويحتمل أن يكون ذلك خرج مخرج الإشفاق وتعليم أمته الخوف من تعدي حدود الله فكأنه أظهر الإشفاق من أن يكون الغضب يحمله على زيادة في عقوبة الجاني لولا الغضب ما وقعت أو إشفاقا من أن يكون الغضب يحمله على زيادة يسيرة في عقوبة الجاني لولا الغضب ما زادت ويكون من الصغائر على قول من يجوزها أو يكون الزجر يحصل بدونها
3) Linguist expert Ibn Mandhur in his Lisaan al-‘Arab said:
ويرون والله أعلم أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لم يتعمد الدعاء عليه بالفقر ولكنها كلمة جارية على ألسن العرب يقولونها وهم لا يريدون بها الدعاء على المخاطب ولا وقوع الأمر بها .
He even goes on to list examples of how the Arabs could use phrases which on their apparency appear to be rebukes and insults, yet are actually complimented… وكثيرا ترد للعرب ألفاظ ظاهرها الذم وإنما يريدون بها المدح كقولهم لا أب لك ولا أم لك وهوت أمه ولا أرض لك ونحو ذلك
4) See an-Nawawi’s, Sharh Muslim; Ibn Battal’s, Sharh al-Bukhari; as-Suyuti’s, Tanweer al-Hawaalik Sharh Muwatta’ Malik; Badr ad-Deen’s, ‘Umdat al-Qari fi Sharh Saheeh al-Bukhari; as-Sindi’s, Haashiya ‘ala al-Nasai’ & at-Tibrizi’s, Sharh Mishkaat al-Masaabeeh.
5) Imam an-Nawawi said in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim said:
اتسعت العرب فيها فصارت تطلقها ولا تريد حقيقة ما وضعت له
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