The Reality of Women in Hinduism.

The purpose of this post to bring you the honest truth about the statues of women in Hinduism. Brought forth directly from the Hindu scriptures. And later on some comparisons will be held if Hindus (especially in India) live upto their religious beliefs. Because later on we will see. They definitely do!

Many Hindu’s love to brag and use Islam as a tool to critisize. Unfortunately, many are ignorant of their own religion which they follow. They are too busy watching dishonest and deceptive Hindu apologists like Sadhguru who did a perfect job into fooling them into their delusion.

Women in Hinduism are treated far worse than anyone can imagine. Sadly many are ignorant of this and do not talk about this because of the large amount of falsehood spread by Hindu’s.

Here I will be presenting proofs and clear evidence directly from Hindu scriptures to prove how utterly misogynistic this ideology really is!

Lets start!

1# Preference of son over daughter

Leave aside giving equal rights to women. There is hardly any verse in Hindu scriptures that prays for the birth of a daughter while there are several verses and especially dedicated hymns for the birth of a Son. As per Hindu text the son saves the father from the hell called Put hence he is called Putra (Son) while a daughter is Duhita i.e. one who does bad. 

Hindu scriptures has a ritual called Pumsavan Sanskar for the birth of a son. There are thousands of verses in Vedas but not even a single verse prays for the birth of a daughter. The Vedas rather say,

“Prajāpati, Anumati, Sinivāli have ordered it. Elsewhere may he effect the birth of maids, but here prepare a boy. ” [1] Atharva Veda 6.11.3

It is mentioned in Grihya Sutras,

…”Pragapati has created him, Savitar has shaped him. Imparting birth of females to other (women) may he put here a man…” [2] Sankhayana Grihya Surtra 1.19.6

There are especial hymns and verses in Vedas which prays for the birth of a son like Atharva Veda 6.11; 3.23 and 7.48 and verses like Atharva Veda 14.1.22; 12.3.47; 2.36.3, 14.2.72, Rig Veda 3.31.1; 10.85.42-45 and so on but not even a single verse wishes for a daughter. As a result of these verses female infanticide is still in practice. India looses millions of unborn female baby every year,

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/india/9054429/India-most-dangerous-place-in-world-to-be-born-a-girl.html [3]
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2006/jan/09/india.sarahboseley [4]
http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-loses-3-million-girls-in-infanticide/article3981575.ece [5]
http://zeenews.india.com/exclusive/female-foeticide-death-before-birth_3547.html [6]

Lets continue on.

Kaśyapa Muni continued: If you perform this ceremony called puṁsavana, adhering to the vow with faith for at least one year, you will give birth to a son destined to kill Indra. But if there is any discrepancy in the discharge of this vow, the son will be a friend to Indra. [7] Srimad Bhagavatam 6.18.54

Garuda Purana goes a step ahead and says that the wife giving birth only to daughters should be abandoned,

”A barren woman shall be abandoned in the eighth year after marriage; a woman whose children die in infancy shall be abandoned in the ninth year; a woman who gives birth only to daughters shall be abandoned in the eleventh year and a woman who speaks unpleasant words shall be abandoned immediately.” [8] Garuda Purana 1.115.64

It is mentioned in Smritis that a wife who drinks liquor, who is barren, who hates her husband’s people and who bears only females should be superseded.

“The liquor drinker, the diseased, the cunning, the barren, the killer of wealth, the unpleasant spoken, who bears female children should be superseded, so also (one) who hates people.” [9] Yajnavalkya Smriti verse 73

“A barren wife may be superseded in the eighth year, she whose children (all) die in the tenth, she who bears only daughters in the eleventh, but she who is quarrelsome without delay.” [10] Manu Smriti 9.81

“Let not a husband show love to a barren woman, or to one who gives birth to female children only, or whose conduct is blamable, or who constantly contradicts him; if he does (have conjugal intercourse with her), he becomes liable to censure (himself).” [11] Narada Smriti 12.94

Its sad to see that Hindu’s are commanded to not love their wives who only give birth to female children only.

It is mentioned Shatapath Brahmana that a wife who has no son is a discarded wife and possessed with destruction,

“And on the following day he goes to the house of a discarded (wife), and prepares a pap for Nirriti;–a discarded wife is one who has no son…hail!’ For a wife that is without a son, is possessed with Nirriti (destruction, calamity)…” [12] Satapatha Brahmana 5.3.1.13

“…Once while he was listening to the religious discourses of the Munis, he heard unmistakeably the Munis telling that the man who is sonless can never go to the Heavens; so he must get a son somehow or other…” [13] Devi Bhagavatam 2.6.36-48

So anyone who is sonless can never go to hevean! Imagine the people who only have daughters!

“There is no prospect in the after birth of the sonless; never, never will Heaven be his. Without son, there is none other who can be of help in the next world. Thus in the Dharma S’âstras, Manu and other Munis declare that the man who has sons goes to Heaven and the sonless one can never go to Heaven. The man possessing a son is entitled to the Heavenly pleasures can be vividly seen, rather than imagined. The man with son is freed from sins; this is the word of the Vedas…” [14] Devi Bhagavatam 1.4.15-27

The life of a woman who has no son is useless… [15] Brahma Vaivarta Purana Ganesha Khanda 2.16-31

“In the case of the people of all castes, a woman in her monthly course should be avoided for the first four nights. To prevent the birth of a female child, one shall avoid the fifth night also. Thereafter he shall carnally approach her on the sixth or other excellent nights even in number. Boys will be born (if intercourse is carried out) on even nights and girls on nights odd in number.” [16] Brahma Purana 113.75-76

When he has finished, let him murmur, ‘Into thy breath I put the sperm, N.N.!’ Or, ‘As the earth is pregnant with Agni, as the heaven is with Indra pregnant, as Vayu dwells in the womb of the regions (of the earth), thus I place an embryo into thy womb, N.N.!’ Or, ‘May a male embryo enter thy womb, as an arrow the quiver; may a man be born here, a son after ten months. ‘Give birth to a male child; may after him (another) male be born; their mother shalt thou be, of the born, and (to others) mayst thou give birth… [17] Sankhayana Grihya Sutra 1.19.3-6

When there is already a male child then why wish for more male children? Dayanand Saraswati founder of Arya Samaj recommended Niyoga for procuring sons even when the couple had a daughter. Why so much discrimination against birth of daughters? Various other texts like Sankhayana Grihya Sutra 1.16.11; Narada Purana II.56.320-325; Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 6.4.20 also prays and gives instructions which secures the birth of a male child.

2# The reason why women were created according to Hinduism

According to Hinduism women were only created for lust and are nothing but lies and deceit.

”…There can be no creation without a woman. This is why at the command of Lord Krisna, Brahma created the woman to entice the heart of lustful people. The beauty of a woman is the seat of illusion, the bar or bolt (or obstacle) in the way of a man’s act or Karma, the impediment of meditation and the harbour of evil…” [18] Brahma Vaivarata Purana 61.22-41

The woman, created by the Lord, is the representation of maya, and one who associates with such maya by accepting services must certainly know that this is the way of death, just like a blind well covered with grass. “[19] Srimad Bhagavatam 3.31.40

Maya means illusion, deceit and fraud. Maharishi Manu writes that after creating women god allotted to them dishonesty, malice, bad conduct etc.

“(When creating them) Manu allotted to women (a love of their) bed, (of their) seat and (of) ornament, impure desires, wrath, dishonesty, malice, and bad conduct.” [20] Manu Smriti 9.17

It is also mentioned in Mahabharata,

The Sruti declares that women are endued with senses the most powerful, that they have no scriptures to follow, and that they are living lies. Beds and seats and ornaments and food and drink and the absence of all that is respectable and righteous, indulgence in disagreeable words, and love of sexual companionship,–these were bestowed by Brahman upon women. [21] Mahabharata 13.40

So we see that not only are women created only for lust(according to Hinduism) but also are “living lies”. and very repectfulness is abesnt in them.

3# Women are of Sinful birth!

Krishna said:
”For those who take refuge in Me. O Partha, though they be of sinful birth– women, Vaisyas, and Sudras even they attain the Supreme Goal.” [22] Bhagavad Gita 9.32 (Swami Nikhilananda translation)


“By adhering to this religion, even they who axe of sinful birth, such as women and Vaisyas and Sudras, attain to the highest goal.” [23] Mahabharata 14.19.61

Surrendered souls, even from groups leading sinful lives, such as women, the laborer class, the mountaineers and the Siberians, or even the birds and beasts, can also know about the science of Godhead and become liberated from the clutches of the illusory energy by surrendering unto the pure devotees of the Lord and by following in their footsteps in devotional service.” [24] Srimad Bhagavatam 2.7.46 (Swami Prabhupada translation)

4# Nature of women

To defile men is the nature of women, hence the wise are never infatuated nor un-circumspect about them. Man, by nature, is subject to lust and anger; women are quite competent to lead even the wise men astray, not to speak of fools, (their easy victims).” [25] Manu Smriti 2.213-214 ( M.N. Dutt translation)

Lakshmana addresses Sita in the following way,

”Thou art a very Goddess unto me, I therefore dare not answer thee. What thou hast spoken, O Maithili, is nothing surprising for females. Such is the nature of womankind on this earth. Women by nature are crooked, fickle, devoid of religious knowledge, and bring about difference between father and sons.” [26] Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, Sarga 45.29-30 (M.N. Dutt translation)

The fools do not understand how the women suck the blood out of persons like leeches, for they get themselves deluded by their gestures and postures! The lady of the house, whom the people call kântâ, the beautiful one, steal away the semen virile, the strength and energy in the way of giving them happiness as sexual intercourse, and their minds and wealth and everything by their crooked love conversations; so see what greater thief can there be than a woman? 

In my opinion, those that are ignorant are certainly deluded by the Creator; they accept wife to destroy their own pleasure of happiness. They can never understand that the women can never be the source of pleasure; they are the source of all miseries… [27] Devi Bhagavatam 1.15.1-67

5# The testimony of women are not valid

A woman should give witness for women likewise a Shudra for Shudra, Dvija for Dvija but in some cases (in which witness given by anyone is allowed) women’s witness is not valid at all. It is mentioned in Manu Smriti,

“One man who is free from covetousness may be (accepted as) witness; but not even many pure women, because the understanding of females is apt to waver, nor even many other men, who are tainted with sin.” [28] Manu Smriti 8.77

Do not put your trust in rivers, men who carry weapons, beasts with claws or horns, women and members of a royal family.” [29] Chanakya Neeti Shastra 1.15

6# Women are equivalent to dogs and pigs

“A Kandala, a village pig, a cock, a dog, a menstruating woman, and a eunuch must not look at the Brahmanas while they eat.” [30] Manu Smriti 3.239

Lull all the women, lull the dogs to sleep, with Indra as thy friend! [31] Atharva Veda 04.5.2

Shatpath Brahmana says that dog, Sudra and women are untruth,

“And whilst not coming into contact with Sûdras and remains of food; for this Gharma is he that shines yonder, and he is excellence, truth, and light; but woman, the Sûdra, the dog, and the black bird (the crow), are untruth: he should not look at these, lest he should mingle excellence and sin, light and darkness, truth and untruth.” [32] Satapatha Brahmana 14.1.1.31

Hindu texts often compare woman in her menses to dogs and pigs, and such things are still in practice. A Hindu temple board decided that women should be allowed inside temple only after the machine detects that they are not in their menstrual periods,

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3332227/Hindu-temple-declares-allow-women-enter-scanning-machine-designed-check-going-menstruating.html [33]

Another humiliating thing is that when a woman barged into a temple for worship, the idol and temple were purified by cow urine,

http://www.indiatimes.com/news/india/women-barge-into-temple-that-prohibits-women-priests-purify-it-with-cow-urine-after-they-leave-248748.html [34]

A Brahmana having touched a dog, a Sudra, or any other beast, or a woman in her menses, before washing his face after a meal, shall regain his purity by fasting for a day, and by taking Panchgavyam.” [35] Garuda Purana ch 231 (M.N. Dutt translation)

“…After touching a menstruous woman, a horse, a jackal, and other animals, or a woman recently delivered of a child, or people of low caste, one should bathe for the sake of purification…” [36] Markandeya Purana 35.26-28

“…A person who is conversant with righteousness becomes purified by taking a bath if he touches these: a medicant who is not worthy of being fed (?), a heretic, a cat, an ass, cook, a fallen man, an outcaste (a person ostracised), a Candala and those who bear dead bodies, a country pig and a woman in her monthly course…” [37] Brahma Purana 113.140-7 ( Board of Scholars translation , edited by J.L. Shastri)

“One shall avoid an article once smelt by a dog and cooked again. So also the article seen by a Candala, or a woman in her menses, or smelt by a cow, or seen by a fallen men, shall be avoided.” [38] Kurma Purana II.17.26 (G.V. Tagare translation)

“Nor that at which the slayer of a learned Brahmana has looked, nor that which has been touched by a menstruating woman, nor that which has been pecked at by birds or touched by a dog,”
[39] Manu Smriti 4.208

7# Women devoid of intellect

Swami Prabhupada founder of ISKCON writes,

To understand Brahman is not the business of a teeny brain. Alpa-medhasam (BG 7.23). There are two Sanskrit words: alpa-medhasa and su-medhasa. Alpa-medhasa means having little brain substance. Physiologically, within the brain there are brain substance. 

It is found that the brain substance in man is found up to sixty-four ounce. They are very highly intellectual persons. And in woman the brain substance is not found more than thirty-four ounce. You’ll find, therefore, that there is no very great scientist, mathematician, philosopher among women. 

You’ll never find, because their brain substance cannot go. Artificially do not try to become equal with men. That is not allowed in the Vedic śāstra. Na striyaṁ svatantratām arhati (Manu-saṁhitā). That is called śāstra.” [40] A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Lecture on BG 16.7, 2-3-1975, Hawaii http://vanisource.org/wiki/Lecture_on_BG_16.7_–_Hawaii,_February_3,_1975

He also writes,

”…Generally women are very much passionate and are less intelligent…” [41] A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada on Srimad Bhagavatam 4.27.1 [ http://vanisource.org/wiki/SB_4.27.1 ]

”…O Bhagavân! The woman kind has been created by the Creator as devoid of any Tattvajñâna or true knowledge…” [42] Devi Bhagavatam 9.38.1-6 (Swami Vijnananda translation)

” Indra himself hath said, The mind of woman brooks not discipline, Her intellect hath little weight.” [43] Rig Veda 8.33.17

Acharya Medadithi writes on Manu Smriti 9.18,

”Destitute of Organs.’- ‘Organ’ here stands for strength; courage, patience, intelligence, energy and so forth are absent in women” [44] Manu Smriti 9.18 ( Ganganath Jha translation)

8# Women should not be given freedom

Hinduism says that woman is dependent and not fit for being independent, she is incapable of being independent.

O Brahmanas, the following fall into hell: viz.- a woman who behave according to her own sweet will…” [45] Narada Purana, Uttarabhaga 24.46-47a (G.V. Tagare translation)

By a girl, by a young woman, or even by an aged one, nothing must be done independently, even in her own house. In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be independent.” [46] Manu Smriti 5.147-148

“When a maiden, her father; when married her husband; and when old, her sons, should protect her. In their absence, the kinsmen (should take care of her.) The women are never independent.” [47] Yajnavalkya Smriti verse 85

There is the well-known declaration of the scriptures that women are incompetent to enjoy freedom at any period of their life” [48] Mahabharata 13.45

Rishi Ashravakra said,

“Ashtavakra said, ‘Women can never be their own mistresses. This is the opinion of the Creator himself, viz., that a woman never deserves to be independent” [49] Mahabharata 13.20

”The father protects her in childhood, the husband in youth and the son in old age. A woman is not to be allowed to stay independently.” [50] Garuda Purana 1.115.63 ( J.L. Shastri translation)

Not to act by herself in any matter; To remain subject, in her infancy, to her father, in her youth, to her husband; and in her old age, to her sons.” [51] Vishnu Smriti 25.12-13

Women do not possess independence. Now they quote also (the following verse): ‘Their father protects (them) in childhood, their husband protect (them) in youth, and their sons protect (them) in old age; a woman is never fit for independence.’”
[52] Baudhayana Dharma Shastra 2.2.3.44-5

Swami Prabhupada writes,

”… woman is not supposed to take sannyāsa. So-called spiritual societies concocted in modern times give sannyāsa even to women, although there is no sanction in the Vedic literature for a woman’s accepting sannyāsa. Otherwise, if it were sanctioned, Kardama Muni could have taken his wife and given her sannyāsa. The woman must remain at home. 

She has only three stages of life: dependency on the father in childhood, dependency on the husband in youth and, in old age, dependency on the grown-up son, such as Kapila. In old age the progress of woman depends on the grown-up son.” [53] A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada on Srimad Bhagavatam 3.24.40 [ http://vanisource.org/wiki/SB_3.24.40 ]

9# Woman are nothing but child production machines

”The fruits of the Vedas are ceremonies performed before the (homa) fire; the fruits of an acquaintance with the scriptures are goodness of disposition and conduct. The fruits of women are the pleasures of intercourse and offspring.” [54] Mahabharata 5.39 (K.M. Ganguli translation)

Women have been created for the sake of propagation, the wife being the field, and the husband the giver of the seed. The field must be given to him who has seed. He who has no seed in unworthy to possess the field.” [55] Narada Smriti 12.19

Women are created to conceive pregnancies, and men are created to impregnate women. Hence, like the act of procreation, the religion duties of the husband and wife are correlated. This is said in the Veda.” [56] Manu Smriti 9.96 ( M.N. Dutt translation)

10# Women are bad luck

“Woman with hairy sides and breasts and high lips: husband dies soon.” [57] Garuda Purana 1.64.8 (Board of Scholars translation , edited by J.L. Shastri)

”little finger and thumb of a woman placed on the ground do not rest there: she will become a widow and of ill repute. Woman who shakes the ground as she treads, kills her husband quickly and lives like a mleccha woman.” [58] Garuda Purana 1.64.11-12 (Board of Scholars translation , edited by J.L. Shastri)

(-> Samudrika) a round face: prosperity, lady will beget son, a long face: poverty, misfortune, great sorrow, a square face: coward, sinner, rogue, a depressed face: issuelessness, a short face: miserliness” [59] Garuda Purana 1.65.57-60 (Board of Scholars translation , edited by J.L. Shastri)

”long neck of woman: destruction of family.” [60] Garuda Purana 1.65.114 (Board of Scholars translation , edited by J.L. Shastri)

11# Its encouraged to beat women

Believe or not. Hinduism not only permits beating wives but also encourages them.

”Wicked persons, artisans, slaves, defiled ones, drums and women are softened by being beaten; they do not deserve gentle handling.”s but also encourages it. [61] Garuda Purana 1.109.31 (Board of Scholars translation , edited by J.L. Shastri)

It is mentioned in Tulsi Ramayana,

” A drum, a rustic, a Shudra, a beast and a woman all these deserve to be beaten up.” [62] Tulsi Ramayana, Sundar Kanda, Doha 58.3

“If she does not willingly yield her body to him, he should buy her with presents. If she is still unyielding, he should strike her with a stick or with his hand and overcome her, repeating the following mantra: “With power and glory I take away your glory.” Thus she becomes discredited.” [63] Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 6.4.7 (Swami Nikhilananda translation)

But a wife cannot beat her husband by defending herself.

If she desires to beat her husband in retaliation, she becomes a tiger or a wild cat. She who ogles at another man becomes squint eyed. She who partakes of a sweet dish denying the same to her husband becomes a pig in the village or a wild goat eating its own dung. She who addresses her husband in a singular becomes dumb. She who is jealous of a cow-wife becomes ill-fated in matrimony again and again.” [64] Shiva Purana, Rudra Samhita 2, Parvatikhanda section III, 54.53-55 ( J.L. Shastri translation)

“On being struck, if she were to strike him back, she is reborn as a tigress or a cat…” [65]Skanda Purana III.ii.7.43 ( G.V. Tagare translation)

12# Women are Barred from studying Vedas, to perform sacrifice and to worship

Before teaching Veda to students, a ceremony is to be performed called Upanayana. After this ceremony the Dvija students are made to wear sacred thread. You may have seen Brahmins wearing this thread but have you ever heard of women wearing this thread? It’s because women are not allowed to study the Vedas. 

And as per Hindu scripture people who have gone through Upanayana ceremony alone are eligible to read the Vedas. It is mentioned in Agni Purana,

“…The women are not entitled to utter the Veda Mantras, and hence they are not invested with the holy threads, but their marriage ceremonies should be celebrated by repeating the sacred hymns of the Vedas.” [66] Agni Purana 152.9-12 ( M.N. Dutt translation)

The reason behind why women cannot study the Vedas is because they are considered “weak” and “meek”

Women are by their nature meek and weak, women cannot study the Sastras.” [67] Matsya Purana 154.156-74 (Taluqdar of Oudh edited by B.D. Basu)

Maharishi Manu writes that marriage for a woman is equivalent to study of Vedas, which means they should not study it,

This whole series (of ceremonies) must be performed for females (also), in order to sanctify the body, at the proper time and in the proper order, but without (the recitation of) sacred texts. [68] Manu Smriti 2.66

“For female children the same ceremonies, (beginning with the birth ceremony, should be performed, but) without Mantras. The marriage ceremony only has to be performed with Mantras for them.” [69] Vishnu Smriti 27.13-14

Hindu scripture even punishes people in hell for reading Vedas in presence of women and Shudras,

“I shall mention the fruits of sins accruing to those who engage themselves in the recitation and study of the Vedas in the vicinity of women and Sudras. Listen to it attentively. They are compelled to stand with their heads down and legs upwards. Thus, they are nailed to two pillars and are compelled to inhale smoke continuously in this posture. They stay thus for the period of year of god Brahma.” [70] Narada Purana I.15.100-1 ( G.V. Tagare translation)

The sacrament of marriage is to a female, what initiation with the thread is to a male. The service of the husband is to the wife, what his residence in the preceptor’s house, as a religious student, is to the husband; the household duty is to a woman, what the making of burnt offerings is to man.” [71] Manu Smriti 2.67

Below is Buhler’s translation,

“The nuptial ceremony is stated to be the Vedic sacrament for women (and to be equal to the initiation), serving the husband (equivalent to) the residence in (the house of the) teacher, and the household duties (the same) as the (daily) worship of the sacred fire.” [72] Manu Smriti 2.67 ( Buhler’s translation)

Maharishi Manu clearly writes,

For women no (sacramental) rite (is performed) with sacred texts [Vedic Mantras], thus the law is settled; women (who are) destitute of strength and destitute of (the knowledge of) Vedic texts, (are as impure as) falsehood (itself), that is a fixed rule.” [73] Manu Smriti 9.18

Below it states that the only way women can get to heaven is by serving their husbands alone.

” [Markandeya Rishi said] As regards women again, neither sacrifice nor sraddhas, nor fasts are of any efficacy. By serving their husbands only they can win heaven.” [74] Mahabharata 3.204

It is mentioned in Linga Purana that women are not authorized to perform worship [i.e. to lead prayers/sacrifices],

”Rudra, Mahadeva, the grandfather stationed in the mystic diagram is worthy of being worshipped by the Brahmins, Ksatriyas and Vaisyas as well. For the Sudras the service rendered to a worshipper is enough. Undoubtedly women are not authorised to perform worship. If the worship is conducted through leading Brahmins, women and Sudras shall derive the same benefit.” [75] Linga Purana Section II 20.1-3 ( Board of Scholars translation, Edited by J.L. Shastri)

A woman should never worship a salagrama. If a woman who is a widow or whose husband is alive, who desires her well-being in heaven, touches through ignorance a salagrama, she would, even though she is endowed with good character and virtues, be deprived of her collection of religious merit and would quickly go to hell…” [76] Padma Purana V.20.23-27 ( N.A. Deshpande translation)

” No sacrifice, no penance, and no fasting is allowed to women apart from their husbands; to pay obedience to her lord is the only means for a woman to obtain bliss in heaven.” [77] Vishnu Smriti 25.15

”The degenerated twice-borns, the Sudras and women are barred from the holy truths of the Vedas, and, out of compassion for them, Maharshi Vyasa composed the Mahabharata.” [78] Srimad Bhagavatam 1.4.25 ( J.M. Sanyal translation)

”In regard to the people of the first three castes the rite of holy bath and the reception of Mantras is in the manner mentioned in the Vedas. The utterance of the Vedic passage is to be avoided by women as well as Sudras.” [79] Brahma Purana 64.19 ( J.L. Shastri translation)

Women are not even allowed to utter Om and Vedic Japas,

“The procedure for the holy dip and the repetition of Japas is, in regard to the three castes, the same as mentioned in the Vedas. O fair lady, in regard to the Sudras and the women the repetition of the Vedic texts is to be avoided…” [80] Narada Purana, Uttarabhaga 61.51-53 ( G.V. Tagare translation)

“This is called Visnu Gayatri which removes all sins. Tara=om., hrt=namah, then bhagavan ending in the dative case, then vausdevaya. This great mantra consisting of twelve syllables gives enjoyment and salvation. This is to be used without tara=om by women and sudras but by the twice born it is used with tara=om.” [81] Narada Purana III.70.72-73 translation by G.V. Tagare

“The following six things cause downfall of women and Sudras: japa, penance, pilgrimage, renunciation of the world, practice of Mantras and initiation for the adoration of a deity” [82] Skanda Purana V.iii.228.9 translation by G.V. Tagare

Some apologists put forth their arguments that many verses of Vedas were revealed to Rishika (female Rishi) so there is no prohibition for women from studying the Vedas.

What apologists do is they quote some particular incidents out of context and try to interpret it in their own way. Vedas even have verses spoken by a prostitute, the Rishika of some verses is a prostitute, it doesn’t mean that common women should also be engaged in prostitution. As you may know the Rishika of Rig Veda Mandal 10 Sukt 95 is Urvashi. Urvashi was a Apsara (Nirukta 5.13) and Swami Prabhupada writes that ”Urvaśī, a prostitute of the heavenly kingdom”,

”Mitra and Varuṇa chanced to meet Urvaśī, the most beautiful prostitute of the heavenly kingdom, and they became lusty…” [83] A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada on Srimad Bhagavatam 9.13.6 http://vanisource.org/wiki/SB_9.13.6

It is mentioned in Devi Bhagavatam,

“…those that are sprung from Tamo Guna are recognised as worst and belonging to the unknown families. They are very scurrilous, cheats, ruining their families, fond of their own free ways, quarrelsome and no seconds are found equal to them. Such women become prostitutes in this world and Apsaras in the Heavens…” [84] Devi Bhagavatam 9.1.96-143 translation by Swami Vijnananda

This is one of the old tricks of Hindu apologists. They quote verses praising goddesses and present it as Vedas praising common women. Hindu apologists should provide reference showing that common women can also study the Vedas. Some people may argue that Urvashi was not a prostitute but they can never deny the fact that Urvashi was an adulteress. 

When trying to show equality among castes in Hinduism, Apologists often say that ‘Vasistha was born of a prostitute but became a Rishi‘, He was born out of the mind of Urvashi the prostitute but not born from her womb. So apologists change their stand to suit their vested interest. Renowned Hindu scholar Madhvacharya writes,

“…Those of the first three castes who are sincerely devoted to the Lord Hari (the purifier) are fit to acquire knowledge as given in the Vedic texts. And the women (of the celestial order) are also eligible for the study of Scripture; and they are Urvasi, Yami (the wife of Yama), Sachi and other goddesses, (as also the wives of Rishis)…” [85] Madhvacharya on Brahma Sutra Pada 1, Adhyaya 1.1, Translation by S. Subba Rau

Madhvacharya affirmed my statement that study of Veda for women is limited to special women like Urvashi, Yami, Sachi etc. which means that common women cannot study Vedas. Krishna says in Gita,

”For those who take refuge in Me. O Partha, though they be of sinful birth- women, Vaisyas, and Sudras even they attain the Supreme Goal.” [86] Baghavad Gita 9.32 Translation by Swami Nikhilananda

Hindu scholar named Swami Swarupananda writes,

”Of inferior birth…Shudras because by birth, the Vaishyas are engaged only in agriculture, etc., and the women and Shudras are debarred from the study of the Vedas.” [87] [Swami Swarupananda on Bhagwad Gita 9.32, page 216, Advaita Ashrama, Published by Swami Chidatmananda, President, Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati, Almora, Himalayas] also available online at http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/sbg/sbg14.htm

Swami Nikhilananda writes,

”The Vaisyas are engaged in agriculture and trade; women and Sudras are debarred from the study of the Vedas. Therefore all these classes of people remain outside the Vedic scheme of salvation…” [88] [Swami Nikhilananda on The Bhagwad Gita 9.32, page 233, Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center, 1944, Printed in USA by The Haddon Craftsmen, Inc.]
http://www.estudantedavedanta.net/Srimad%20Bhagavad%20Gita%20with%20Commentary%20-%20Swami%20Nikhilananda%20(1944)%20%5BEnglish%5D.pdf

13# Women are like Shudras

Women belonging to the upper three castes are not Shudras but are treated like Shudras. They are considered to be on the same level as the Shudra. Hindu text often mention Shudra on par with Women,

” Let him who desires bodily purity first sip water three times, and then twice wipe his mouth; but a woman and a Sudra (shall perform each act) once (only).” [89] Manu Smriti 5.139

“But he who has eaten the food of men, whose food must not be eaten, or the leavings of women and Sudras, or forbidden flesh, shall drink barley (-gruel) during seven (days and) nights.” [90] Manu Smriti 11.153

”The leavings of food from a Sraddha should not be given to women or Sudras.” [91] Brahmanda Purana 2.3.15.56 Translation by G.V. Tagare

“That man who thinks it all right when a Sudra ignites the fire upon which he is to pour libations or who does not see any fault when women who are incompetent to assist at Sraddhas and other rites are allowed to assist at them, really becomes stained with sin.” [92] Mahabharata 13.128

Manu also states that during the period of a vow it is not proper on any account to talk to a woman, a Sudra and an outcaste,

” Let him bathe three times each day and thrice each night, dressed in his clothes; let him on no account talk to women, Sudras, and outcasts.” [93] Manu Smriti 11.224

14# Duty of a Wife

According to Hindusim the only way a Wife can achieve heaven is only by serving their husbands and nothing else.

”…The eternal Dharma of women is to serve their husbands; whether the husband be a saint or a sinner, the woman, desirous of her welfare, should serve her husband in every way…” [94] Devi Bhagavatam 6.18.7-24

No sacrifice, no vow, no fast must be performed by women apart (from their husbands); if a wife obeys her husband, she will for that (reason alone) be exalted in heaven. A faithful wife, who desires to dwell (after death) with her husband, must never do anything that might displease him who took her hand, whether he be alive or dead.” [95] Manu Smriti 5.155-6

“Those (women) who strive (to do what is) agreeable to their husbands will gain heaven.” [96] Baudhayana Dharma Shastra 2.2.3.47

‘‘The highest duty of a woman is to carry out the behests of her husband. Sixteen nights subsequent to the month menstrual flow are the nights of rut for women. The husband shall restrain himself during the parvan (full moon and new moon days), when the stars Magha and Mula are ascendant and on the first four nights. Thereafter, on even nights, he will be able to beget a healthy son of auspicious traits. 

If the woman is in a mood to receive him on any night he should satisfy her by remembering that lust in women is terrible.” [97] Garuda Purana 1.95.24-26 Translation by J.L. Shastri

”The women are able to attain heaven and emancipation, if they serve their husbands…” [98] Devi Bhagavatam 3.19.11 Translation by Swami Vijnananda

” As women have one eternal duty, in this world, viz., dependence upon and obedient service to their husbands, and as such duty constitutes their only end, even so is the service to Brahmanas Our eternal duty and end.” [99] Mahabharata 13.59

“If, out of wickedness, a woman does not render physical service to her husband, she must be punished by abandoning her for twelve years, without giving her financial assistance.” [100] Narada Purana I.14.17 Translation G.V. Tagare

Hinduism also says that a wife should stick to husband even if the husband is foolish, devoid of qualities, beats her, is impotent etc.,

“Though destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsewhere), or devoid of good qualities, (yet) a husband must be constantly worshipped as a god by a faithful wife” [101] Manu Smriti 5.154

“Even if the husband is poor, fallen, foolish or wretched, he is the refuge unto his wife. By abandoning him a woman falls into hell.” [102] Skanda Purana II.iv.4.74 Translation by G.V. Tagare

“…The duties of chaste women have been enumerated by Sage Vyasa. She takes food after the husband has taken food; when he stands, she stands up together. She goes to bed after he has gone to sleep, and gets up before him…She does not speak out the name of her husband in order to give him long life. 

She never mentions the name of another man too. Even when dragged by him, she does not cry aloud. Even if she is beaten by him, she continues to be gracious. When he says, ‘Do this’, she reples, ‘My lord, be assured that it is done.’ When she is called, she leaves off the work on hand and goes to him quickly (and says) ‘Wherefore, O lord have I been called? Be pleased to tell me that…

She partakes of the leavings of her husband’s food, fruit etc. liked by him. She completely avoids watching community festivals etc. (if he is not accompanying her). She should not exhibit bold wilfulness in anything except during sexual dalliance. She should always express her interest and delight whenever her husband shows his interest. She should never transgress the words of her husband… 

She should never stray from her husband even if he is impotent, miserably placed, sickly, senile, infirm or unsteady…If a woman transgresses the injunction of her husband and performs holy rites, fasts and other observances, she takes away the longetivity of her husband. After her death, she falls into a hell. A hot-tempered woman who, when addressed, gives rude replies, is reborn as a bitch in a village or as a vixen in a desolate forest. 

This is said to be the greatest and only sacred observance of women that they should resolve to take their food only after worshipping the feet of their husbands. (A chaste woman) should not occupy a seat higher (than that of her husband)…

On being struck, if she were to strike him back, she is reborn as a tigress or a cat…She who sets aside her husband and partakes of sweet dishes alone, is reborn in a village as a female pig or a bat feeding on faeces.” [103] Skanda Purana III.ii.7.15-44 Translation by G.V. Tagare

This is how women are punished if they don’t obey their husbands and uses harsh words against them,

“If any woman, being very furious with anger, chastises and uses harsh words to her husband, she goes to Ulkâmukha Kunda for as many years as there are hairs on his body. My servants put fiery meteors or torches in her mouth and beat on her head. At the end of the term, she becomes a human being but she has to bear the torments of widowhood for seven births. 

Then she is again born as diseased; when at last she gets herself freed. The Brâhmana woman, enjoyed by a S’ûdra, goes to the terrible dark Andhakûpa hell, where she remains, day and night, immersed in the impure water and eats that for fourteen Indra’s life periods. Her pains are unbounded and My messengers beat her severely and incessantly.” [104] Devi Bhagavatam 9.35.1-44 Translation by Swami Vijnananda

15# Women are sex maniacs

Ordinarily sexual appetite is very strong in women. Especially during menses, they are afflicted all the more by the arrows of Kama. Shunned or neglected by their husbands, women naturally think about paramours.” [105] Skanda Purana V.iii.121.7-9 Translation by G.V. Tagare

“Verily, women are exceedingly fond of sexual congress. Among a thousand women, or, perhaps, among hundreds of thousands, sometimes only one may be found that is devoted to her husband. When under the influence of desire, they care not for family or father or mother or brother or husband or sons or husband’s brother (but pursue the way that desire points out). 

Verily, in pursuit of what they consider happiness, they destroy the family (to which they belong by birth or marriage) even as many queenly rivers eat away the banks that contain them. The Creator himself had said this, quickly marking the faults of women.” [106] Mahabharata 13.19

“The heart of a woman is not united; it is divided. While she is talking with one man, she looks lustfully at another and thinks fondly of a third in her heart.” [107] Chanakya Neeti Shastra 16.2

“…O lord of gods, the vulva, and also the tips of the breasts of women, throb. They do not have patience…” [108] Padma Purana II.53.11b-20

”There is none more sinning and more sinful than women. Women are at the root of all sins…Women usually do not observe the limitations of conventional decency. If at all they stand by them with their husbands it is because no man makes advances to them or because they are afraid of their husbands…

They carry on their dalliances with any man ugly or beautiful…Even women of noble families aspire for the life of lascivious women who in their prime of youth adorned with lovable ornaments and beautiful wearing garments move about frivolously…

Women become desperate when they do not get men…women are not satiated with the number of men they cohabit with. O excellent sage, there is another secret of all women that immediately on seeing a man their vaginal passage begins to exude slimy secretions. 

On seeing a man fresh and clean from his bath with his body perfumed with sweet scents, the vaginal passage of women begins to exude like water dripping from a leather bag…on hearing her words Narada was satisfied in his mind. Considering it to be the truth.” [108] Shiva Purana, UmaSamhita 5.24.16-36 Translation by J.L. Shastri

”A delicious fatty meat diet, pleasing dress, glowing wine, fragrant scented pastes, and sweet smelling flowers kindle passion in women. It can be said with certainty that even during the period of celibacy the god of love is busily active. On seeing a man pleasing to her heart the vagina of a woman becomes wet with profuse secretion. 

O Saunaka, it is true, definitely true that the vaginal passage of a woman begins to secrete profusely on seeing a well dressed man whether a brother or a son. Rivers and women are of similar nature in their love of freedom to choose their own course. The rivers erode the banks and the women undermine their own families. 

The river undermines the banks and the woman causes the fall of the family. The course of rivers and women is wayward and cannot be checked. A blazing fire cannot be satiated with sufficient supply of fuel; the ocean can never be filled to satiety by rivers flowing into it; the god of death is never satiated by the living beings (whom he smites) and a passionate woman is never satiated with man.” [109] Garuda Purana 1.109.35-40 ( Board of Scholars translation, edited by J.L. Shastri)

16# Women cannot choose their husbands

“…The girl must accept him to whom the father betroths. The girl is under every circumstance dependent. Never do they get any independence…” [110] Devi Bhagavatam 6.22.31-36 Translation by Swami Vijnananda

Him to whom her father may give her, or her brother with the father’s permission, she shall obey as long as he lives, and when he is dead, she must not insult (his memory)” [111] Manu Smriti 5.151

Hinduism gives a list of girls that must be avoided for marriage but there is no mention of how a girl should choose her husband,

“A twice-born should marry a virgin who is endowed with good features and beauty, who is born of a good family, who possesses good qualities, whose conduct and habits are good and who practises righteous activities. The intelligent Brahmana should marry a girl beyond the seventh remove his father and fifth remove from his mother; otherwise he is on a par with the defiler of the preceptor’s bed. 

A sensible man should not marry a girl who is sickly, whose eyes are round, who is born in a family of ailing persons (i.e. with unhealthy heredity), who has too much hair or who has no hair at all or who is garrulous. A wise person should not marry a girl who is hot-tempered, too short, too tall (in stature), who is wanting in any limb, who has an extra limb (i.e. physically handicapped or abnormal), who is mad, or slanderous. 

One should not marry a girl with heavy, big ankles or long shanks or has masculine features with traces of moustache and beard and is hunchbacked. 

A prudent person should not marry a girl who laughs without reason, who stays in others’ houses always, is habitually contentious, wayward and ruthless. A sensible man should not marry a voracious girl whose teeth and lips are too large and thick, who snorts and grumbles, who is very dark or red in complexion, or who is cunning and mischievous. 

One should not marry a girl who is always given to weeping, is of pallid complexion, who is despicable, a chronic patient of cough and Asthma or of somnolent nature. 

A sagacious man should not marry a girl who habitually speaks worthless and meaningless words, who is interested in antagonizing the world, who is in the habit of scandalising others or is a thief. A worldly-wise man should by no means marry a girl whose nose is too long, who is a liar, and a cheat, whose body is covered with hair, who is arrogant or a religious hypocrite. 

If the marriage had taken place during childhood when the real nature had not been realised and if her defect is realized after maturity, he should by all means forsake her. If any woman is always harsh and ruthless to the husband and children but is favourably disposed towards others, he (the husband) should by all means forsake her.” [112] Narada Purana I.26.3-14 Translation by G.V. Tagare

17# Derogatory remarks against women

Krishna said,

“Looking at Narada, Krsna bent down his face in shame. He then told Narada in detail about the nature of women and their conduct leading to sin. ‘They have no consideration of time, or secrecy of what they do. Still they pass to be virtuous. Women irrespective of their age, whether they be girls, teenagers, middle-aged or advanced in age, get their passion excited at the sight of a handsome man. O great sage, this is natural to them.” [113] Varaha Purana 177.17-22 Translation by Venkitasubramonia Iyer, J.L. Shastri

Falsehood, vain boldness, craftiness, stupidity, impatience, over-greediness, impurity, and harshness are the natural qualities of women.” [114]Devi Bhagavatam 1.5.83 Translation by Swami Vijnananda

”The diet of a woman is twice as much as that of a man; shrewdness four times, energy is six times and amorousness is eight times as much as that of a man. It is impossible to overcome sleep by sleeping it off; to overpower a woman by loving her; to smother a flame by adding fuel and to quench thirst by drinking wine.” [115] Garuda Purana 1.109.33-34 Translation by Board of Scholars, edited by J.L. Shastri

“Women have hunger two fold, shyness four fold, daring six fold, and lust eight fold as compared to men.” [116] Chanakya Neeti Shastra 1.17

”…The heart of women is keen like the edge of a razor…Immodesty and daring characterise their conduct, and their deeds are tainted with defect and hypocrisy. O Lord of the universe the lust of a woman is eight times as great; hunger twice as great and cruelty, four times as great as the lust, hunger and cruelty of a man…” [117] Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Brahma Khanda 23.14-39 Translation by Rajendra Nath Sen

“(Such) despicable (persons), likewise animals, and particularly women betray secret council; for that reason he must be careful with respect to them” [118] Manu 7.150

“Urvasi said: My dear King, you are a man, a hero. Don’t be impatient and give up your life. Be sober and don’t allow the senses to overcome you like foxes. Don’t let the foxes eat you. In other words, you should not be controlled by your senses. Rather, you should know that the heart of a woman is like that of a fox. There is no use making friendship with women. Women as a class are merciless and cunning. 

They cannot tolerate even a slight offense. For their own pleasure they can do anything irreligious, and therefore they do not fear killing even a faithful husband or brother. Women are very easily seduced by men. Therefore, polluted women give up the friendship of a man who is their well-wisher and establish false friendship among fools. Indeed, they seek newer and newer friends, one after another.” [119] Bhagawad Purana 9.14.36-38 Translation by Swami Prabhupada

”The prosperity of a kingdom comes to an end with the curse of a brahmana; the spiritual power of a brahmana comes to an end with his sin; all decency in conduct of life comes to an end if residence is taken near cowsheds; the family is ruined if women rule.” [120] Garuda Purana 1.115.59 Translation by Board of Scholars, edited by J.L. Shastri

“Courtesy should be learned from princes, the art of conversation from pandits, lying should be learned from gamblers and deceitful ways should be learned from women.” [121] Chanakya Neeti Shastra 12.18

“Courtesy should be learned from princes, the art of conversation from pandits, lying should be learned from gamblers and deceitful ways should be learned from women.” [122] Chanakya Neeti Shastra 12.18

Hinduism also views barren women and widows as degraded women,

“…Whoever eats food offered by a childless widow or a woman in her menses dwells in the pit of red hot iron for a century.” [123] Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Prakriti Khanda 29.42-53

“…He who takes the food of a childless widow and the same of any woman that has just bathed after menstruation goes for one hundred years to the hot Lauha Kunda (where iron is in a molten condition). For seven births he becomes then a crow and for seven births he becomes born of a washerwoman, full of sores and boils, and poor. Then he gets purified.” [124] Devi Bhagavatam 9.33.20-50 Translation by Swami Vijnananda

“Having seen an insane, intoxicated or deformed person he shall turn back in his journey…Similarly, having seen persons clad in Kashaya (yellow-tinged) or dirty clothes as well as Kapilas, barren women, eunuchs, haunch-backed persons one shall refrain from starting on a journey.” [125] Vishnu Samhita 65.33-35 Translation by M.N Dutt

Boiled rice should not be partaken of in the house of a barren woman. He, who unknowingly eats at such a house, is consigned to the hell of Puyasam, after death.” [126] Apastamba Samhita 9.24 Translation by M.N. Dutt

“…A pregnant woman, a widow, drugs such as the Pinyaka, etc., a Chandala, a member of the Shvapacha or any other vile caste, a butcher, or a killer of birds, should be removed from the presence of a man, about to start a journey…” [127] Agni Purana chapter 230 Translation by M.N. Dutt

Hinduism says that whores becomes widows and barren in next life,

“…A whore after having suffered the torments of hell called Raurava for a long time attains the form of a useless worm for a century and by turns for seven birth she attain the condition of a widow, a barren woman, an untouchable woman of low class and a woman with her nose cut…” [128] Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Krishna Janma Khanda 85.105-116 Translation by Rajendra Nath Sen

Hinduism even says that one should avoid the sight of a widow, a barren woman and equates them to bastard, theives etc,

“O father, now I am going to describe to you things whose sight is sinful. Bad dream is the root of sin and sole cause of calamity. The sight of the following…the cook of a S’udra, one who burns the corpse of a S’udra, a Brahmin who eats food prepared in connexion with the funerals of a S’udra…a S’udra, a widow, a Candal…a bastard, a thief, a liar…a Brahmin who is the husband of a barren woman, a S’udra who commits adultery with a Brahmin woman…” [129] Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Krishna Janma Khanda 78.33-41 Translation by Rajendra Nath Sen

Hinduism also equates whores to childless widows and prohibits eating their food,

“…O lord of the Vraja, a Brahmin who accidently uses food offered by a woman in her menses, a whore, or a childless widow undoubtedly consumes odour. He always leads an impure life as long as he lives…” [130] Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Krishna Janma Khanda 85.53-61 Translation by Rajendra Nath Sen

“A widow is more inauspicious than all inauspicious things. Never can there be accomplishment of anything when a widow is sighted. All widows except one’s mother are devoid of auspiciousness. A wise man must avoid their blessings, like serpents. At the time of the marriage of a girl, the Brahmanas shall recite thus: ‘She shall be the constant companion of her husband whether he is alive or not.” [131] Skanda Purana III.ii.7.50-52 Translation by G.V. Tagare

Following verses shows how a widow should lead her life, it also talks about tonsuring widows,

“A Brahmin widow should daily take boiled rice with ghee at sunset and never cherish lust in her heart as the S’astras hold. Such a widow must not put on fine clothes; she should avoid the use of spices, incense, oil, wreath, sandal, conch-shell, vermillion and ornaments. 

She should put on dirty clothes and remember Narayana alone. She should not use sweet-meat and must avoid riches (or splendour)….A widow sleeping on a bedstead causes the downfall of her husband; and if she mounts a car, she goes to hell. A widow ought not to polish her hair or cleanse her body. And if the clusters of her hair be knotted, she may shave them off even in places not meant for pilgrimage. 

A widow should not anoint her body with oil. She should not see her face in the looking-glass or behold the face of any other man. She should not witness an opera, dance, a grand festival or see the face of a dancer, a singer or a well-dressed man. She should always listen to pious narratives as recited in the Sama Veda…” [132] Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Krishna Janma Khanda 83.92-124 Translation by Rajendra Nath Sen

“A kingdom without Vaisnavas is like a widow with tresses of hair not removed or like Vrata (without taking) holy bath or like Dvadasi with Dasami overlapping it.” [133] Skanda Purana II.v.11.36 Translation by G.V. Tagare

“A widow who habitually lies on a couch causes the downfall of her husband. Hence she should resort to the habit of lying on the ground, if she desires for the ultimate happiness of her husband. Cleansing of the body with fragrant unguents should never be indulged in by a widow. She would never make use of sweet scents.” [134] Skanda Purana III.ii.7. 67-68 Translation by G.V. Tagare

“A widow shall avoid during a year (the use of) honey, meat spirituous liquor, and salt, and sleep on the ground. Maudgalya (declares that she shall do so) during six months.” [135] Baudhyana Dharma Sutra 2.2.4.7-9

18# How to determine the nature of a woman according to Hindusim

Wondering how to find if a woman is a whore, adulteress or murderer of her husband? Need not to worry, Garuda Purana has a list that can describe her nature.

( I am using the translation of Board of Scholars edited by J.L. Shastri for)

“If the palm is placed on the ground and the little finger and the ring finger do not touch the ground, she is surely a whore.” [136] Garuda Purana 1.65.112

“stout neck: she becomes very fierce. Squint in the eyes, dark blue or tawny in the eyes, roving eyes: absence of chastity” [137] Garuda Purana1.65.115

If any women who has 2 dimples that are visibile on her cheels. Unfortunately you are a whore.

“If when she smiles two dimples are seen in the cheeks, she is surely one adulteress.” [138] Garuda Purana 1.65.116

“…if the buttocks hang down, she kills her husband. A mustache-like growth of hair above the upper lip is inauspicious for the husband.” [139] Garuda Purana 1.65.117

“Hairy breasts are inauspicious and uneven ears too are inauspicious.” [140] Garuda Purana 1.65.118

19# Proud wife should be punished

”The woman who is disobedient to her husband on account of being proud of her brothers, etc., should be driven out of the house by the king.” [141] Matsya Purana 225.132 Translation by Taluqdar of Oudh, Edited by B.D. Basu

“If a wife, proud of the greatness of her relatives or (her own) excellence, violates the duty which she owes to her lord, the king shall cause her to be devoured by dogs in a place frequented by many.” [142] Manu 8.371

20# A Widow should be burned just because her husband died!

“When a woman burns her body with her husband’s, the fire burns her limbs only, but does not afflict her soul” [143] Garuda Purana 10.42 Translation by Ernest Wood and S.V Subrahmanyam, Edited by B.D. Basu.

Dying Immediately after the husband is the greatest duty of women. This is the path laid down in the Vedas. [77] The woman who follows her husband shall stay in heaven for as many years as there are hairs in a man’s body, viz. three and a half crores of years.” [144] Brahma Purana 10.75 Translation by Board of Scholars, Edited by J.L. Shastri

“A widow, who immolates herself on the same funeral pile with her deceased husband, resides in heaven for ten millions of years, which is the number of hairs on the human body.” [145] Parasara Smriti 4.28 Translation by M.N. Dutt

Even a animals like cows is given more importance and respect in Hinduism than women. Women are treated like a commodity. Hinduism has deprived women of their basic rights. It confines them to four walls of the house. Women in Hinduism is nothing but a child production factory and sex object. I have not added alot of verses in this article because other articles already have already dealt with it.

21# No Inheritance for Woman in Vedas and are considered weak and powerless.

Women are powerless, have no inheritance, and speak more humbly than even a bad man.” [146] Krishna Yajur Veda 6.5.8.1

It is mentioned in Baudhayana in the inheritance section,

The Veda declares, ‘Therefore women are considered to be destitute of strength and of a portion.” [147] Baudhayana Dharma Shastra 2.2.3.46

In the Rig Veda,

“The son does not transfer paternal wealth to his sister. He makes her receptacle of the embryo of her husband. When parents procreate children of either sex, one (the male) becomes the performer of holy rites (he is the legal inheriter), the other (the female) is to be enriched with gifts.” [148] Rig Veda 3.31.2 Translation by Svami Satyaprakash Saraswati

22# Its okay to Rape women

If she should not grant him his desire, he should bribe herIf she still does not grant him his desire, he should hit her with a stick or with his hand, and overcome her, saying: ‘With power, with glory I take away your glory!’ Thus she becomes inglorious.” [149] Brihadâranyaka Upanishad VI:4:6.

A damsel whose menses begin to appear (while she is living) at her father’s house, before she has been betrothed to a man, has to be considered as a degraded woman: by taking her (without the consent of her kinsmen) a man commits no wrong.”
[150] Vishnu [SBE7] 24:41

The verse below frees a rapist of any responsibility

 A man who has committed a bestial crime, or an unnatural crime with a female, or has had intercourse in water, or with a menstruating woman, shall perform a Samtapana Krikkhra” [151] Manu XI:174

what is Samtapana Krikkhra?

“(Subsisting on) the urine of cows, cowdung, milk, sour milk, clarified butter, and a decoction of Kusa-grass, and fasting during one (day and) night, (that is) called a Samtapana Krikkhra” [152] Manu Smriti 11.213

Swami Prabhupada the founder of ISKCON writes,

”…In this regard, the word vikhyātam is very significant. A man is always famous for his aggression toward a beautiful woman, and such aggression is sometimes considered rape. Although rape is not legally allowed, it is a fact that a woman likes a man who is very expert at rape.” [153] A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada on Srimad Bhagavatam 4.25.41 [ http://vanisource.org/wiki/SB_4.25.41 ]

Readers are requested to read the commentary on next verse also after going to the above given link. Swami Prabhupada also writes,

”Both man and woman desire one another; that is the basic principle of material existence. Women in general always keep themselves beautiful so that they can be attractive to their lusty husbands. When a lusty husband comes before his wife, the wife takes advantage of his aggressive activities and enjoys life. 

Generally when a woman is attacked by a man-whether her husband or some other man—she enjoys the attack, being too lusty…” [154] A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhu on Srimad Bhagavatam 4.26.26 [ http://vanisource.org/wiki/SB_4.26.26 ]

Is it really true that women enjoy been raped? And do they really like rapists? What made such a great Hindu scholar like Swami Prabhupada utter this? Well, actually almost every Hindu god raped women, Below are some references,

Shiva the Hindu god of raping:

The beautiful woman was already naked, and when She saw Lord Siva coming toward Her, She became extremely bashful. Thus She kept smiling, but She hid Herself among the trees and did not stand in one place. His senses being agitated, Lord Siva, victimized by lusty desires, began to follow Her, just as a lusty elephant follows a she-elephant. 

After following Her with great speed, Lord Siva caught Her by the braid of Her hair and dragged Her near him. Although She was unwilling, he embraced Her with his arms. Being embraced by Lord Siva like a female elephant embraced by a male, the woman, whose hair was scattered, swirled like a snake. 

O King, this woman, who had large, high hips, was a woman of yogamaya presented by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. She released Herself somehow or other from the fond embrace of Lord Siva’s arms and ran away. [155] Srimad Bhagavatam 8.12.26-30 Translation by Swami Prabhupada

Although this is not rape but if a man does this in the present age he would surely be put behind the bars for attempt to rape since the woman whom Shiva raped was unwilling meaning she did not give her consent. This is Shiva’s rape of Vishnu (Mohini).

Soma the Hindu god of raping:

”After conquering the three worlds [the upper, middle and lower planetary systems], Soma, the moon-god, performed a great sacrifice known as the Rājasūya-yajña. Because he was very much puffed up, he forcibly kidnapped Bhaspatis wife, whose name was Tara”. [156] Srimad Bhagavatam 9.14.4 Translation by Swami Prabhupada

”[Tara to Soma]…And if you commit rape with me, you will surely be guilty of woman slaughter. But when the Moon, without minding her words was about to commit rape with her, the dispassionate chaste woman cursed him thus…

In spite of the curse however, the Moon, held her and associated with her. Afterwards, holding the sorrowful, weeping wife of the Guru in his lap, he left that place.” [157] Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Krishna Janma Khanda 80.9-19 Translation by Rajendra Nath Sen

BRIHASPATI the Hindu god of raping:

According to Hindu texts this god is considered the “guru” of all gods.

“Brihaspati is considered the Guru of all Gods. Soma without thinking about violating the bed of guru raped the preceptor’s wife. But Brihaspati was not an angel, he too raped a woman.” [158] Brahmanda Purana 2.3.72.29.

Brihaspati the Guru of all Gods raped his own pregnant sister in law named Mamata. What kind of “God” would honestly do that?

Guru of all gods? More like Guru of all rapists am i right?

”Suta said:- Brihaspati, whilst staying on Earth, one day saw the wife of his brother, Usija, who was big with child, and addressed her thus:- ”Dress thyself well and let us enjoy.” She, being thus addressed, replied to Brihaspati thus:- ”The embryo in my womb is mature and is already reciting the Vedas. 

Thy seed will also not be fruitless and thy proposal is sinful.” Hearing which, Brihaspati said:- ”I need not to be taught morality by thee, O sweet one.” After saying that, he carried out his desire by force…” [159] Matsya Purana 49.17-28 Translation by Taluqdar of Oudh, Edited by B.D. Basu

This rape is also mentioned in Vayu Purana Part 2, 37.140 and Mahabharata Adi Parva 1.104 but the translator K.M. Ganguli has translated those particular lines of Mahabharata in Latin language. This story of Mamata’s rape is also mentioned in Srimad Bhagavatam,

”When the demigod named Bṛhaspati was attracted by his brother’s wife, Mamata, who at that time was pregnant, he desired to have sexual relations with her. The son within her womb forbade this, but Bhaspati cursed him and forcibly discharged semen into the womb of Mamata.” [160] Srimad Bhagavatam 9.20.36 Translation by Swami Prabhupada

The Rape of Mamata is also mentioned in Brahmanda Purana 2.3.74.37-42. It was like a battle of rape going on between Hindu gods like Soma, Indra and Brihaspati. All of them raped women which is also mentioned in Purana in one single passage,

”Look! The Moon stole away per force knowingly the wife of Brihaspati; Indra, knowing what is religion stole away the wife of Gautama; Brihaspati enjoyed forcibly the wife of his younger; and also he outraged his elder brother’s wife in her pregnant state and cursed the boy in the womb…” [161] Devi Bhagavatam 4.15.59-64 Translation by Swami Vijnananda

Varuna the Hindu god of raping:

Varuna is the god of water. He is praised in several hymns of the Vedas. A story mentioned in the Mahabharata tells Varuna’s rape of Bhadra the another wife of Utathya,

”…’Hear now, O king, the story of Utathya who was born in the race of Angiras. The daughter of Soma, named Bhadra, came to be regarded as unrivalled in beauty. Her sire Soma regarded Utathya to be the fittest of husbands for her…the handsome Varuna had, from a long time before, coveted the girl. 

Coming to the woods where Utathya dwelt, Varuna stole away the girl when she had plunged into the Yamuna for a bath. Abducting her thus, the Lord of the waters took her to his own abode…There, within that palace, the Lord of waters; O king, sported with the damsel. A little while after, the fact of the ravishment of his wife was reported to Utathya…” [162] Mahabharata 13.154 Translation by K.M. Ganguli

Surya the Hindu god of raping:

Surya is the Sun-God and several hymns of Vedas are dedicated to him. He raped the virgin Kunti. Kunti was just examining her mystic power and the sun god appeared before her and was smitten with passion after seeing young and beautiful Kunti and then raped her.

”…Surya Deva said :– “O Kunti! What for you called me, by virtue of the Mantra? Calling me, why do you not worship me, standing before you? O beautiful blue one! Seeing you, I have become passionate; so come to me. By means of the mantra, you have made me your subservient so take me for intercourse.” Hearing this, Kunti said:– 

“O Witness of all! O knower of Dharma! You know that I am a virgin girl. O Suvrata! I bow down to you; I am a family daughter; so do not speak ill to me.” Surya then said :– 

“If I go away in vain, I will be an object of great shame, and, no doubt, will be laughed amongst the gods; So, O Kunti! If you do not satisfy me, I will immediately curse you and the Brahmin who has given you this mantra. O Beautiful one! If you satisfy me, your virginity will remain; no body will come to know and there will be born a son to you, exactly like me.” 

Thus saying Surya Deva enjoyed the bashful Kunti, with her mind attracted towards him; He granted her the desired boons and went away. The beautiful Kunti became pregnant and began to remain in a house, under great secrecy. Only the dear nurse knew that; her mother or any other person was quite unaware of the fact. 

In time, a very beautiful son like the second Sun and Kartikeya, decked with a lovely Kavacha coat of mail and two ear-rings, was born there.” [163] Devi Bhagavatam 2.6.13-35 Translation by Swami Vijnananda

Their conversation is mentioned in detail in Srimad Bhagavatam,

“As soon as Kunti called for the demigod of the sun, he immediately appeared before her, and she was very much surprised. She told the sun-god, “I was simply examining the effectiveness of this mystic power. I am sorry I have called you unnecessarily. 

Please return and excuse me.” The sun-god said: O beautiful Pritha, your meeting with the demigods cannot be fruitless. Therefore, let me place my seed in your womb so that you may bear a son. I shall arrange to keep your virginity intact, since you are still an unmarried girl. 

After saying this, the sun-god discharged his semen into the womb of Pritha and then returned to the celestial kingdom. Immediately thereafter, from Kunti a child was born, who was like a second sun-god. Because Kunti feared people’s criticisms, with great difficulty she had to give up her affection for her child. 

Unwillingly, she packed the child in a basket and let it float down the waters of the river. O Maharaja Parikshit, your great-grandfather the pious and chivalrous King Pandu later married Kunti.” [164] Srimad Bhagavatam 9.24.33-36 Translation Swami Prabhupada

This son was later known as Karna. Kunti somehow tried to resist the rape by warning him not to do this, by telling him that she is from a good family, she was only examining her powers, she is a virgin but all in vain. When Surya thought his sweet words are not going to seduce Kunti he threatened to curse her as a last resort. 

Poor Kunti had no choice but to get raped by the sun god. Surya devoid of any morality didn’t even care about rape and adultery, He just wanted to relieve his desire forcefully and went away but the poor Kunti had to pay the price for this act. 

As Kunti was not ready for all these things, she had to abandon her illegitimate child to avoid a bad name for her family and embarrassment. Kunti later married King Pandu. And after her marriage the Sun god again had sex with Kunti but this time it was a consensual sex which is explained in the Niyoga Section. 

The series of rape by the sun god doesn’t end her, He is said to have raped his own wife. He assumed another form and approached her. She tried to resist the rape but the Sun god successfully carried out his act. This is explained in the Oral Sex Section.

ASHWINKUMARA the Hindu god of raping:

Ashvinkumara was the son of the Sun God. He is said to have raped a Brahmin lady and impregnated her.

“Saunaka was astonished at the words of Sauti and said, ‘Sir, what irony of fate led Aswinkumara, the offspring of the sun, to copulate with a Brahmin woman? Kindly narrate this incident and gratify my curiosity” Santi, the best of saints replied, ”O best of Munis, impossible are the ways of Providence . 

Once upon a time, this tranquil, strong offspring of the sun was enamoured of a Brahmin woman while she was going out on pilgrimage. Though he was dissuaded by her again and again he forcibly took her to a grove, ravished and impregnated her. The lady, bewildered with shame and fear caused her own miscarriage…” [165] Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Brahma Kanda, 10.125-134

Like father like son. Modern day examples of Surya and Ashvinkumara are Asaram and his son Sai Narayana who are both convicted of raping women. Had these father-son duo (Asaram-Narayan) existed in Vedic period they would have been worshiped by the people.

The Hindu scripture lists several forms of marriages, one of them is known as Rakshasa marriage. Rape and abduction of females is legitimized under this form of marriage. Maharshi Manu explains Rakshasa marriage in the following way,

“The forcible abduction of a maiden from her home, while she cries out and weeps, after (her kinsmen) have been slain or wounded and (their houses) broken open, is called the Rakshasa rite.” [166] Manu Smriti 3.33

Swami Prabhupada writes,
”…There are other kinds of marriage, such as gāndharva marriage and marriage by love, which are also accepted as marriage. Even if one is forcibly kidnapped and later on accepted as a wife, that is also accepted…” [167] A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada on Srimad Bhagawatam 3.22.15 [ http://vanisource.org/wiki/SB_3.22.15 ]

So next time if your wondering why are so many women in India are raped every year. Well…now you know why.

Sources:

[1] Atharva Veda 6.11.3

[2] Sankhayana Grihya Surtra 1.19.6

[3] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/india/9054429/India-most-dangerous-place-in-world-to-be-born-a-girl.html

[4] http://www.theguardian.com/world/2006/jan/09/india.sarahboseley

[5] http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-loses-3-million-girls-in-infanticide/article3981575.ece

[6] http://zeenews.india.com/exclusive/female-foeticide-death-before-birth_3547.html

[7] Srimad Bhagavatam 6.18.54

[8] Garuda Purana 1.115.64

[9] Yajnavalkya Smriti verse 73

[10] Manu Smriti 9.81

[11] Narada Smriti 12.94

[12] Satapatha Brahmana 5.3.1.13

[13] Devi Bhagavatam 2.6.36-48

[14] Devi Bhagavatam 1.4.15-27

[15] Brahma Vaivarta Purana Ganesha Khanda 2.16-31

[16] Brahma Purana 113.75-76

[17] Sankhayana Grihya Sutra 1.19.3-6

[18] Brahma Vaivarata Purana 61.22-41

[19] Srimad Bhagavatam 3.31.40

[20] Manu Smriti 9.17

[21] Mahabharata 13.40

[22] Bhagavad Gita 9.32 (Swami Nikhilananda translation)

[23] Mahabharata 14.19.61

[24] Srimad Bhagavatam 2.7.46 (Swami Prabhupada translation)

[25] Manu Smriti 2.213-214 ( M.N. Dutt translation)

[26] Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, Sarga 45.29-30 (M.N. Dutt translation)

[27] Devi Bhagavatam 1.15.1-67

[28] Manu Smriti 8.77

[29] Chanakya Neeti Shastra 1.15

[30] Manu Smriti 3.239

[31] Atharva Veda 04.5.2

[32] Satapatha Brahmana 14.1.1.31

[33] http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3332227/Hindu-temple-declares-allow-women-enter-scanning-machine-designed-check-going-menstruating.html

[34] http://www.indiatimes.com/news/india/women-barge-into-temple-that-prohibits-women-priests-purify-it-with-cow-urine-after-they-leave-248748.html

[35] Garuda Purana ch 231 (M.N. Dutt translation)[35]

[36] Markandeya Purana 35.26-28

[37] Brahma Purana 113.140-7 ( Board of Scholars translation , edited by J.L. Shastri)

[38] Kurma Purana II.17.26 (G.V. Tagare translation)[38]

[39] Manu Smriti 4.208

[40] A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Lecture on BG 16.7, 2-3-1975, Hawaii http://vanisource.org/wiki/Lecture_on_BG_16.7_–_Hawaii,_February_3,_1975

[41] A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada on Srimad Bhagavatam 4.27.1 [ http://vanisource.org/wiki/SB_4.27.1 ]

[42] Devi Bhagavatam 9.38.1-6 (Swami Vijnananda translation)

[43] Rig Veda 8.33.17

[44] Manu Smriti 9.18 ( Ganganath Jha translation)

[45] Narada Purana, Uttarabhaga 24.46-47a (G.V. Tagare translation)

[46] Manu Smriti 5.147-148

[47] Yajnavalkya Smriti verse 85

[48] Mahabharata 13.45

[49] Mahabharata 13.20

[50] Garuda Purana 1.115.63 ( J.L. Shastri translation)

[51] Vishnu Smriti 25.12-13

[52] Baudhayana Dharma Shastra 2.2.3.44-5

[53] A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada on Srimad Bhagavatam 3.24.40 [ http://vanisource.org/wiki/SB_3.24.40 ]

[54] Mahabharata 5.39 (K.M. Ganguli translation)

[55] Narada Smriti 12.19

[56] Manu Smriti 9.96 ( M.N. Dutt translation)

[57] Garuda Purana 1.64.8 (Board of Scholars translation , edited by J.L. Shastri)

[58] Garuda Purana 1.64.11-12 (Board of Scholars translation , edited by J.L. Shastri)

[59] Garuda Purana 1.65.57-60 (Board of Scholars translation , edited by J.L. Shastri)

[60] Garuda Purana 1.65.114 (Board of Scholars translation , edited by J.L. Shastri)[60]

[61] Garuda Purana 1.109.31 (Board of Scholars translation , edited by J.L. Shastri)

[62] Tulsi Ramayana, Sundar Kanda, Doha 58.3

[63] Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 6.4.7 (Swami Nikhilananda translation)

[64] Shiva Purana, Rudra Samhita 2, Parvatikhanda section III, 54.53-55 ( J.L. Shastri translation)

[65] Skanda Purana III.ii.7.43 ( G.V. Tagare translation)

[66] Agni Purana 152.9-12 ( M.N. Dutt translation)

[67] Matsya Purana 154.156-74 (Taluqdar of Oudh edited by B.D. Basu)

[68] Manu Smriti 2.66

[69] Vishnu Smriti 27.13-14

[70] Narada Purana I.15.100-1 ( G.V. Tagare translation)

[71] Manu Smriti 2.67

[72] Manu Smriti 2.67 ( Buhler’s translation)

[73] Manu Smriti 9.18

[74] Mahabharata 3.204

[75] Linga Purana Section II 20.1-3 ( Board of Scholars translation, Edited by J.L. Shastri)

[76] Linga Purana Section II 20.1-3 ( Board of Scholars translation, Edited by J.L. Shastri)

[77] Vishnu Smriti 25.15

[78] Srimad Bhagavatam 1.4.25 ( J.M. Sanyal translation)

[79] Brahma Purana 64.19 ( J.L. Shastri translation)

[80] Narada Purana, Uttarabhaga 61.51-53 ( G.V. Tagare translation)

[81] Narada Purana III.70.72-73 translation by G.V. Tagare

[82] Skanda Purana V.iii.228.9 translation by G.V. Tagare

[83] A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada on Srimad Bhagavatam 9.13.6 http://vanisource.org/wiki/SB_9.13.6

[84] Devi Bhagavatam 9.1.96-143 translation by Swami Vijnananda

[85] Madhvacharya on Brahma Sutra Pada 1, Adhyaya 1.1, Translation by S. Subba Rau

[86] Baghavad Gita 9.32 Translation by Swami Nikhilananda

[87] [Swami Swarupananda on Bhagwad Gita 9.32, page 216, Advaita Ashrama, Published by Swami Chidatmananda, President, Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati, Almora, Himalayas] also available online at http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/sbg/sbg14.htm

[88] [Swami Nikhilananda on The Bhagwad Gita 9.32, page 233, Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center, 1944, Printed in USA by The Haddon Craftsmen, Inc.]
http://www.estudantedavedanta.net/Srimad%20Bhagavad%20Gita%20with%20Commentary%20-%20Swami%20Nikhilananda%20(1944)%20%5BEnglish%5D.pdf

[89] Manu Smriti 5.139

[90] Manu Smriti 11.153

[91] Brahmanda Purana 2.3.15.56 Translation by G.V. Tagare

[92] Mahabharata 13.128

[93] Manu Smriti 11.224

[94] Devi Bhagavatam 6.18.7-24

[95] Manu Smriti 5.155-6

[96] Baudhayana Dharma Shastra 2.2.3.47

[97] Garuda Purana 1.95.24-26 Translation by J.L. Shastri

[98] Devi Bhagavatam 3.19.11 Translation by Swami Vijnananda

[99] Mahabharata 13.59

[100] Narada Purana I.14.17 Translation G.V. Tagare

[101] Manu Smriti 5.154

[102] Skanda Purana II.iv.4.74 Translation by G.V. Tagare

[103] Skanda Purana III.ii.7.15-44 Translation by G.V. Tagare

[104] Devi Bhagavatam 9.35.1-44 Translation by Swami Vijnananda

[105] Skanda Purana V.iii.121.7-9 Translation by G.V. Tagare

[106] Mahabharata 13.19

[107] Chanakya Neeti Shastra 16.2

[108] Padma Purana II.53.11b-20

[109] Shiva Purana, UmaSamhita 5.24.16-36 Translation by J.L. Shastri

[110] Garuda Purana 1.109.35-40 ( Board of Scholars translation, edited by J.L. Shastri)

[111] Devi Bhagavatam 6.22.31-36 Translation by Swami Vijnananda

[112] Manu Smriti 5.151

[113] Narada Purana I.26.3-14 Translation by G.V. Tagare

[114] Varaha Purana 177.17-22 Translation by Venkitasubramonia Iyer, J.L. Shastri

[115] Devi Bhagavatam 1.5.83 Translation by Swami Vijnananda

[116] Garuda Purana 1.109.33-34 Translation by Board of Scholars, edited by J.L. Shastri

[117] Chanakya Neeti Shastra 1.17

[118] Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Brahma Khanda 23.14-39 Translation by Rajendra Nath Sen

[119] Manu 7.150

[120] Rig Veda 10.95.15

[121] Bhagawad Purana 9.14.36-38 Translation by Swami Prabhupada

[122] Garuda Purana 1.115.59 Translation by Board of Scholars, edited by J.L. Shastri

[123] Chanakya Neeti Shastra 12.18

[124]Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Prakriti Khanda 29.42-53

[125] Devi Bhagavatam 9.33.20-50 Translation by Swami Vijnananda

[126] Vishnu Samhita 65.33-35 Translation by M.N Dutt

[127] Apastamba Samhita 9.24 Translation by M.N. Dutt

[128] Agni Purana chapter 230 Translation by M.N. Dutt

[129] Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Krishna Janma Khanda 85.105-116 Translation by Rajendra Nath Sen

[130] Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Krishna Janma Khanda 78.33-41 Translation by Rajendra Nath Sen

[131] Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Krishna Janma Khanda 85.53-61 Translation by Rajendra Nath Sen

[132] Skanda Purana III.ii.7.50-52 Translation by G.V. Tagare

[133] Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Krishna Janma Khanda 83.92-124 Translation by Rajendra Nath Sen

[134] Skanda Purana II.v.11.36 Translation by G.V. Tagare

[135] Skanda Purana III.ii.7. 67-68 Translation by G.V. Tagare

[136] Baudhyana Dharma Sutra 2.2.4.7-9

[137] Garuda Purana 1.65.112

[138] Garuda Purana1.65.115

[139] Garuda Purana 1.65.116

[140] Garuda Purana 1.65.117

[141] Garuda Purana 1.65.118

[142] Matsya Purana 225.132 Translation by Taluqdar of Oudh, Edited by B.D. Basu

[143] Manu 8.371

[144] Garuda Purana 10.42 Translation by Ernest Wood and S.V Subrahmanyam, Edited by B.D. Basu.

[145] Brahma Purana 10.75 Translation by Board of Scholars, Edited by J.L. Shastri

[146] Parasara Smriti 4.28 Translation by M.N. Dutt

[147] Krishna Yajur Veda 6.5.8.1

[148] Baudhayana Dharma Shastra 2.2.3.46

[149] Rig Veda 3.31.2 Translation by Svami Satyaprakash Saraswati

[150] Brihadâranyaka Upanishad VI:4:6.

[151] Vishnu [SBE7] 24:41

[152] Manu XI:174

[153] Manu Smriti 11.213

[154] A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada on Srimad Bhagavatam 4.25.41 [http://vanisource.org/wiki/SB_4.25.41]

[155] A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhu on Srimad Bhagavatam 4.26.26 [ http://vanisource.org/wiki/SB_4.26.26 ]

[156] Srimad Bhagavatam 8.12.26-30 Translation by Swami Prabhupada

[157] Srimad Bhagavatam 9.14.4 Translation by Swami Prabhupada

[158] Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Krishna Janma Khanda 80.9-19 Translation by Rajendra Nath Sen

[159] Brahmanda Purana 2.3.72.29.

[160] Matsya Purana 49.17-28 Translation by Taluqdar of Oudh, Edited by B.D. Basu

[161] Srimad Bhagavatam 9.20.36 Translation by Swami Prabhupada

[162] Devi Bhagavatam 4.15.59-64 Translation by Swami Vijnananda

[163] Mahabharata 13.154 Translation by K.M. Ganguli[163]

[164] Devi Bhagavatam 2.6.13-35 Translation by Swami Vijnananda

[165] Srimad Bhagavatam 9.24.33-36 Translation Swami Prabhupada

[166] Manu Smriti 3.33

[167] A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada on Srimad Bhagawatam 3.22.15 [ http://vanisource.org/wiki/SB_3.22.15 ]

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