What is Taqiyya=Deception? Does Islam permit lying to advance it?


What is “Taqiyyah”, “Takiya”, “Taqiyya”?

This term is spelt variously; “taqiyyah”, “takiya” or “taqiyya”

.

Taqqiya is the exceptional permissibility to lie to save your life.

“Taqiyyah (From the root word waqa “to safeguard”; “self-protection” and hence “dissimulation [in order to protect oneself]”).”

[1] The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam, Revised Edition, Cyril Glasse, Stacey International, 2001, p450-451

“Takiya (A.), caution, fear (see glossarium to Tabari S.V. T-K-A) pr kitman, “disguise” is the technical term for dispensation from the requirements of religion under compulsion or threat of injury.”

[2] Article by R. Strothmann, Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam, H.A.R. Gibb and J.H. Kramers, Fourth impression, 1995, E.J. Brill Leiden. New York. Koln p. 561 – 562

This is act is only permissible to exclusively these occasions. And this is what Taqqiya literally means.

“But an individual is not justified in takiya nor bound to hidjra [emigration] if the compulsion remains within the endurable limits, as in the case of temporary imprisonment or flogging which does not result in death” [

3] Article by R. Strothmann, Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam, H.A.R. Gibb and J.H. Kramers, Fourth impression, 1995, E.J. Brill Leiden. New York. Koln p. 561 – 562

“The principle of dissimulation of one’s religious beliefs in order to avoid persecution or imminent harm, where no useful purpose would be served by publicly affirming them.” [4]

The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam, Revised Edition, Cyril Glasse, Stacey International, 2001, p450-451

Ibn al-Qayyim said:

“Taqiyyah means saying something contrary to what one believes, for fear of harm that may befall him if he does not resort to Taqiyyah.” [4] Ahkaam Ahl adh-Dhimmah Volume 2 pg 1038

And Imam Al Qurtubi affirms that Taqiyyah is not permissible except one’s life.

“And Taqiyyah is not permissible except with fear of death or loss of limb or tremendous suffering.” [5] Tafsir Al Qurtubi Volume 4 pg. 57

For example lying about ones religion to be saved from religious persecution.

This was due to the fact that Muslims were being persecuted hence this practice was held place.

Taqiyya in the religion of Islam is permissible because of these two verses:

” Let not the believers take the unbelievers for friends, rather than the believers — for whoso does that belongs not to God in anything — unless you have a fear of them. God warns you that You beware of Him, and unto God is the homecoming.” [6] Quran (3:28) John Arberry translation

” Whoso disbelieves in God, after he has believed — excepting him who has been compelled, and his heart is still at rest in his belief — but whosoever’s breast is expanded in unbelief, upon them shall rest anger from God, and there awaits them a mighty chastisement; ” [7] Quran (16:106) John Arberry translation

Al Imam Al Qurtubi in Tafsir Al Qurtubi lists three opinions while commenting on those verses:

“Mu`adh ibn Jabal and Mujahid both said: Taqiyya was at the beginning when Islam was not yet strong, but today Allah strengthened this religion so that they may not practice Taqiyya with their enemies.

`Abdullah ibn `Abbas said: It is to utter (Kufr i.e disbelief) with the tongue while the heart is at peace with the faith. However, it is not permissible to kill or commit sins.

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said: Taqiyya is permissible until the day of judgement, but one may not kill. “

He continues:

“It was said that, if the believer is residing between disbelievers, and if he fears for his life from them, then he can humor them with his tongue, but his heart must be comfortable and content with the Islamic faith. Taqiyya is not permissible except from fear of being killed, or greatly harmed (i.e having the limbs cut). 

As for the one who is forced to commit an act of Kufr, the correct opinion is that he can disobey and avoid uttering any words of Kufr.”

[8] Tafsir Al Qurtubi (3:28)

[9] Tafsir Al Qurtubi (16:106)

So, as we can see Taqqiyah is not lying to “advance” Islam or to make it appear look more “sugar-coated” in front of non-Muslims as many falsely claim to do so.

However, there is a different unorthodox version of Taqqiyah which Critics of Islam dishonestly focus. That is the Shia unorthodox belief of Taqqiyah.

This belief is to lie in order to spread the Shia religion.

However, this version of Taqqiyah is ONLY part of the Shia sect of Islam which is a minority and non-Orthodox.

We know this because of all the evidence cited above which gives us the orthodox understanding of Taqqiyah.

This is affirmed one of the biggest Salafi fatwa websites ‘Islam q/a’ that this belief of Taqqiyah is only present in Shiasm.

“Taqqiya and by its meaning is well known and famous among the fundamentals and pillars of rafidi twelvers (Shias)who oppose Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah(Sunnis) with it and by it they deviated from the Straight path of Allah. Taqqiya in their religion is to show the people opposite of what they conceal.

They have attributed, Ascribed lying and deception to Religion of Allah without any rights/unjustly.and this wicked/deviant belief is not from the belief of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah (Sunnis)at all.

And lying according to Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah(Sunnis)is from the Attributes of Hypocrites nor people desists from lying And purses lying until he is written before Allah as a liar and those(I,e Shite rafidis)they lies and purses lying in everything then they made it their belief and religion.

Methodology of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah(Sunnis)is Established upon Truth/sincerity and justice and lying is not part of their religion by Praise of Allah. ” [10]

Another scholar Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah also made this clear by saying

“The Raafidis (Shias) are the most ignorant and mendacious of sects, and the furthest removed from any knowledge of the texts or rational evidence. They regard taqiyyah as one of the basic principles of their religion, and they tell lies about Ahlul Bayt (the Prophet’s family), the extent of which is known only to Allah. [11] Majmoo‘al-Fataawa Volume 13 pg 263

So we are clearly this belief is only in present in Shiasm which is a minority and unorthodox.

Moreover, some critics use the following reference to prove the Prophet permitted lying

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) called, “War is deceit” [12] Sahih al-Bukhari 3029

But here again the critics find no support as this reference to military strategy involving tricks has been echoed by practically every civilization in human history. It is most famous on the lips of Chinese philosopher Sun Tzu who stated in The Art of War, “All warfare is based on deception. 

Another group of critics have objected by claiming “Muslims lie about the Prophet of Islam to hide his true actions”

However, this an argument from ignorance.

Because Muslims CANNOT lie about their Prophet even if they wanted to!

The Prophet explicitly stated that anyone who lies about him will enter hell.

“Habib ibn ar-Rabi’ said that it is disbelief to alter his [Prophet Muhammad’s] description and its details. The one who does that openly is an unbeliever. He is asked to repent.” [13] Muhammad, Messenger of Allah – Ash Shifa of Qadi Iyad, translated by Aisha Abdarrahman Bewley, Madinah Press, 2004, p. 387

Narrated `Ali:

The Prophet peace be upon him said, “Do not tell a lie against me for whoever tells a lie against me (intentionally) then he will surely enter the Hell-fire.” [14] Sahih al-Bukhari 106

So much for Islam telling Muslims to lie about the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him

So, the burning Question remain.

Does Islam or the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him permit lying?

Well, he made it very clear about this by saying:

“In Islam, after associating partners with God and usurping the rights of parents, the third greatest sin is speaking a lie.”

[15] Ṣaḥiḥ Muslim, Kitabul-Iman, Babu Bayanil-Kaba’iri Wa Akbariha, Ḥadith No. 259

“A person who commits treachery shall be subjected to the severe wrath of Allah on the day of resurrection.” [16] Ṣaḥiḥ Muslim, Kitabul-Jihadi Was-Siyar, Babu Taḥrimil-Ghadri, Ḥadith No. 4538

Moving on

‘Abdullah reported Allah’s Messenger as saying: It is obligatory for you to tell the truth, for truth leads to virtue and virtue leads to Paradise, and the man who continues to speak the truth and endeavours to tell the truth is eventually recorded as truthful with Allah.

And beware of telling of a lie for telling of a lie leads to obscenity and obscenity leads to Hell-Fire, and the person who keeps telling lies and endeavours to tell a lie is recorded as a liar with Allah. [17] Sahih Muslim Book 32, Hadith 6309

‘Abdullah b. Mas’ud reported Allah’s Messenger as saying: Telling of truth is a virtue and virtue leads to Paradise and the servant who endeavours to tell the truth is recorded as truthful, and lie is obscenity and obscenity leads to Hell-Fire, and the servant who endeavours to tell a lie is recorded as a liar. Ibn Abu Shaiba reported this from Allah’s Apostle.

[18] Sahih Muslim Book 32, Hadith 6308

Aisha narrated: “There was no behavior more hated to the Messenger of Allah than lying. A man would lie in narrating something in the presence of the Prophet, and he would not be content until he knew that he had repented.”  [19] Jami` at-Tirmidhi Volume 4, Book 1, Hadith 1973 

Aisha narrated:

Abdullah reported that the Prophet said, “You must be truthful. Truthfulness leads to dutifulness and dutifulness leads to the Garden. A man continues to tell the truth until he is written as a siddiq with Allah. Beware of lying. Lying leads to deviance and deviance leads to the Fire.

A man continues to lie until he is written as a liar with Allah.”

[20] Al-Adab Al-Mufrad: Book 21, Hadith 386

The Prophet even guaranteed paradise to anyone if they can avoid lying even when joking.

” The Prophet said: I guarantee a house in the surroundings of Paradise for a man who avoids quarrelling even if he were in the right, a house in the middle of Paradise for a man who avoids lying even if he were joking, and a house in the upper part of Paradise for a man who made his character good.”

[21] Sunan Abi Dawud Book 42, Hadith 4782

Allah knows Best.

Conclusion:

Islam does not permit lying to advance Islam or lying in general at all. Moreover, the Prophet stated multiple to not lie and said it will one to hell.

Sources:

[1] The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam, Revised Edition, Cyril Glasse, Stacey International, 2001, p450-451

[2] Article by R. Strothmann, Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam, H.A.R. Gibb and J.H. Kramers, Fourth impression, 1995, E.J. Brill Leiden. New York. Koln p. 561 – 562

[3] Article by R. Strothmann, Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam, H.A.R. Gibb and J.H. Kramers, Fourth impression, 1995, E.J. Brill Leiden. New York. Koln p. 561 – 562

[4] Ahkaam Ahl adh-Dhimmah Volume 2 pg 1038

[5] Tafsir Al Qurtubi Volume 4 pg 57

[6] Quran (3:28) John Arberry translation

[7] Quran (16:106) John Arberry translation

[8] Tafsir Al Qurtubi (3:28) Tafsir Al Qurtubi (16:106)

[9] Tafsir Al Qurtubi (16:106)

[10] https://islamqa.info/ar/answers/178975/%D9%85%D8%A7-%D9%87%D9%8A-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%88%D9%87%D9%84-%D9%8A%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%AE%D8%AF%D9%85%D9%87%D8%A7-%D8%A7%D9%87%D9%84-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%86%D8%A9?fbclid=IwAR03QQN7MJ-7i4y9P65iLgClKucCsbZdwjCQN5Ztk9prMkDX4rjZ9oP-b3U

[11] Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa Volume 13 pg 263

[12] Sahih al-Bukhari 3029

[13] Muhammad, Messenger of Allah – Ash Shifa of Qadi Iyad, translated by Aisha Abdarrahman Bewley, Madinah Press, 2004, p. 387

[14] Sahih al-Bukhari 106

[15] Ṣaḥiḥ Muslim, Kitabul-Iman, Babu Bayanil-Kaba’iri Wa Akbariha, Ḥadith No. 259

[16] Ṣaḥiḥ Muslim, Kitabul-Jihadi Was-Siyar, Babu Taḥrimil-Ghadri, Ḥadith No. 4538

[17] Sahih Muslim Book 32, Hadith 6309

[18] Sahih Muslim Book 32, Hadith 6308

[19] Jami` at-Tirmidhi Volume 4, Book 1, Hadith 1973 Aisha narrated:

[20] Al-Adab Al-Mufrad: Book 21, Hadith 386

[21] Sunan Abi Dawud Book 42, Hadith 4782

Almighty Allah is the highest and most knowledgeable, and the attribution of knowledge to him is the safest.

Right from Almighty Allah and wrong from me and Satan

Prepared by Mohamad Mostafa Nassar- Australia.

www.IslamCompass.com 

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