This verse was revealed in Madinah (Mawdudi). 
“Lo! those who malign Allah and His messenger, Allah hath cursed them in the world and the Hereafter, and hath prepared for them the doom of the disdained.” – Quran 33:57
33:57 – In this verse God is speaking about those who make up lies about HIM and Prophet Muhammed (p). That these individuals will be brought to account and will be punished (Tafsir Ibn Kathir and Tafsir Jalalayn). The punishment mentioned here is speaking about in the hereafter.
Dr. Muhammed Asad:
“73 In classical Arabic, the term la’nah is more or less synonymous with ib’ad (“removal into distance” or “banishment”); hence, God’s la’nah denotes “His rejection of a sinner from all that is good” (Lisan al-‘Arab) or “exclusion from His grace” (Manar 11, 50). The term mal’un which occurs in verse 61 below signifies, therefore, ‘one who is bereft of God’s grace’.” 
Maulana Muhammad Ali:
“57a. The word yu’dhan occurring here is from the root adha, which occurs in v. 48 in this chapter and in 3:186, and means the annoying talk of the disbelievers and the hypocrites in the form of false imputations against the Holy Prophet. This sense of the word is made clear in the next verse, where the same word is used about the believers, and is explained in the concluding words of the verse as indicating a false accusation against them.” 
Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
“Whoever annoys Allah and His Messenger , is cursed in this World and the Hereafter Here, Allah warns and threatens those who annoy Him by going against His commands and doing that which He has forbidden, and who persist in doing so, and those who annoy His Messenger by accusing him of having faults or shortcomings — Allah forbid. `Ikrimah said that the Ayah:
(Verily, those who annoy Allah and His Messenger,) was revealed concerning those who make pictures or images. In The Two Sahihs, it is reported that Abu Hurayrah said: “The Messenger of Allah said: (Allah says: “The son of Adam annoys Me by inveighing against time, but I am time, for I cause the alternation of night and day.”)”
The meaning of this Hadith is that in the Jahiliyyah they used to say, “How bad time is, it has done such and such to us!” They used to attribute the deeds of Allah to time, and inveigh against it, but the One Who did that was Allah, may He be exalted.
So, He forbade them from this. Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah, (Verily, those who annoy Allah and His Messenger, ) was revealed about those who slandered the Prophet over his marriage to Safiyyah bint Huyay bin Akhtab.
The Ayah appears to be general in meaning and to apply to all those who annoy him in any way, because whoever annoys him annoys Allah, just as whoever obeys him obeys Allah. (And those who annoy believing men and women undeservedly,) means, they attribute to them things of which they are innocent, which they do not know and do not do. (they bear the crime of slander and plain sin.)
This is the most serious slander, to tell or transmit things about the believing men and women that they have not done, in order to bring shame upon them and accuse them of shortcomings. Among those to whom the description most applies are those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers, followed by the Rafidites=Shi’a who accuse the Companions of shortcomings and faults of which Allah has stated that they are innocent, and describe them as the opposite of what Allah has said about them.
Allah, may He be exalted, has told us that He is pleased with the Migrants and Ansar, and has praised them, but these foolish and ignorant people inveigh against them and accuse them of shortcomings, and say things about them that they did not do and could never have done. In reality, their hearts are misguided, for they condemn those who deserve praise and praise those who deserve condemnation.
Abu Dawud recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that it was said: “O Messenger of Allah, what is backbiting (Ghibah)” He said, (It is when you mention something about your brother that he dislikes. ) It was asked, “But what if what I say about my brother is true”
He said, (If it is true, then you have committed backbiting (Ghibah) about him, and if it is not true, then you have slandered him.) This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who said, “Hasan Sahih.” (Tafsir Ibn Kathir On Surah 33:57 – Online Source)
“Indeed those who are injurious to God and His Messenger — and they are the disbelievers, who attribute to God what He is exalted above of such things as [His having] a son or a partner and they deny His Messenger — God has cursed them in this world and the Hereafter, He has banished them [from His mercy], and has prepared for them a humiliating chastisement, and that is the Fire.” (Tafsir al-Jalalayn on Surah 33:57 – Online Source)
Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi:
“108″ To trouble Allah” implies two things: That Allah should be disobeyed, that an attitude of disbelief and shirk and atheism be adopted with regard to Him, and that things made unlawful by Him be made lawful; and (2) that His Messenger be troubled, for just as obedience to the Messenger is obedience to Allah, so is opposition and disobedience of the Messenger opposition and disobedience of Allah.
109 This verse determines the definition of slander. It is to ascribe a fault to a person which he does not have, or an error which he has not committed. The Holy Prophet also has explained it. According to Abu Da’ud and Tirmidhi, when he was asked as to what is ghibat (backbiting), he replied: ‘It is to make mention of your brother in a manner derogatory to him. ” The questioner said, “And if the fault is there in my brother?” .
The Holy Prophet replied: `If the fault that you mentioned is there in him, you backbite him; if it is not there, you slandered him.” Such an act is not only a moral sin, which will entail punishment in the Hereafter, but this verse also requires that in the law of an Islamic State also false allegation should be held as a culpable offense.” (Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi – Tafhim al-Qur’an – The Meaning of the Qur’an – Online Source)
““The Surah discusses three important events which are: the Battle of the Trench (or Al-Ahzab: the Clans), which took place in Shawwal, A. H. 5; the raid on Bani Quraizah, which was made in Dhil-Qa’dah, A. H. 5; and the Holy Prophet’s marriage with Hadrat Zainab, which also was contracted in Dhil-Qa’dah, A. H. 5. These historical events accurately determine the period of the revelation of this Surah.” (Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi – Tafhim al-Qur’an – The Meaning of the Qur’an – Online Source)
 The Message of The Quran translated and explained by Muhammad Asad, page 903
 The Holy Quran Arabic Text with English Translation, Commentary and comprehensive Introduction [Year 2002 Edition] by Maulana Muhammad Ali, page 842