𝐈𝐬 𝐢𝐭 𝐯𝐚𝐥𝐢𝐝 𝐭𝐨 𝐢𝐧𝐭𝐞𝐫𝐩𝐫𝐞𝐭 𝐀𝐥𝐥𝐚𝐡’𝐬 𝐢𝐬𝐭𝐢𝐰𝐚=𝐫𝐢𝐬𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐨𝐯𝐞𝐫 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐓𝐡𝐫𝐨𝐧𝐞 𝐚𝐬 𝐫𝐞𝐟𝐞𝐫𝐫𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐭𝐨 𝐬𝐢𝐭𝐭𝐢𝐧𝐠?
Mohamad Mostafa Nassar
Is it allowed for a Muslim to say Allah is sitting on the Arsh=Throne?
Can we use the phrase Allah while sitting on the Arsh=Throne is basically doing amazing things.
Basically, the person wasn’t mocking Allah or anything, but can we use the word sitting for Allah like Allah is sitting on the Arsh=Throne or Allah while sitting on the Arsh=Throne?
A Muslim I know was the one who said that statement, it is enough for him to ask Allah’s forgiveness and not want to do it again, and he does not have to do anything more right?
Speaking inappropriately about Allah is a very serious issue that can make some people out of the fold of Islam
Is the above that type of situation or not?
Praise be to Allah.
𝐋𝐞𝐭 𝐮𝐬 𝐰𝐚𝐭𝐜𝐡 𝐭𝐡𝐢𝐬 𝐬𝐡𝐨𝐫𝐭 𝐯𝐢𝐝𝐞𝐨 𝐟𝐢𝐫𝐬𝐭 𝐓𝐢𝐭𝐥𝐞𝐝: 𝐃𝐨𝐞𝐬 𝐀𝐥𝐥𝐚𝐡 𝐡𝐨𝐥𝐝 𝐏𝐡𝐲𝐬𝐢𝐜𝐚𝐥 𝐒𝐩𝐚𝐜𝐞 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐄𝐱𝐢𝐬𝐭𝐞𝐧𝐜𝐞?
What is proven regarding Allah, may He be exalted, is that He rose over His Throne (istiwa=Rising over) in a manner that is befitting to His majesty and perfection, may He be glorified.
𝐓𝐡𝐚𝐭 𝐢𝐬 𝐦𝐞𝐧𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧𝐞𝐝 𝐢𝐧 𝐬𝐞𝐯𝐞𝐧 𝐩𝐥𝐚𝐜𝐞𝐬 𝐢𝐧 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐁𝐨𝐨𝐤 𝐨𝐟 𝐀𝐥𝐥𝐚𝐡, 𝐢𝐧𝐜𝐥𝐮𝐝𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐬𝐞 (𝐢𝐧𝐭𝐞𝐫𝐩𝐫𝐞𝐭𝐚𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 𝐨𝐟 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐦𝐞𝐚𝐧𝐢𝐧𝐠):
“Indeed, your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and earth in six days and then rose over [Astawa=Rising over] the Throne” [al-A’raf 7:54].
The well-known interpretation of istiwa=Rising over is that it refers to exaltedness and elevation.
Al-Bukhari said in his Sahih: Chapter: “and His Throne had been upon water” “and He is the Lord of the Great Throne”
“Then He Istawa (rose over) towards the heaven” [Fussilat 41:11] means: He ascended to heaven.… Mujaahid said: Astawa means: He rose over the Throne.
Al-Baghawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “Then He Istawa (rose over) towards the heaven”: Ibn ‘Abbaas and most of the commentators among the early generations said: That is, He ascended to heaven.
End quote from Tafseer al-Baghawi (1/78).
This was narrated by al-Haafiz in al-Fath (13/41 7), and he said:
Abu ‘Ubaydah, al-Farraa’, and others said something similar. Regarding interpreting istiwa =Rising over as referring to sitting, that is mentioned in some hadiths that are not sound.
But some of the early generations use this word to explain what is meant by istiwa=Rising over, as was narrated by Imam Khaarijah ibn Mus‘ab ad-Dab‘i. That was narrated by ‘Abdullah ibn Ahmad in as-Sunnah (1/105).
Al-Haafiz ad-Daaraqutni mentioned sitting in some famous lines of poetry of his.
Assuming that this word was used by some of the early generations, we must believe that it is not like the setting of any of Allah’s creations.
Shaykh al-Islam (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
As is well established, when the angels and the souls of human beings are described in terms of moving, ascending, descending, and so on, that is not like the movements of the bodies of human beings and other creatures that we see in this world.
It is possible for them [angels or the souls of human beings] to move in ways that are not possible for the bodies of human beings.
Therefore, with regard to what is described in the case of Allah, it is more appropriate to say that it is possible, and it is further removed from being like the descent of physical beings.
Moreover, His descent is not like the descent of the angels and the souls of human beings, even though that is closer [to His descent] than to the descent of their physical beings.
The sitting up of the deceased in his grave is not like the sitting up of the physical body. With regard to what is mentioned in the reports from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) about sitting in the case of Allah, may He be exalted –
Such as the hadith of Ja‘far ibn Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) and the hadith of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) – it is more appropriate that it should not be like the sitting of physical beings. End quote from Majmoo‘al-Fatāwá (5/527).
However, it is more appropriate to refrain from using this word, because it is not mentioned in the Qur’an or sahih=Authentic Sunnah, or in the words of the Ṣahābah=companions of the Prophet (may Allah be pleased with them).
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
With regard to interpreting the istiwa= rising over of Allah, may He be exalted, over His Throne as referring to His settling on it, this is well known from the early generations, and was narrated by Ibn al-Qayyim in an-Nooniyyah and by others.
With regard to the idea of sitting, it was mentioned by some of them, but I feel uneasy about it. And Allah knows best.
End quote from Majmoo‘ Fataawa Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (1/196).
Shaykh al-Barraak (may Allah preserve him) said: In some reports, it is narrated that sitting is attributed to Allah, may He be exalted, and it says that He sits on His Kursi in whatever manner He, may He be glorified, wills. Some leading scholars have used this wording too.
The context of the words of Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah gives the impression that istiwa’ (rising over) implies sitting.
But it is better to refrain from using this word unless it is proven.
End quote from Sharh ar-Risaalah at-Tadmuriyyah (p. 188).
𝐁𝐚𝐬𝐞𝐝 𝐨𝐧 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐚𝐛𝐨𝐯𝐞:
We do not think that this word (sitting) should be used. Rather one should say that He rose (astawa) over the Throne, and istiwa=Rising over is to be understood as referring to ascending and rising.
But if someone does use this word, which is narrated from some of the early generations, then he should not be denounced.
Rather it should be said to him: It is not appropriate to say this in front of the common folk, because it may cause confusion for them, and they may interpret it in a manner that likens Allah to His creation.
Thus, it is clear that this expression does not constitute disbelief; rather it is an interpretation of the divine attribute of istiwa=Rising over’ and is a different opinion concerning it.
It is more appropriate to refrain from using this word.
And Allah knows best.
Is it valid to interpret Allah’s rising over the Throne (istiwa’) as referring to sitting?