Did Prophet Muhammad curse the orphan girl?

Did Prophet Muhammad curse the orphan girl?


Mohamad Mostafa Nassar

Twitter:@NassarMohamadMR

Br. Bassam Zawadi

First before we discuss that misconception that Prophet Muhammed peace be upon him curse, we need to read what Prophet Muhammed peace be upon him himself said:

Hadith on Character: Honor guests, orphans, and your neighbors

Al-Saโ€™ib ibn Abdullah reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said to him, โ€œO Saโ€™ib, look at the character of your deeds in the time of ignorance and continue them in Islam: honor the guest, be generous to the orphan, and be good to your neighbor.โ€

Source: Musnad Aแธฅmad 15074

Grade: Rijal al-Sahih (narrators are reliable) according to Al-Haythami

ุนูŽู†ู ุงู„ุณูŽู‘ุงุฆูุจู ุจู’ู†ู ุนูŽุจู’ุฏู ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ ู„ูŽู‡ู ุฑูŽุณููˆู„ู ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ุตูŽู„ูŽู‘ู‰ ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ู ูˆูŽุณูŽู„ูŽู‘ู…ูŽ ูŠูŽุง ุณูŽุงุฆูุจู ุงู†ู’ุธูุฑู’ ุฃูŽุฎู’ู„ูŽุงู‚ูŽูƒูŽ ุงู„ูŽู‘ุชููŠ ูƒูู†ู’ุชูŽ ุชูŽุตู’ู†ูŽุนูู‡ูŽุง ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ุฌูŽุงู‡ูู„ููŠูŽู‘ุฉู ููŽุงุฌู’ุนูŽู„ู’ู‡ูŽุง ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ุฅูุณู’ู„ูŽุงู…ู ุฃูŽู‚ู’ุฑู ุงู„ุถูŽู‘ูŠู’ููŽ ูˆูŽุฃูŽูƒู’ุฑูู…ู’ ุงู„ู’ูŠูŽุชููŠู…ูŽ ูˆูŽุฃูŽุญู’ุณูู†ู’ ุฅูู„ูŽู‰ ุฌูŽุงุฑููƒูŽ

15074 ู…ุณู†ุฏ ุฃุญู…ุฏ ู…ุณู†ุฏ ุงู„ู…ูƒูŠูŠู†

8/193 ุงู„ู…ุญุฏุซ ุงู„ู‡ูŠุซู…ูŠ ุฎู„ุงุตุฉ ุญูƒู… ุงู„ู…ุญุฏุซ ุฑุฌุงู„ ุฑุฌุงู„ ููŠ ู…ุฌู…ุน ุงู„ุฒูˆุงุฆุฏ

Hadith on Rights: Guarding rights of women, children, orphans

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, โ€œO Allah, I have issued a warning in regards to the rights of two vulnerable groups: orphans and women.โ€

Source: Sunan Ibn Mฤjah 3678

Grade: Sahih (authentic) according to Al-Suyuti

ุนูŽู†ู’ ุฃูŽุจููŠ ู‡ูุฑูŽูŠู’ุฑูŽุฉูŽ ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ ุฑูŽุณููˆู„ู ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ุตูŽู„ูŽู‘ู‰ ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ู ูˆูŽุณูŽู„ูŽู‘ู…ูŽ ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ูู…ูŽู‘ ุฅูู†ูู‘ูŠ ุฃูุญูŽุฑูู‘ุฌู ุญูŽู‚ูŽู‘ ุงู„ุถูŽู‘ุนููŠููŽูŠู’ู†ู ุงู„ู’ูŠูŽุชููŠู…ู ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ู…ูŽุฑู’ุฃูŽุฉู

3678 ุณู†ู† ุงุจู† ู…ุงุฌู‡ ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ุฃุฏุจ ุจุงุจ ุญู‚ ุงู„ูŠุชูŠู…

2636 ุงู„ู…ุญุฏุซ ุงู„ุณูŠูˆุทูŠ ุฎู„ุงุตุฉ ุญูƒู… ุงู„ู…ุญุฏุซ ุตุญูŠุญ ููŠ ุงู„ุชู†ูˆูŠุฑ ุดุฑุญ ุงู„ุฌุงู…ุน ุงู„ุตุบูŠุฑ

Hadith on Orphans: The Prophet and caretakers together in Paradise

Sahl ibn Saโ€™d reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, โ€œMyself and the caretaker of an orphan will be in Paradise like this,โ€ and he held his two fingers together.

Source: แนขaแธฅฤซแธฅ al-Bukhฤrฤซ 5659

Grade: Sahih (authentic) according to Al-Bukhari

ุนูŽู†ู’ ุณูŽู‡ู’ู„ ุจู’ู† ุณูŽุนู’ุฏู ุนูŽู†ู’ ุงู„ู†ูŽู‘ุจููŠูู‘ ุตูŽู„ูŽู‘ู‰ ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ู ูˆูŽุณูŽู„ูŽู‘ู…ูŽ ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ ุฃูŽู†ูŽุง ูˆูŽูƒูŽุงููู„ู ุงู„ู’ูŠูŽุชููŠู…ู ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ุฌูŽู†ูŽู‘ุฉู ู‡ูŽูƒูŽุฐูŽุง ูˆูŽู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ ุจูุฅูุตู’ุจูŽุนูŽูŠู’ู‡ู ุงู„ุณูŽู‘ุจูŽู‘ุงุจูŽุฉู ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ูˆูุณู’ุทูŽู‰

5659 ุตุญูŠุญ ุงู„ุจุฎุงุฑูŠ ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ุฃุฏุจ ุจุงุจ ูุถู„ ู…ู† ูŠุนูˆู„ ูŠุชูŠู…ุง

Hadith on Orphans: Care for the orphans, free the slaves

Malik ibn Al-Harith reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, โ€œWhoever embraces an orphan of two Muslim parents by feeding him and giving him drink until he is independent of him, Paradise will certainly be necessary for him. Whoever emancipates a Muslim man, he will be his freedom from the Hellfire; he will be rewarded for every limb of his in equal measure.โ€

Source: Musnad Aแธฅmad 19855

Grade: Sahih li ghayri (authentic due to external evidence) according to Al-Albani

ุนูŽู†ู’ ู…ูŽุงู„ููƒู ุจู’ู†ู ุงู„ู’ุญูŽุงุฑูุซู ุนูŽู†ู’ ุฑูŽุณููˆู„ู ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ุตูŽู„ูŽู‘ู‰ ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ู ูˆูŽุณูŽู„ูŽู‘ู…ูŽ ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ ู…ูŽู†ู’ ุถูŽู…ูŽู‘ ูŠูŽุชููŠู…ู‹ุง ุจูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽ ุฃูŽุจูŽูˆูŽูŠู’ู†ู ู…ูุณู’ู„ูู…ูŽูŠู’ู†ู ุฅูู„ูŽู‰ ุทูŽุนูŽุงู…ูู‡ู ูˆูŽุดูŽุฑูŽุงุจูู‡ู ุญูŽุชูŽู‘ู‰ ูŠูŽุณู’ุชูŽุบู’ู†ููŠูŽ ุนูŽู†ู’ู‡ู ูˆูŽุฌูŽุจูŽุชู’ ู„ูŽู‡ู ุงู„ู’ุฌูŽู†ูŽู‘ุฉู ุงู„ู’ุจูŽุชูŽู‘ุฉูŽ ูˆูŽู…ูŽู†ู’ ุฃูŽุนู’ุชูŽู‚ูŽ ุงู…ู’ุฑูŽุฃู‹ ู…ูุณู’ู„ูู…ู‹ุง ูƒูŽุงู†ูŽ ูููƒูŽุงูƒูŽู‡ู ู…ูู†ูŽ ุงู„ู†ูŽู‘ุงุฑู ูŠูุฌู’ุฒูŽู‰ ุจููƒูู„ูู‘ ุนูุถู’ูˆู ู…ูู†ู’ู‡ู ุนูุถู’ูˆู‹ุง ู…ูู†ู’ู‡ู

19855 ู…ุณู†ุฏ ุฃุญู…ุฏ ุจู† ุญู†ุจู„ ู…ุณู†ุฏ ุงู„ุนุดุฑุฉ ุงู„ู…ุจุดุฑูŠู† ุจุงู„ุฌู†ุฉ

2543 ุงู„ู…ุญุฏุซ ุงู„ุฃู„ุจุงู†ูŠ ุฎู„ุงุตุฉ ุญูƒู… ุงู„ู…ุญุฏุซ ุตุญูŠุญ ู„ุบูŠุฑู‡ ููŠ ุตุญูŠุญ ุงู„ุชุฑุบูŠุจ

Hadith on Orphans: Be kind to orphans for a soft heart

Abu Darda reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, โ€œBring the orphan close to you, pat his head, and feed him with the same food you eat. It will soften your heart and fulfill your need.โ€

Source: Makฤrim al-Akhlฤq lil-Kharฤโ€™iแนญฤซ 661

Grade: Hasan (fair) according to Al-Albani

ุนูŽู†ู’ ุฃูŽุจููŠ ุงู„ุฏูŽู‘ุฑู’ุฏูŽุงุกู ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ ุฑูŽุณููˆู„ู ุตูŽู„ูŽู‘ู‰ ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ู ูˆูŽุณูŽู„ูŽู‘ู…ูŽ ุฃูŽุฏู’ู†ู ุงู„ู’ูŠูŽุชููŠู…ูŽ ู…ูู†ู’ูƒูŽ ูˆูŽุงู…ู’ุณูŽุญู’ ุจูุฑูŽุฃู’ุณูู‡ู ูˆูŽุฃูŽุทู’ุนูู…ู’ู‡ู ู…ูู†ู’ ุทูŽุนูŽุงู…ููƒูŽ ูŠูŽู„ูู†ู’ ู‚ูŽู„ู’ุจููƒูŽ ูˆูŽุชูŽู‚ู’ุฏูุฑู’ ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุญูŽุงุฌูŽุชููƒูŽ

661 ู…ูƒุงุฑู… ุงู„ุฃุฎู„ุงู‚ ู„ู„ุฎุฑุงุฆุทูŠ

250 ุงู„ู…ุญุฏุซ ุงู„ุฃู„ุจุงู†ูŠ ุฎู„ุงุตุฉ ุญูƒู… ุงู„ู…ุญุฏุซ ุญุณู† ููŠ ุตุญูŠุญ ุงู„ุฌุงู…ุน

Now to the main Question and claim about the curse of an Orphan Girl

Anas b. Malik reported that there was an orphan girl with Umm Sulaim (who was the mother of Anas).

Allah’s Messenger (๏ทบ) saw that orphan girl and said:


O, it is you; you have grown young. May you not advance in years! That slave-girl returned to Umm Sulaim weeping.

Umm Sulaim said:

O daughter, what is the matter with you? She said: Allah’s Apostle (๏ทบ) has invoked curse upon me that I should not grow in age and thus I would never grow in age, or she said, in my (length) of life.

Umm Sulaim went out wrapping her head-dress hurriedly until she met Allah’s Messenger (๏ทบ). He said to her: Umm Sulaim, what is the matter with you? She said:

Allah’s Apostle, you invoked curse upon my orphan girl. He said: Umm Sulaim, what is that? She said: She (the orphan girl) states you have cursed her saying that she might not grow in age or grow in life. Allah’s Messenger (๏ทบ) smiled and then said: Umm Sulaim, don’t you know that I have made this term with my Lord.

And the term with my Lord is that I said to Him: 1 am a human being and I am pleased just as a human being is pleased and I lose temper just as a human being loses temper, so for any person from amongst my Ummah whom I curse and he in no way deserves it, let that, O Lord, be made a source of purification and purity and nearness to (Allah) on the Day of Resurrection.
(Sahih Muslim 2603)

Do we have more details about how that orphan girl made him lose his temper?


Details of Argument



Addressing the Argument: Was Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) an Abusive Invoker of Curses?


The hadith literature portray Muhammad as someone who abuses innocent people as could be seen in the following ahaadeeth:

A’isha reported that two persons visited Allah’s Messenger (๏ทบ) and both of them talked about a thing, of which I am not aware, but that annoyed him and he invoked curse upon both of them and hurled malediction, and when they went out I said: Allah’s Messenger, the good would reach everyone but it would not reach these two.

He said:

Why so? I said: Because you have invoked curse and hurled malediction upon both of them.

He said: Don’t you know that I have made condition with my Lord saying thus: O Allah, I am a human being and that for a Muslim upon whom I invoke curse or hurl malediction make it a source of purity and reward. [Sahih Muslim, Book 32, Hadith 6285]

Salim, the freed slave of Nasriyyin, said: I heard Abu Huraira as saying that he heard Allah’s Messenger (๏ทบ) as saying: O Allah, Muhammad is a human being.

I lose my temper just as human beings lose temper, and I have held a covenant with Thee which Thou wouldst not break:

For a believer whom I give any trouble or invoke curse or beat, make that an expiation (of his sins and a source of) his nearness to Thee on the Day of Resurrection. [Sahih Muslim, book 32, Hadith 6293]

Anas b. Malik reported that there was an orphan girl with Umm Sulaim (who was the mother of Anas).

Allah’s Messenger (๏ทบ) saw that orphan girl and said: O, it is you; you have grown young. May you not advance in years!

That slave-girl returned to Umm Sulaim weeping. Umm Sulaim said: O daughter, what is the matter with you? She said:

Allah’s Apostle (๏ทบ) has invoked curse upon me that I should not grow in age and thus I would never grow in age, or she said, in my (length) of life.

Umm Sulaim went out wrapping her head-dress hurriedly until she met Allah’s Messenger (๏ทบ). He said to her: Umm Sulaim, what is the matter with you?

She said: Allah’s Apostle, you invoked curse upon my orphan girl. He said: Umm Sulaim, what is that?

She said: She (the orphan girl) states you have cursed her saying that she might not grow in age or grow in life. Allah’s Messenger (๏ทบ) smiled and then said:

Umm Sulaim, don’t you know that I have made this term with my Lord.

And the term with my Lord is that I said to Him: I am a human being, and I am pleased just as a human being is pleased and I lose temper just as a human being loses temper.

So, for any person from amongst my Ummah whom I curse and he in no way deserves it, let that, O Lord, be made a source of purification and purity and nearness to (Allah) on the Day of Resurrection. [Sahih Muslim, Book 32, Hadith 6297]



Response



The Prophet (peace be upon him) was NOT known to be an abuser:

Narrated Anas: Allah’s Messenger (๏ทบ) was neither a Fahish (one who had a bad tongue) nor a Sabbaba (one who abuses others)… [Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 8, Book 73, Hadith 72]



So how do we then make sense of this in light of the aforementioned traditions?



When it comes to the first hadeeth mentioned above, the Prophet (peace be upon him) could have sincerely made Ijtihaad and reached the conclusion that those two men were worthy of being cursed, for the Prophet (peace be upon him) could only judge by that which is apparent and doesn’t know that which is hidden [1].

What confirms the fact that the Prophet (peace be upon him) judges by the apparent and could possibly be mistaken in doing so is the following tradition:

Umm Salamah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: Messenger of Allah (๏ทบ) said, “Verily, I am only a human, and the claimants bring to me (their disputes); perhaps some of them are more eloquent than others.

I judge according to what I hear from them). So, he whom I, by my judgment, (give the undue share) out of the right of a Muslim, I in fact give him a portion of (Hell) Fire”. [Reported in Bukhari and Muslim]

He emphasized that he doesn’t judge by what is on the inside:

The Messenger of Allah (๏ทบ) said: I have not been commanded to pierce through the hearts of people, nor to split their bellies (insides). [Sahih Bukhari, Book 5, Hadith 2319]


As for the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) statement:

“Don’t you know that I have made condition with my Lord saying thus:

O Allah, I am a human being and that for a Muslim upon whom I invoke curse or hurl malediction make it a source of purity and reward.”, this is in reference to those whom he has wrongly cursed.

This is due to the possibility that the outward state of the cursed person didn’t reflect his inward state, which is what the Prophet (peace be upon him) is judging upon.

Now we move on to the second and third ahaadeeth and the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) remark that he loses his temper just as any human being loses his temper.

This is to be understood as “anger for the sake of Allah” in the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) regard. It maybe that the Prophet (peace be upon him) favored cursing the individual over punishing him for committing a sin.

Also, the Prophet (peace be upon him) is also pointing out to his Ummah that anger may at times result in crossing the bounds of Allah [2].

As mentioned earlier, it’s possible for the Prophet (peace be upon him) to be mistaken in his judgment and as a result of his mistake Allah will transform his curse into a blessing upon the person.

So, at the end of the day, the Prophet (peace be upon him) is really hurting nobody unjustly.

It has also been suggested that what the Prophet (peace be upon him) was truly worried about was mistakenly saying something which appeared to be a curse – but actually wasn’t – actually befalling upon someone.

It was the habit of Arabs during that time to say things which appear to be a curse (but weren’t) in order to drive a certain point.

For example, we read in Sunan an-Nasa’i, Vol. 4, Book 26, Hadith 3232:

Narrated Abu Hurairah: It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said:

“Women are married for four things: their wealth, their nobility, their beauty and their religious commitment. Choose the one who is religiously committed, may your hands be rubbed with dust.”

“Hands being rubbed with dust” entails one is so poor that he has nothing in his hands except for dust. In no way does anyone understand that the Prophet (peace be upon him) is praying for anyone to be poor, rather it’s a phrase Arabs were used to saying, whilst not intending it to be a prayer [3].

The phrase “may your hands be rubbed with dust” was used by the Prophet (peace be upon him) in different contexts and they weren’t meant to be a negative prayer upon the person [4].

Let’s look at another example from Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 2783:

A’isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported: We went with the Messenger of Allah (๏ทบ) and we did not see but that he (intended to perform) Hajj (only), but when we reached Mecca we circumambulated the House; and the Messenger of Allah (๏ทบ) commanded that he who did not have with him a sacrificial animal should put off Ihram.

She (A’isha) said: (And consequently) those who did not bring the sacrificial animals with them put off Ihram; and among his wives (too) who had not brought the sacrificial animals with them put off Ihram.

A’isha said:

I entered my period and could not (therefore) circumambulate the House.

When it was the night of Hasba she said:

Messenger of Allah, people are coming back (after having performed both) Hajj and’Umra, whereas I am coming back only with Hajj, whereupon he said:

Did you not circumambulate (the Ka’ba) that very night we entered Mecca? She (A’isha) said: No, whereupon he said:

Go along with your brother to Tan’im and put on the Ihram for Umra, and it is at such and such a place that you can meet (us). (In the meanwhile) Safiyya (the wife of the Holy Prophet) said:

I think, I will detain you (since I have entered in the monthly) period, and you shall have to wait for me for the farewell circuit).

Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: May you be wounded, and your head shorn did you not circumambulate on the Day of Sacrifice (10th of Dhu’l-Hijja)?

She said: Yes. The Prophet (๏ทบ) said: There is no harm. You should go forward. ‘A’isha said:

The Messenger of Allah (๏ทบ) was going upwards to the side of Mecca, whereas I was coming down from it, or I was going upward, whereas he was coming down. Isbiq said: She was climbing down, and he was climbing down.

Once again we see the Prophet (peace be upon him) said something which apparently appears to be a curse of some sort… “May you be wounded, and your head shorn”.

However, if we take it literally, we are left scratching our heads wondering why the Prophet (peace be upon him) would curse his wife when the entire context of the story shows that she did absolutely nothing wrong!

Clearly, this wasn’t literal as this phrase over time with the Arabs was not being used in a literal fashion anymore [5].

So in light of this we can see that it was very possible that the Prophet (peace be upon him) was wary of this and worried that these may become prayers which actually get answered despite them not being intentional.

As a result, the Prophet (peace be upon him) prayed that they be turned into blessings.

Summary



So in conclusion, we see that the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to judge people by that which is apparent when they commit sins, and he would do so feeling angry for the sake of Allah for believing that the individual committed wrong.

However, it’s possible that the Prophet (peace be upon him) judged a person whose outward actions didn’t reflect his inward state.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) was aware of this and out of precaution asked Allah to turn any unjustified curses into blessings for those people.

It was also a habit of the Arabs to say phrases which appeared to be curses but were not intended to be so literally. The Prophet (peace be upon him) may have possibly been worried that these could turn into answered prayers.

So once again out of precaution the Prophet (peace be upon him) asked Allah to turn any such uttered phrases into blessings for those people.

So in reality what we see here is actually the God-fearing, merciful & just nature of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and not an abusive person who just invokes curses innocents.

Footnotes

1) Imam an-Nawawi in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim said:

ุฃุญุฏู‡ู…ุง ุฃู† ุงู„ู…ุฑุงุฏ ู„ูŠุณ ุจุฃู‡ู„ ู„ุฐู„ูƒ ุนู†ุฏ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ , ูˆููŠ ุจุงุทู† ุงู„ุฃู…ุฑ , ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ ููŠ ุงู„ุธุงู‡ุฑ ู…ุณุชูˆุฌุจ ู„ู‡ , ููŠุธู‡ุฑ ู„ู‡ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู… ุงุณุชุญู‚ุงู‚ู‡ ู„ุฐู„ูƒ ุจุฃู…ุงุฑุฉ ุดุฑุนูŠุฉ , ูˆูŠูƒูˆู† ููŠ ุจุงุทู† ุงู„ุฃู…ุฑ ู„ูŠุณ ุฃู‡ู„ุง ู„ุฐู„ูƒ , ูˆู‡ูˆ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู… ู…ุฃู…ูˆุฑ ุจุงู„ุญูƒู… ุจุงู„ุธุงู‡ุฑ , ูˆุงู„ู„ู‡ ูŠุชูˆู„ู‰ ุงู„ุณุฑุงุฆุฑ.

Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani in his Fathul Baari, quotes al-Maaziri as saying:

ุงู† ู‚ูŠู„ ูƒูŠู ูŠุฏุนูˆ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆ ุณู„ู… ุจุฏุนูˆุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ู…ู† ู„ูŠุณ ู„ู‡ุง ุจุฃู‡ู„

 ู‚ูŠู„ ุง ู„ู…ุฑุงุฏ ุจู‚ูˆู„ู‡ ู„ูŠุณ ู„ู‡ุง ุจุฃู‡ู„ ุนู†ุฏูƒ ููŠ ุจุงุทู† ุงู…ุฑู‡ ู„ุง ุนู„ู‰ ู…ุง ูŠุธู‡ุฑ ู…ู…ุง ูŠู‚ุชุถูŠู‡ ุญุงู„ู‡ ูˆุฌู†ุงูŠุชู‡ ุญูŠู† ุฏุนุงุฆูŠ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ููƒุฃู†ู‡ ูŠู‚ูˆู„ ู…ู† ูƒุงู† ุจุงุทู† ุงู…ุฑู‡ ุนู†ุฏูƒ ุงู†ู‡ ู…ู…ู† ุชุฑุถู‰ ุนู†ู‡ ูุงุฌุนู„ ุฏุนูˆุชูŠ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุงู‚ุชุถุงู‡ุง ู…ุง ุธู‡ุฑ ู„ูŠ ู…ู† ู…ู‚ุชุถู‰ ุญุงู„ู‡ ุญูŠู†ุฆุฐ ุทู‡ูˆุฑุง ูˆุฒูƒุงุฉ ู‚ุงู„

 ูˆู‡ุฐุง ู…ุนู†ู‰ ุตุญูŠุญ ู„ุง ุงุญุงู„ุฉ ููŠู‡ ู„ุฃู†ู‡ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆ ุณู„ู… ูƒุงู† ู…ุชุนุจุฏุง ุจุงู„ุธูˆุงู‡ุฑ ูˆุญุณุงุจ ุงู„ู†ุงุณ ููŠ ุงู„ุจูˆุงุทู† ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุงู†ุชู‡ู‰ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ู…ุจู†ูŠ ุนู„ู‰ ู‚ูˆู„ ู…ู† ู‚ุงู„ ุงู†ู‡ ูƒุงู† ูŠุฌุชู‡ุฏ ููŠ ุงู„ุงุญูƒุงู… ูˆูŠุญูƒู… ุจู…ุง ุฃุฏู‰ ุฅู„ูŠู‡ ุงุฌุชู‡ุงุฏู‡ ูˆุงู…ุง ู…ู† ู‚ุงู„ ูƒุงู† ู„ุง ูŠุญูƒู… ุงู„ุง ุจุงู„ูˆุญูŠ ูู„ุง ูŠุชุฃุชู‰ ู…ู†ู‡ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุฌูˆุงุจ

2) Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani in his Fathul Baari, quotes al-Maaziri as saying:

ูุฅู† ู‚ูŠู„ ูู…ุง ู…ุนู†ู‰ ู‚ูˆู„ู‡ ูˆุฃุบุถุจ ูƒู…ุง ูŠุบุถุจ ุงู„ุจุดุฑ ูุฅู† ู‡ุฐุง ูŠุดูŠุฑ ุฅู„ู‰ ุฃู† ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ุฏุนูˆุฉ ูˆู‚ุนุช ุจุญูƒู… ุณูˆุฑุฉ ุงู„ุบุถุจ ู„ุง ุฃู†ู‡ุง ุนู„ู‰ ู…ู‚ุชุถู‰ ุงู„ุดุฑุน ููŠุนูˆุฏ ุงู„ุณุคุงู„ ูุงู„ุฌูˆุงุจ ุฃู†ู‡ ูŠุญุชู…ู„ ุฃู†ู‡ ุฃุฑุงุฏ ุฃู† ุฏุนูˆุชู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุฃูˆ ุณุจู‡ ุฃูˆ ุฌู„ุฏู‡ ูƒุงู† ู…ู…ุง ุฎูŠุฑ ุจูŠู† ูุนู„ู‡ ู„ู‡ ุนู‚ูˆุจุฉ ู„ู„ุฌุงู†ูŠ ุฃูˆ ุชุฑูƒู‡ ูˆุงู„ุฒุฌุฑ ู„ู‡ ุจู…ุง ุณูˆู‰ ุฐู„ูƒ ููŠูƒูˆู† ุงู„ุบุถุจ ู„ู„ู‡ – ุชุนุงู„ู‰ – ุจุนุซู‡ ุนู„ู‰ ู„ุนู†ู‡ ุฃูˆ ุฌู„ุฏู‡ ูˆู„ุง ูŠูƒูˆู† ุฐู„ูƒ ุฎุงุฑุฌุง ุนู† ุดุฑุนู‡ .

 ู‚ุงู„ ูˆูŠุญุชู…ู„ ุฃู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ุฐู„ูƒ ุฎุฑุฌ ู…ุฎุฑุฌ ุงู„ุฅุดูุงู‚ ูˆุชุนู„ูŠู… ุฃู…ุชู‡ ุงู„ุฎูˆู ู…ู† ุชุนุฏูŠ ุญุฏูˆุฏ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ููƒุฃู†ู‡ ุฃุธู‡ุฑ ุงู„ุฅุดูุงู‚ ู…ู† ุฃู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ุงู„ุบุถุจ ูŠุญู…ู„ู‡ ุนู„ู‰ ุฒูŠุงุฏุฉ ููŠ ุนู‚ูˆุจุฉ ุงู„ุฌุงู†ูŠ ู„ูˆู„ุง ุงู„ุบุถุจ ู…ุง ูˆู‚ุนุช ุฃูˆ ุฅุดูุงู‚ุง ู…ู† ุฃู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ุงู„ุบุถุจ ูŠุญู…ู„ู‡ ุนู„ู‰ ุฒูŠุงุฏุฉ ูŠุณูŠุฑุฉ ููŠ ุนู‚ูˆุจุฉ ุงู„ุฌุงู†ูŠ ู„ูˆู„ุง ุงู„ุบุถุจ ู…ุง ุฒุงุฏุช ูˆูŠูƒูˆู† ู…ู† ุงู„ุตุบุงุฆุฑ ุนู„ู‰ ู‚ูˆู„ ู…ู† ูŠุฌูˆุฒู‡ุง ุฃูˆ ูŠูƒูˆู† ุงู„ุฒุฌุฑ ูŠุญุตู„ ุจุฏูˆู†ู‡ุง

3) Linguist expert Ibn Mandhur in his Lisaan al-‘Arab said:

ูˆูŠุฑูˆู† ูˆุงู„ู„ู‡ ุฃุนู„ู… ุฃู† ุงู„ู†ุจูŠ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู… ู„ู… ูŠุชุนู…ุฏ ุงู„ุฏุนุงุก ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุจุงู„ูู‚ุฑ ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ุง ูƒู„ู…ุฉ ุฌุงุฑูŠุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ุฃู„ุณู† ุงู„ุนุฑุจ ูŠู‚ูˆู„ูˆู†ู‡ุง ูˆู‡ู… ู„ุง ูŠุฑูŠุฏูˆู† ุจู‡ุง ุงู„ุฏุนุงุก ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู…ุฎุงุทุจ ูˆู„ุง ูˆู‚ูˆุน ุงู„ุฃู…ุฑ ุจู‡ุง .

He even goes on to list examples of how the Arabs could use phrases which on their apparency appear to be rebukes and insults, yet are actually compliments… ูˆูƒุซูŠุฑุง ุชุฑุฏ ู„ู„ุนุฑุจ ุฃู„ูุงุธ ุธุงู‡ุฑู‡ุง ุงู„ุฐู… ูˆุฅู†ู…ุง ูŠุฑูŠุฏูˆู† ุจู‡ุง ุงู„ู…ุฏุญ ูƒู‚ูˆู„ู‡ู… ู„ุง ุฃุจ ู„ูƒ ูˆู„ุง ุฃู… ู„ูƒ ูˆู‡ูˆุช ุฃู…ู‡ ูˆู„ุง ุฃุฑุถ ู„ูƒ ูˆู†ุญูˆ ุฐู„ูƒ

4) See an-Nawawi’s, Sharh Muslim; Ibn Battal’s, Sharh al-Bukhari; as-Suyuti’s, Tanweer al-Hawaalik Sharh Muwatta’ Malik; Badr ad-Deen’s, ‘Umdat al-Qari fi Sharh Saheeh al-Bukhari; as-Sindi’s, Haashiya ‘ala al-Nasai’ & at-Tibrizi’s, Sharh Mishkaat al-Masaabeeh.

5) Imam an-Nawawi said in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim said:

ุงุชุณุนุช ุงู„ุนุฑุจ ููŠู‡ุง ูุตุงุฑุช ุชุทู„ู‚ู‡ุง ูˆู„ุง ุชุฑูŠุฏ ุญู‚ูŠู‚ุฉ ู…ุง ูˆุถุนุช ู„ู‡

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