Two disbelieving women and two believing women: Tafsirย al-Saโ€™di

Two disbelieving women and two believing women: Tafsirย al-Saโ€™di

Allah concludes surah al-Tahreem with the following ayaat where He says:

โ€ุถูŽุฑูŽุจูŽ ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ู…ูŽุซูŽู„ู‹ุง ู„ูู„ูŽู‘ุฐููŠู†ูŽ ูƒูŽููŽุฑููˆุง ุงูู…ู’ุฑูŽุฃูŽุฉูŽ ู†ููˆุญู ูˆูŽุงู…ู’ุฑูŽุฃูŽุฉูŽ ู„ููˆุทู ูƒูŽุงู†ูŽุชูŽุง ุชูŽุญู’ุชูŽ ุนูŽุจู’ุฏูŽูŠู’ู†ู ู…ูู†ู’ ุนูุจูŽุงุฏูู†ูŽุง ุตูŽุงู„ูุญูŽูŠู’ู†ู ููŽุฎูŽุงู†ูŽุชูŽุงู‡ูู…ูŽุง ููŽู„ูŽู…ู’ ูŠูุบู’ู†ููŠูŽุง ุนูŽู†ู’ู‡ูู…ูŽุง ู…ูู†ูŽ ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ุดูŽูŠู’ุฆู‹ุง ูˆูŽู‚ููŠู„ูŽ ุงุฏู’ุฎูู„ูŽุง ุงู„ู†ูŽู‘ุงุฑูŽ ู…ูŽุนูŽ ุงู„ุฏูŽู‘ุงุฎูู„ููŠู†ูŽ * ูˆูŽุถูŽุฑูŽุจูŽ ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ู…ูŽุซูŽู„ู‹ุง ู„ูู„ูŽู‘ุฐููŠู†ูŽ ุขู…ูŽู†ููˆุง ุงูู…ู’ุฑูŽุฃูŽุฉูŽ ููุฑู’ุนูŽูˆู’ู†ูŽ ุฅูุฐู’ ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽุชู’ ุฑูŽุจูู‘ ุงุจู’ู†ู ู„ููŠ ุนูู†ู’ุฏูŽูƒูŽ ุจูŽูŠู’ุชู‹ุง ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ุฌูŽู†ูŽู‘ุฉู ูˆูŽู†ูŽุฌูู‘ู†ููŠ ู…ูู†ู’ ููุฑู’ุนูŽูˆู’ู†ูŽ ูˆูŽุนูŽู…ูŽู„ูู‡ู ูˆูŽู†ูŽุฌูู‘ู†ููŠ ู…ูู†ูŽ ุงู„ู’ู‚ูŽูˆู’ู…ู ุงู„ุธูŽู‘ุงู„ูู…ููŠู†ูŽ * ูˆูŽู…ูŽุฑู’ูŠูŽู…ูŽ ุงุจู’ู†ูŽุชูŽ ุนูู…ู’ุฑูŽุงู†ูŽ ุงู„ูŽู‘ุชููŠ ุฃูŽุญู’ุตูŽู†ูŽุชู’ ููŽุฑู’ุฌูŽู‡ูŽุง ููŽู†ูŽููŽุฎู’ู†ูŽุง ูููŠู‡ู ู…ูู†ู’ ุฑููˆุญูู†ูŽุง ูˆูŽุตูŽุฏูŽู‘ู‚ูŽุชู’ ุจููƒูŽู„ูู…ูŽุงุชู ุฑูŽุจูู‘ู‡ูŽุง ูˆูŽูƒูุชูุจูู‡ู ูˆูŽูƒูŽุงู†ูŽุชู’ ู…ูู†ูŽ ุงู„ู’ู‚ูŽุงู†ูุชููŠู†ูŽ

Allah presents an example of those who disbelieved: the wife ofย Nuhย and the wife ofย Loot.ย They were under two of Our righteous servants but betrayed them, so those prophets did not avail them from Allah at all, and it was said, โ€œEnter the Fire with those who enter.โ€

And Allah presents an example of those who believed: the wife ofย Firโ€™awn,ย when she said, โ€œMy Lord, build for me near You a house in Paradise and save me fromย Firโ€™awnย and his deeds and save me from the wrongdoing people.โ€

And [the example of] Maryam, the daughter ofย โ€˜Imran,ย who guarded her chastity, so We breathed into her Ourย Ruh, and she testified to the truth of the Words of her Lord, and His Scriptures, and she was of the devoutly obedient. [66:10-12]

Imam al-Saโ€™di, in hisย book ofย tafsir, writes the following commentary:

ู‡ุฐุงู† ุงู„ู…ุซู„ุงู† ุงู„ู„ุฐุงู† ุถุฑุจู‡ู…ุง ุงู„ู„ู‡ ู„ู„ู…ุคู…ู†ูŠู† ูˆุงู„ูƒุงูุฑูŠู†ุŒ ู„ูŠุจูŠู† ู„ู‡ู… ุฃู† ุงุชุตุงู„ ุงู„ูƒุงูุฑ ุจุงู„ู…ุคู…ู† ูˆู‚ุฑุจู‡ ู…ู†ู‡ ู„ุง ูŠููŠุฏู‡ ุดูŠุฆู‹ุงุŒ ูˆุฃู† ุงุชุตุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุคู…ู† ุจุงู„ูƒุงูุฑ ู„ุง ูŠุถุฑู‡ ุดูŠุฆู‹ุง ู…ุน ู‚ูŠุงู…ู‡ ุจุงู„ูˆุงุฌุจ ุนู„ูŠู‡โ€.โ€

These are two examples which Allah has struck of the believers and the disbelievers in order to clarify to them that a connection of aย kaafirย to aย muโ€™minย and his closeness to him does not benefit theย kaafirย at all, and that the connection of aย muโ€™minย to aย kaafirย does not harm theย muโ€™minย at all, so long as he establishes his duties to him [i.e. giving him his due rights, not being unjust to him, etc.]

ููƒุฃู† ููŠ ุฐู„ูƒ ุฅุดุงุฑุฉ ูˆุชุญุฐูŠุฑู‹ุง ู„ุฒูˆุฌุงุช ุงู„ู†ุจูŠ ู€ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู… ู€ ุนู† ุงู„ู…ุนุตูŠุฉุŒ ูˆุฃู† ุงุชุตุงู„ู‡ู† ุจู‡ ู€ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู… ู€ ู„ุง ูŠู†ูุนู‡ู† ุดูŠุฆู‹ุง ู…ุน ุงู„ุฅุณุงุกุฉุŒ ูู‚ุงู„โ€:โ€

So it is as if this is a sign and a warning to the wives of the Prophet (๏ทบ) against disobedience, and that their connections to him (๏ทบ) would not benefit them at all against abuse, so He said:

โ€{โ€ุถูŽุฑูŽุจูŽ ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ู…ูŽุซูŽู„ู‹ุง ู„ูู„ูŽู‘ุฐููŠู†ูŽ ูƒูŽููŽุฑููˆุง ุงูู…ู’ุฑูŽุฃูŽุฉูŽ ู†ููˆุญู ูˆูŽุงู…ู’ุฑูŽุฃูŽุฉูŽ ู„ููˆุทู ูƒูŽุงู†ูŽุชูŽุงโ€}โ€ ุฃูŠโ€:โ€ ุงู„ู…ุฑุฃุชุงู† โ€{โ€ุชูŽุญู’ุชูŽ ุนูŽุจู’ุฏูŽูŠู’ู†ู ู…ูู†ู’ ุนูุจูŽุงุฏูู†ูŽุง ุตูŽุงู„ูุญูŽูŠู’ู†ูโ€}โ€ ูˆู‡ู…ุง ู†ูˆุญุŒ ูˆู„ูˆุท ุนู„ูŠู‡ู…ุง ุงู„ุณู„ุงู…โ€.โ€

โ€œAllah presents an example of those who disbelieved: the wife of Nuh and the wife of Loot. They wereโ€œ- i.e. the two women โ€“ โ€œunder two of Our righteous servantsโ€ and they were Nuh and Loot (โ€˜alaihima al-salaam)

โ€{โ€ููŽุฎูŽุงู†ูŽุชูŽุงู‡ูู…ูŽุงโ€}โ€ ููŠ ุงู„ุฏูŠู†ุŒ ุจุฃู† ูƒุงู†ุชุง ุนู„ู‰ ุบูŠุฑ ุฏูŠู† ุฒูˆุฌูŠู‡ู…ุงุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ู…ุฑุงุฏ ุจุงู„ุฎูŠุงู†ุฉ ู„ุง ุฎูŠุงู†ุฉ ุงู„ู†ุณุจ ูˆุงู„ูุฑุงุดุŒ ูุฅู†ู‡ ู…ุง ุจุบุช ุงู…ุฑุฃุฉ ู†ุจูŠ ู‚ุทุŒ ูˆู…ุง ูƒุงู† ุงู„ู„ู‡ ู„ูŠุฌุนู„ ุงู…ุฑุฃุฉ ุฃุญุฏ ู…ู† ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุฆู‡ ุจุบูŠู‹ุงุŒ โ€{โ€ููŽู„ูŽู…ู’ ูŠูุบู’ู†ููŠูŽุงโ€}โ€ ุฃูŠโ€:โ€ ู†ูˆุญ ูˆู„ูˆุท โ€{โ€ุนูŽู†ู’ู‡ูู…ูŽุงโ€}โ€ ุฃูŠโ€:โ€ ุนู† ุงู…ุฑุฃุชูŠู‡ู…ุง โ€{โ€ู…ูู†ูŽ ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ุดูŽูŠู’ุฆู‹ุง ูˆูŽู‚ููŠู„ูŽโ€}โ€ ู„ู‡ู…ุง โ€{โ€ุงุฏู’ุฎูู„ูŽุง ุงู„ู†ูŽู‘ุงุฑูŽ ู…ูŽุนูŽ ุงู„ุฏูŽู‘ุงุฎูู„ููŠู†ูŽโ€}โ€ โ€.โ€

โ€œBut they betrayed themโ€ in the deen, because they both were on something other than the religion of their respective husbands โ€“ and that is the meaning of betrayal, nor the betrayal of relationships or infidelity, for verily it does not befit the wife of a prophet at all, and Allah did not make any of the wives of the prophets a prostitute. โ€œSo theyโ€ โ€“ i.e. Nuh and Loot โ€“ โ€œdid not benefit themโ€ โ€“ i.e. their respective wives โ€“ โ€œfrom Allah at all, and it was saidโ€ to them โ€œEnter the Fire with those who enter.โ€œ

{โ€ูˆูŽุถูŽุฑูŽุจูŽ ุงู„ู„ูŽู‘ู‡ู ู…ูŽุซูŽู„ู‹ุง ู„ูู„ูŽู‘ุฐููŠู†ูŽ ุขู…ูŽู†ููˆุง ุงูู…ู’ุฑูŽุฃูŽุฉูŽ ููุฑู’ุนูŽูˆู’ู†ูŽโ€}โ€ ูˆู‡ูŠ ุขุณูŠุฉ ุจู†ุช ู…ุฒุงุญู… ุฑุถูŠ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู†ู‡ุง โ€{โ€ุฅูุฐู’ ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽุชู’ ุฑูŽุจูู‘ ุงุจู’ู†ู ู„ููŠ ุนูู†ู’ุฏูŽูƒูŽ ุจูŽูŠู’ุชู‹ุง ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ุฌูŽู†ูŽู‘ุฉู ูˆูŽู†ูŽุฌูู‘ู†ููŠ ู…ูู†ู’ ููุฑู’ุนูŽูˆู’ู†ูŽ ูˆูŽุนูŽู…ูŽู„ูู‡ู ูˆูŽู†ูŽุฌูู‘ู†ููŠ ู…ูู†ูŽ ุงู„ู’ู‚ูŽูˆู’ู…ู ุงู„ุธูŽู‘ุงู„ูู…ููŠู†ูŽโ€}โ€ ููˆุตูู‡ุง ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุจุงู„ุฅูŠู…ุงู† ูˆุงู„ุชุถุฑุน ู„ุฑุจู‡ุงุŒ ูˆุณุคุงู„ู‡ุง ู„ุฑุจู‡ุง ุฃุฌู„ ุงู„ู…ุทุงู„ุจุŒ ูˆู‡ูˆ ุฏุฎูˆู„ ุงู„ุฌู†ุฉุŒ ูˆู…ุฌุงูˆุฑุฉ ุงู„ุฑุจ ุงู„ูƒุฑูŠู…ุŒ ูˆุณุคุงู„ู‡ุง ุฃู† ูŠู†ุฌูŠู‡ุง ุงู„ู„ู‡ ู…ู† ูุชู†ุฉ ูุฑุนูˆู† ูˆุฃุนู…ุงู„ู‡ ุงู„ุฎุจูŠุซุฉุŒ ูˆู…ู† ูุชู†ุฉ ูƒู„ ุธุงู„ู…ุŒ ูุงุณุชุฌุงุจ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ู„ู‡ุงุŒ ูุนุงุดุช ููŠ ุฅูŠู…ุงู† ูƒุงู…ู„ุŒ ูˆุซุจุงุช ุชุงู…ุŒ ูˆู†ุฌุงุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ูุชู†ุŒ ูˆู„ู‡ุฐุง ู‚ุงู„ ุงู„ู†ุจูŠ ู€ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู… ู€โ€:โ€ โ€(โ€ูƒู…ู„ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฑุฌุงู„ ูƒุซูŠุฑุŒ ูˆู„ู… ูŠูƒู…ู„ ู…ู† ุงู„ู†ุณุงุกุŒ ุฅู„ุง ู…ุฑูŠู… ุจู†ุช ุนู…ุฑุงู†ุŒ ูˆุขุณูŠุฉ ุจู†ุช ู…ุฒุงุญู…ุŒ ูˆุฎุฏูŠุฌุฉ ุจู†ุช ุฎูˆูŠู„ุฏุŒ ูˆูุถู„ ุนุงุฆุดุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู†ุณุงุกุŒ ูƒูุถู„ ุงู„ุซุฑูŠุฏ ุนู„ู‰ ุณุงุฆุฑ ุงู„ุทุนุงู…โ€)โ€ โ€.โ€

โ€œAnd Allah presents an example of those who believed: the wife of Firโ€™awnโ€ โ€“ย and she isย Aasiyahย bint Muzaahimย (raadi Allaahi โ€˜anha) โ€“ย  โ€œwhen she said, โ€˜My Lord, build for me near You a house in Paradise and save me from Firโ€™awn and his deeds and save me from the wrongdoing peopleโ€™โ€œ. So Allah described her withย eemaanย and invocation to her Lord.

And her request to her Lord was seeking entrance toย Jannah, and nearness to the Noble Lord, and her request for Allah to deliver her from theย fitnahย ofย Firโ€™awnย and his despicable actions and from theย fitnahย of every wrongdoer. So Allah responded to her, so she subsisted in perfectย eemaan,ย and complete steadfastness, and deliverance from theย fitanย (pl. ofย fitnah). And the prophet (๏ทบ) said about this:

Many amongst men have attained perfection, but amongst women none attained the perfection except Maryam bint`Imran, and Aasiya the wife of Firโ€™awn, and Khadeejah bint Khuwaylid. And the superiority of `Aaโ€™isha to other women is like the superiority of Thareed (i.e. a certain Arab dish) to other meals.

ูˆู‚ูˆู„ู‡ โ€{โ€ูˆูŽู…ูŽุฑู’ูŠูŽู…ูŽ ุงุจู’ู†ูŽุชูŽ ุนูู…ู’ุฑูŽุงู†ูŽ ุงู„ูŽู‘ุชููŠ ุฃูŽุญู’ุตูŽู†ูŽุชู’ ููŽุฑู’ุฌูŽู‡ูŽุงโ€}โ€ ุฃูŠโ€:โ€ ุตุงู†ุชู‡ ูˆุญูุธุชู‡ ุนู† ุงู„ูุงุญุดุฉุŒ ู„ูƒู…ุงู„ ุฏูŠุงู†ุชู‡ุงุŒ ูˆุนูุชู‡ุงุŒ ูˆู†ุฒุงู‡ุชู‡ุงโ€.โ€

And His statement, โ€œAnd Maryam, the daughter of โ€˜Imran, who guarded her chastityโ€ โ€“ meaning she safeguarded and protected it from faahishah (immoral conduct, especially immoral sexual behavior) as part of the complete perfection of her deen, and her chastity, and her integrity.

โ€{โ€ููŽู†ูŽููŽุฎู’ู†ูŽุง ูููŠู‡ู ู…ูู†ู’ ุฑููˆุญูู†ูŽุงโ€}โ€ ุจุฃู† ู†ูุฎ ุฌุจุฑูŠู„ โ€[โ€ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ุณู„ุงู…โ€]โ€ ููŠ ุฌูŠุจ ุฏุฑุนู‡ุง ููˆุตู„ุช ู†ูุฎุชู‡ ุฅู„ู‰ ู…ุฑูŠู…ุŒ ูุฌุงุก ู…ู†ู‡ุง ุนูŠุณู‰ ุงุจู† ู…ุฑูŠู… โ€[โ€ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ุณู„ุงู…โ€]โ€ุŒ ุงู„ุฑุณูˆู„ ุงู„ูƒุฑูŠู… ูˆุงู„ุณูŠุฏ ุงู„ุนุธูŠู…โ€.โ€

โ€œAnd We breathed into here Our Ruhโ€ by the breathing of Jibreel (โ€˜alaihis salaam) in the sleeve of her garment, so his breath reached Maryam, then from her came โ€˜Eesaa ibn Maryam (โ€˜alaihis salaam), the noble messenger and great leader.

โ€{โ€ูˆูŽุตูŽุฏูŽู‘ู‚ูŽุชู’ ุจููƒูŽู„ูู…ูŽุงุชู ุฑูŽุจูู‘ู‡ูŽุง ูˆูŽูƒูุชูุจูู‡ูโ€}โ€ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ูˆุตู ู„ู‡ุง ุจุงู„ุนู„ู… ูˆุงู„ู…ุนุฑูุฉุŒ ูุฅู† ุงู„ุชุตุฏูŠู‚ ุจูƒู„ู…ุงุช ุงู„ู„ู‡ุŒ ูŠุดู…ู„ ูƒู„ู…ุงุชู‡ ุงู„ุฏูŠู†ูŠุฉ ูˆุงู„ู‚ุฏุฑูŠุฉุŒ ูˆุงู„ุชุตุฏูŠู‚ ุจูƒุชุจู‡ุŒ ูŠู‚ุชุถูŠ ู…ุนุฑูุฉ ู…ุง ุจู‡ ูŠุญุตู„ ุงู„ุชุตุฏูŠู‚ุŒ ูˆู„ุง ูŠูƒูˆู† ุฐู„ูƒ ุฅู„ุง ุจุงู„ุนู„ู… ูˆุงู„ุนู…ู„ุŒ โ€[โ€ูˆู„ู‡ุฐุง ู‚ุงู„โ€]โ€ โ€{โ€ูˆูŽูƒูŽุงู†ูŽุชู’ ู…ูู†ูŽ ุงู„ู’ู‚ูŽุงู†ูุชููŠู†ูŽโ€}โ€ ุฃูŠโ€:โ€ ุงู„ู…ุทูŠุนูŠู† ู„ู„ู‡ุŒ ุงู„ู…ุฏุงูˆู…ูŠู† ุนู„ู‰ ุทุงุนุชู‡ ุจุฎุดูŠุฉ ูˆุฎุดูˆุนุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ูˆุตู ู„ู‡ุง ุจูƒู…ุงู„ ุงู„ุนู…ู„ุŒ ูุฅู†ู‡ุง ุฑุถูŠ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู†ู‡ุง ุตุฏูŠู‚ุฉุŒ ูˆุงู„ุตุฏูŠู‚ูŠุฉโ€:โ€ ู‡ูŠ ูƒู…ุงู„ ุงู„ุนู„ู… ูˆุงู„ุนู…ู„โ€.โ€

โ€œAnd she testified to the truth of the Words of her Lord and His Scripturesโ€ โ€“ and this is Him describing her withย โ€˜ilmย and knowledge, for verily affirmation of the Words of Allah includes His Words both related to theย deenย and toย qadr (Divine Pre-ordainment).

And affirmation of His Books, which requires knowledge of what is being affirmed, and that is not done except byย โ€˜ilmย and action, and concerning this He said, โ€œAnd she was devoutly obedientโ€ โ€“ meaning: one of the obedient ones to Allah, consistently and persistently upon obedience to Him withย khashyahย (reverential fear) andย khushooโ€™ย (devotion), and this is Him describing her with the perfection of action, for verily she (raadi Allaahu โ€˜anha) was aย siddeeqah, andย al-siddiqeeyyahย is perfection ofย โ€˜ilmย and actions.

[Taysir al-Kareem al-Rahman p. 1031-1032]

See also:ย Three Parables in Surah al-Tahreem: ibn al-Qayyim

See also:ย The Messiah was only a Messenger and his mother was a แนฃiddฤซqah: Tafsir al-Saโ€™di

See also:ย โ€œClothed in the world but naked in the hereafter!โ€: Fath al-Baari

See also:ย The children of Zina

See also: The story of โ€˜Eesaa, his mother, Zakariyyah and Yahya โ€“ Imam al-Saโ€™di