The Islamic Coins From 1-100 AH / 622-719 CE

The Islamic Coins From 1-100 AH / 622-719 CE


Mohamad Mostafa Nassar

Twitter:@NassarMohamadMR

After the Muslims defeated the armies of Byzantine and Sassanian empires, there came the need to administer the conquered territories. The early Muslim from Arabia did not have a sophisticated system like that of the two defeated empires. So, the best recourse for them was to maintain the existing administrative systems just like other conquerers before and after them did.

However, the early Muslims inherited two different administrative systems from the conquered two empires. Hence they had to maintain two parallel administrative systems one in the east and another in the west, which differed in their languages, culture, monetary systems and controls. The Muslims maintained these parallel systems for over 50 years until the reforms of the Umayyad caliph 士Abd al-Malik.

Before the reforms of 士Abd al-Malik, the Muslims used the existing monetary systems of their Sassanian and the Byzantine predecessors. There is a debate concerning the earliest coinage and their dating. Some argue that Muslims started striking coinage almost immediately as they did in the former Sassanian domain.

Other argue that the Muslims did not strike coins in the former Byzantine realms until the reign of 士Abd al-Malik. However, the middle ground appears to be more appropriate as the the coinage of the era before the advent of 士Abd al-Malik was very complex.

At some point in time, both in the east and in the west, the Islamic empire started to make its presence known via the coins that circulated in their domains. Initially, the changes were very minor with the addition of short phrases in Arabic and/or the addition of聽hijra聽dates. These lasted until a complete reform of the administrative system by 士Abd al-Malik who united it in Arabic and changed the coinage drastically to what we essentially call as Islamic coins.

The reformed coinage of 士Abd al-Malik was different from its earlier predecessors in epigraphy as well as religious content. The new coins asserted the oneness of Allah and Mu岣mmad as His last Messenger.

Our aims here are quite modest. We would like to display the unique Islamic coins between 1-100 AH / 622-719 CE. These coins are unique in the sense of epigraphy as well as the religious content and not unique with respect to where they were minted.

Looking for something similar? Try

The Qur’anic Manuscripts聽|聽Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions聽|聽Arabic Papyri

1. Chronological Arrangement Of Islamic Coins From 1st Century AH

Arab-Sassanian Coins From Year 20 (Assume Yazdgird Era, So 31 AH / 652 CE) Onwards.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse marginjayyid (“Valid” or “Good”). These are some of the earliest dated Islamic coins and believed to have been struck for about 15 years.

Arab-Sassanian Coins, Various Mints In Iran, From Year 20 (Assume Yazdgird Era, So 31 AH / 652 CE) Onwards.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse marginbism All膩h (“In the name of God”).

Arab-Sassanian Coins, Various Mints In Iran, Known With Years 23-39 (Assume Yazdgird Era, So 34-50 AH / 654-70 CE).

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse marginlill膩h (“Unto God”).

Arab-Sassanian Coin Of Mu士膩wiya, Darabgird, Frozen In Year 43 AH / 663-664 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse field has Maawia amir i-wruishnikan (“Mu士膩wiya, commander of the faithful”) written in the Middle Persian. Obverse marginbism All膩h (“In the name of God”).

Arab-Sassanian Coin, B墨sh膩p奴r, Minted In 47 AH / 667 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse marginbism All膩h al-malik (“In the name of God, the King”).

Arab-Sassanian Coins, Various Mints In Iran, From Year 35 (Assume Yazdgird Era, So 46 AH / 666 CE) Onwards.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse marginbism All膩h rabb墨 (“In the name of God, my Lord”).

Arab-Sassanian Coin Of The Governor 岣kam Ibn Ab墨 l-士膧s, Fars and Khuzistan, 57 AH / 676-677 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. It comes with a hephtalite countermark and testmark. Obverse marginbism All膩h rabb al-岣km (“In the name of God, the Lord of judgement”).

Arab-Sassanian Coin Of Yaz墨d Bin Mu士膩wiya, 61 AH / 681 CE.

Typical Arab-Sassanian bust, i.e., standing profile potrait of Khusraw II. The reverse field has a unique Middle Persian legend that says: 艩NT 鈥橸WK Y YZYT (“Year one of Yaz墨d”). The dating “Year one of Yaz墨d” belongs to Sassanian system; the “Year one” being the first year of the current reign. There is no indication of the “Islamic” character of this coin.

Arab-Sassanian Coinage Of 峁琣lha Ibn 士Abd All膩h, 64 AH / 683 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse margin峁琣lha lill膩h (“峁琣lha, unto God”).

Arab-Sassanian Coin Of Salm Bin Ziy膩d, 65 AH / 684-685 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust. Obverse margin: In an unpointed Arabic script Bism All膩h, All膩hu / Akbar (“In the name of God, God is / Great”). This appears to be the earliest known Islamic coin to bear the famous slogan All膩hu Akbar.

Drachm Of 士Abd al-Malik Ibn 士Abd All膩h, Zubayrid Governor Of B墨sh膩p奴r, 66 AH / 685-686 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse marginbism All膩h / Mu岣mmad ras奴l / All膩h (“In the name of God, Mu岣mmad is the messenger of God”). This is the earliest occurance of the name “Mu岣mmad” in a dated Muslim text.

Arab-Sassanian Coin Of The Governor, 士Abd al-士Az墨z Ibn 士Abd All膩h Ibn 膧mir, Sistan, 66 AH / 685-86 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. It comes with a hephtalite countermark and testmark. Obverse marginbism All膩h al-士az墨z (“In the name of God, the Great”).

Transitional聽Fals聽Issue From The Time Of Umayyad Caliph 士Abd al-Malik, 66 AH / 685 CE.

Two standing figures, facing, wearing long robes and Arab head-dress adorned with six-pointed stars. Their right hand is on their swords. Between them, on three steps, a pointed staff with globe. Obverse marginbism All膩h 士Abd All膩h 士Abd al-Malik Am墨r al-Mu示min墨n (“In the name of God. The slave of God 士Abd al-Malik, Commander of the Faithful”). Although the coins bears no mintmark, the kufic inscription leaves no doubt that it was an official issue of the Umayyad caliph. Clive Floss is of the opinion that this type apparently represents the caliph 士Abd al-Malik and his brother 士Abd al-Az墨z, who were jointly proclaimed as successors to their father Marwan in 684/85 CE.

Anonymous Arab-Sassanian聽Fals聽From D膩r膩bjird, 67 AH / 686-87 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust with Pahlavi afzut before bust. Obverse marginbism All膩h (“In the name of God”) in the second quadrant of obverse margin. Reverse field: Fire altar between mint (D膩r膩bjird) and date, in margin afzut (Pahlavi) and baraka (“blessing”).

Arab-Sassanian Coin Of 士Umar Ibn 士Ubayd All膩h Ibn Ma士mar, Fars, 68 AH / 687-688 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse marginlill膩h al-岣md (“Unto God be praise”).

Arab-Sassanian Coins Of Mu峁J縜b Ibn Al-Zubayr, 69 AH / 688 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse marginbism All膩h (“In the name of God”) BPRWY (in Middle Persian) with a countermark lill膩h (“Unto God”) in the fourth quadrant.

Anonymous Arab-Sassanian Coin From Kirm膩n, 70 AH / 689 CE.

Obverse field: Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust without the name of governor. Instead it is occupied by Middle Persian legend MHMT PGTAMI Y DAT (“Muhammad is the messenger of God”). Obverse margin: bism All膩h wal墨 / al-Amr (“In the name of God, the Master / of affairs”). The reverse field has typical Arab-Sassanian fire-altar with attendants with unidentified mint (GRM-KRMAN) in the Kirman province and the date. This is the second earliest known record where the name “Mu岣mmad” is mentioned in a dated Muslim text. Furthermore, this is the earliest mention of the name “Mu岣mmad” in Middle Persian (Pahlavi).

Transitional Arab-Sassanian Coin Of Governor 士Abd al-士Az墨z Ibn 士Abd All膩h Ibn 膧mir, 72 AH / 691-92 CE.

Obverse field: Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust. Middle Persian legend on the left of the bust: GDH 鈥檖zwt’ xwarrah abz奴d (“Increase in glory”) and on the right: 鈥檖dwl 鈥檆yc Y 鈥檖dwl鈥 Y 鈥檓yl鈥檔 (“士Abdul 士Az墨z 墨 士Abdull膩h 墨 膧mir膩n”), i.e., the name of the governor. Obverse margin: bism All膩h / al-士az墨z (“In the name of God / the Great”). Reverse field: Absence of typical Arab-Sassanian fire-altar with attendants. Instead it contains the legend in Middle Persian in five line, three of which state full shahada in Middle Persian. This full shahada is perhaps the earliest surviving physical record of it in Pahlavi.

Arab-Sassanian Coin Of Maq膩til Ibn Misma, 72 AH / 691 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse margin: bism All膩h / bakriyya (“In the name of God. Bakriyya“). This is the only known instance of appearance of the word bakriyya on any of the Arab-Sassanian coins. Bakriyya is a reference to the Bakr bin W膩鈥檌l tribe.

Anonymous Arab-Sassanian Coinage Of Syrian Origin Under 士Abd al-Malik, 72 AH / 691 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Written in Arabic to downwards to the right of the bust: Mu岣mmad ras奴l All膩h (“Mu岣mmad is the messenger of God”). The conventional Pahlavi benediction formula khurra afzut is behind the bust. Obverse marginbism All膩h (“In the name of God”). This is an extremely rare coin and marks the initial steps of 士Abd al-Malik’s monetary reforms in Damascus.

Arab-Sassanian Coinage Of The Kharijite 士Atiya Ibn Al-Aswad, 72 AH / 691 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse marginbism All膩h wal墨 al-Amr (“In the name of God, the Master of affairs”). This is a lesser known slogan of the Kharijites.

The Arab-Byzantine One And Two 鈥淪tanding Imperial Figures鈥 D墨n膩rs From The Time Of Umayyad Caliph 士Abd al-Malik, 72-74 AH / 692-694 CE.

These Arab-Byzantine gold solidi imitations including the one which has “three standing imperial figures” bear no Kufic legends to identify themselves as Arab issues. They are recognized as such only by the defacement or elimination of the crosses. Another noticeable feature of these imitation coins is the clumsy arrangement of the legend on the margins of both obverse and reverse sides, with little attention paid to positioning of the letters. G. C. Miles is of the opinion that these coins are roughly contemporary to each other.

The Arab-Byzantine 鈥淭hree Standing Imperial Figures鈥 D墨n膩r From The Time Of Umayyad Caliph 士Abd al-Malik, 72-74 AH / 692-694 CE.

This is the Umayyad imitation of the Byzantine prototype – both of them consist of three standing imperial figures on the obverse side. Reverse field: Staff ending in globe in steps. Reverse marginbism All膩h l膩-ilaha il-All膩h wa岣ahu Mu岣mmad ras奴l All膩h (“In the name of God. There is no god but God alone. Mu岣mmad is the messenger of God”). This full shahada is perhaps the earliest surviving physical record of it in Arabic.

Anonymous Arab-Sassanian Coinage Of Syrian Origin From The Time Of 士Abd al-Malik, 73 AH / 692 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse marginbism All膩h / l膩-ilaha il-All膩h wa / 岣ahu Mu岣mmad ra / s奴l All膩h (“In the name of God. There is no god but God alone. Mu岣mmad is the messenger of God”).

Arab-Sassanian Coin Of Bishr Ibn Marw膩n – I, 73 AH / 692 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust. In the place of the usual Sassanian fire-altar and two attendants, three bearded figures standing, the central one facing with hands raised on either side of his head, in an attitude of prayer, with smaller figures left and right, respectively, having their heads turned toward him. Obverse marginbism All膩h / l膩-ilaha il-All膩h / wa岣ahu Mu岣mmad / ras奴l All膩h (“In the name of God. There is no god but God alone. Mu岣mmad is the messenger of God”).

Arab-Sassanian Coin Of Bishr Ibn Marw膩n – II, 75 AH / 694-695 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust. In the place of the usual Sassanian fire-altar and two attendants, three bearded figures standing, the central one facing with hands raised on either side of his head, in an attitude of prayer, with smaller figures left and right, respectively, having their heads turned toward him. Obverse marginbism All膩h Mu岣mmad / ras奴l All膩h (“In the name of God. Mu岣mmad is the messenger of God”).

Arab-Sassanian Coin Of The Kharijite Rebel Qatar墨 Ibn al-Fuj膩’a, B墨sh膩p奴r, 75 AH / 694-695 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse marginl膩 岣km ill膩 lill膩h (“Judgement belongs to God alone”), the typical Kharijite slogan.

A Mixed Arab-Sassanian And Arab-Byzantine Coin From The Time Of Caliph 士Abd Al-Malik, 75 AH / 694-695 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust. In the place of the usual fire-altar and the two attendants, a standing figure of the caliph, bearded and with his right hand resting on his sword-hilt in the attitude of the im膩m delivering a khutba. Kufic legends on sides running downwards khalfat (sic) All膩h / am墨r al-mu’min墨n (“khalifa of God, Commander of the Faithful”). Obverse marginbism All膩h / l膩-ilaha il-All膩h / wa岣ahu Mu岣mmad ra / s奴l All膩h (“In the name of God. There is no god but God alone. Mu岣mmad is the messenger of God”).

The Arab-Byzantine 鈥淪tanding Caliph鈥 D墨n膩r From The Time Of Umayyad Caliph 士Abd al-Malik, 76 AH / 695-696 CE.

Obverse field聽has an image of the caliph standing in the centre, bearing a sword in a scabbard.聽Obverse margin:聽bism All膩h l膩-ilaha il-All膩h wa / 岣ahu Mu岣mmad ras奴l All膩h聽(“In the name of God. There is no god but God alone. Mu岣mmad is the messenger of God”). Reverse field shows a mutiliated cross on steps along with the date.聽The “standing-caliph” coin was only minted for three years (74-77 AH / 693-697 CE)聽before giving way to a wholly聽aniconic form, that is, engraved only with words and no images at all.

Arab-Sassanian Coin Of Al-岣jj膩j Bin Y奴suf, 77 AH / 696-697 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust with the name “al-岣jj膩j bin Y奴suf” written in Arabic on the right hand side of the bust. Obverse margin: bism All膩h / l膩-ilaha il- / All膩h wa岣ahu Mu岣mmad / ras奴l All膩h (“In the name of God. There is no god but God alone. Mu岣mmad is the Messenger of God”). This is a very unique coin. The shahadah is arranged in striking fashion radially in the obverse margin. As far as we are aware, no other coin from 1st century of hijra which shows this feature. The Arab-Sassanian and Arab-Byzantine coins which show either full or partial shahadah, show its arrangement running along the obverse margin.

Aniconic Silver Coins (鈥淩eformed Coinage鈥), Minted By The Umayyad Caliph 士Abd al-Malik, From 77 AH / 696 CE.

The aniconic reformed silver coinage of 士Abd al-Malik was different from its earlier predecessors in epigraphy as well as religious content.

Aniconic Gold Coins (鈥淩eformed Coinage鈥), Minted By The Umayyad Caliph 士Abd al-Malik, From 77 AH / 696 CE.

The differences between the reformed Umayyad gold and silver coins are quite subtle. The obverse margin in gold became the reverse margin in silver. The reverse margin in gold became obverse margin in silver. The silver also adds wa-lam yakun lahu kuf奴wan a岣d (“And there is none like unto Him”) which is absent in the gold.

Experimental Aniconic Silver Coins Minted By The Umayyad Caliph 士Abd al-Malik, 78 AH / 697-698 CE.

Since this was an exceptionally early issue it was struck before the precise format of the design had evolved. This might also explain why the legends are placed differently on this specimen. What was obverse margin in the experimental Umayyad dirham became reverse margin in the “reformed” dirham.

Arab-Sassanian Coin Of Yaz墨d Ibn Al-Muhallab – I, 78 AH / 697 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse marginquwwat Yaz墨d bill膩h (“Strength of Yaz墨d is from God”).

Arab-Armenian Coin Of Mu岣mmad Bin Marw膩n,聽c. 75-78 AH / 694-697 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse margin: In an unpointed Arabic script Mu岣mmad (“Mu岣mmad”). Roman letter 鈥楾鈥 replaces star in crescent at 6 o’clock.

Arab-Sassanian Style Coins In The Era Of Reformed Coinage – From The Time Of Al-岣jj膩j Bin Y奴suf, 79 AH / 698-699 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse marginl膩-ilaha il-All膩h wahdahu Mu岣mmad ras奴l All膩h (“There is no god but God alone, Mu岣mmad is the messenger of God”).

Arab-Sassanian Coin Of 士Abd Al-Ra岣膩n Ibn Mu岣mmad, 81 AH / 700 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse marginbism All膩h / rabb 岣rasahu (“In the name of God. May God protect him”).

Arab-Sassanian Coin Of 士Abd All膩h Ibn Bast膩m, 82 AH / 701 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse marginbism All膩h / baraka (“In the name of God. Blessing”).

Arab-Sassanian Coin Of Yaz墨d Ibn Al-Muhallab – II, 82 AH / 701 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust, but with a new type of head-dress with a top like weather-vane. On the reverse side, in place of the usual Sassanian fire-altar and two attendents, a standing figure, facing, in armour, wearing helmet with “weather-vane” like that on the obverse side and holding in his left hand a spear, while grasping with his right hand a sword in its scabbard.聽Obverse margin:聽bism All膩h / al-士A岷撃玬聽(“In the name of God, the Mighty”).聽Reverse margin: Contains both聽Hephthalite聽(Greek) and聽kufic聽scripts. The聽kufic聽script says聽duriba jizya bi-al-J奴zj膩n聽(“struck for tribute in al-Juzjan”).

Arab-Sassanian聽Fals聽From Veh-az-膧mid-Kav膩d (Arraj膩n), 82 AH / 701-702 CE.

Typical Arab-Sassanian fire-altar with attendants. Obverse margin: Na峁 All膩h al-岣qq (“May God give victory to the truth”).

Arab-Sassanian Coin Of The Governor 士Amr Ibn Laq墨t, Kirm膩n, 83 AH / 702 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse marginbism All膩h / 士Amr lill膩h (“In the name of God. 士Amr, unto God”).

A Unique Arab-Sassanian聽Fals聽From Veh-az-膧mid-Kav膩d (Arraj膩n), 83 AH / 702-703 CE.

Typical Arab-Sassanian fire-altar with attendants. Obverse marginMu岣mmadun ras奴lu鈥檒l膩hi wa鈥檒ladh墨na yatl奴na ma士ahu ashidd膩示u 士al膩鈥檒-kuff膩ri ru岣m膩示u baynahum (“Mu岣mmad is the Messenger of God, those who recite with him are severe [in their dealings] with the unbelievers, compassionate among themselves”).

Arab-Latin Coinage – Half Solidus With Two Imperial Busts,聽c. 80-85 AH / 700-704 CE.

Obverse field: Bust of Emperor Heraclius on left and smaller bust of his son Heraclius Constantine on right, each wearing a crown. Obverse margin: INNDNM [ ] IEST {= “IN Nomine DoMni [ ] non EST”} (“In the name of the Lord. [ ] does not exist”). Reverse field: A globe on top of a column with a base of three steps with a bead below. Reverse margin: [ ] DSNISOLVSDS {= “[ ] DeuS NIsi SOLUS DeuS”} (“[ ] there is no god but the one God”). These earliest Islamic coins from North Africa are modifications of those struck by the Byzantines in Carthage immediately before the Muslim conquest. The globe at the top of a column on three steps is the Muslim adaptation of the Byzantine cross on steps.

Arab-Latin Coinage – Indiction III, Gold Solidus, 85-86 AH / 704-705 CE.

Obverse field: RTERCIN. Obverse margin: DSETRNSDSMAGNOMKTER {= “DeuS ETeRNuS DeuS MaGNuS DeuS OMnia KreaToR”} (“God the Eternal, God the Mighty, God the Creator of All”). Reverse field: CINDIII. Reverse margin: INNDINMSRCSLFERINAFRC {= “IN Nomine DomINi MiSeRiCordis SoLidus FERitus IN AFRiCa”) (“In the name of the Lord, the Merciful. Solidus made in Africa”).

Arab-Sassanian Coin, Sijist膩n, Minted In 89 AH / 708 CE.

Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust and fire-altar with attendants. Obverse marginMY (Pahlavi) / bism All膩h / al-士izza lill膩h (“In the name of God. Unto God belongs the honour”).

Aniconic Gold Coins (鈥淩eformed Coinage鈥), From The 鈥楳ine Of The Commander Of The Faithful鈥, 89 AH / 708 CE.

Obverse fieldl膩-ilaha illa-All膩h wa岣ahu la shar墨kalah (“There is no god but God alone, He has no associate”). ma士din am墨r al-mu示min墨n (“Mine of the Commander of the Faithful’). Obverse marginMu岣mmad ras奴l All膩h arsalahu bi-l-huda wa d墨n al-岣qq liyudhhiru ala al-dini kullahi (“Mu岣mmad is the messenger of God whom He sent with guidance and the religion of truth that He might make it prevail over all religions”). This unique historic coin is of the highest rarity and the earliest known d墨n膩r to bear the legend 鈥楳ine of the Commander of the Faithful鈥.Two other d墨n膩rs with similar legend were sold at Morton & Eden on 4th April 2011. These coins are dated 92 AH (sold for 拢768,000) and 105 AH (sold for 拢3,720,000). The latter has the legend ma士din am墨r al-mu示min墨n bi al-岣j膩z (“Mine of the Commander of the Faithful in the 岣j膩z”).

Arab-Latin Coinage – Indiction XI, Gold Solidus From Spain, 94 AH / 712-713 CE.

Obverse field: Eight pointed star in the middle. Obverse margin: INNDNINIDSNSDSSLSIN {= “IN Nomine DomiNI Non DeuS NiSi DeuS SoLuS cuI Non (socius)} (“In the name of the Lord. There is no god but God alone who has no partners”). Reverse field: INDCXI {= “INDictione XI”}. Reverse margin: HDFRTINSPNANNXCIII {= “Hic soliDus FeRiTus IN SPaNia ANNo XCIIII”} (“This solidus was made in Spain in the year 94”). These coins were modelled in size and design after the Arab-Byzantine coinage. However, their inscriptions were in Latin. A large star in the centre of the obverse field distinguished the Spanish coins from the ones minted in Africa. Notice half shahadah in Latin in the obverse margin.

Arab-Latin Coinage – Half Solidus, 85-95 AH / 704-715 CE.

Obverse field: SOMNC {= “SOMNium Creator”} (“God the Creator of all”). Obverse margin: DSETRNSDSMGNSDSOID {= “DeuS ETeRNuS DeuS MaGNuS DeuS OmnIum Deus”} (“God the Eternal, God the Mighty, God the Omniscient”). Reverse field: A globe on top of a column with a base of three steps. Reverse margin: INNDINMSRCSLFERINAFRC {= “IN Nomine DomINi MiSeRiCordis SoLidus FERitus IN AFRiCa”) (“In the name of the Lord, the Merciful. Solidus made in Africa”).

Arab-Latin Coinage – Tremissis, 85-95 AH / 704-715 CE.

Obverse field: RTERCIN. Obverse margin: DSETER… {= “DeuS ETER[nus Deus magnus Deus]”} (“God is eternal. [God is great. God is]”). Reverse field: Cippus topped with ‘T’ on two steps. Reverse margin: [INNDNI]MISRCVSDNS {= “[IN Nomine DomNI] MISeRiCordis UnuS Deus Non Socius”} (“In the name of the Lord. One God with no partners”). A tremissis is a gold coin which is the third part of a solidus.

Arab-Latin Coinage – Bilingual Gold Solidus From Africa, 98 AH / 716-717 CE.

Obverse fieldl膩-ilaha il-All膩h (“There is no god but God alone”). Obverse margin: SLDFRTINAFRKANCVIII {= “SoLiDus FeRiTus IN AFRiKa ANno XCVIII”} (“Solidus made in Africa in the Year 98”). Reverse fieldMu岣mmad ras奴l All膩h (“Mu岣mmad is the Messenger of God”). Reverse margin: INNDNINDSNSSISNDCVNSM {= “IN Nomine DomiNI Non DeuS NiSSI Deus CUi Non SiMilis”} (“In the name of the Lord. There is no god but God, nothing is similar to Him”).

Arab-Latin Coinage – Bilingual Gold Solidus From Spain, 98 AH / 716-717 CE.

Obverse field: Eight pointed star in the middle.Obverse margin: FERITOSSOLIINSPANAN {= ” FeRITOS SOLIdus IN SPANia ANno”} (“Solidus made in Spain in the Year (omitted)”). Reverse fieldMu岣mmad ras奴l All膩h (“Mu岣mmad is the Messenger of God”). Reverse margin岣島riba hadh膩 al-d墨n膩r bi-al-andalus sanat tham膩n wa tis士墨n (“In the name of God, this d墨n膩r was struck in Al-Andalus the year 98″).

2. Coin Weights & Other Standard Weights

Coin weights were made to correspond to the weights of particular coin denominations, and the denomination in question was usually indicated in the design. Measuring the weight of a coin is an objective measurement. It can be repeated and it will come out the same time and time again and by different people.

The purpose of the coins weights was to check the weight of coin in circulation and ensure that coin received was of good quality. Normally they would correspond to the lowest weight at which the coin remained legal tender. They could be used to guard against clipped, worn or counterfeit coin and to check the standards of foreign coin permitted in currency.

Coin Weight Of The Umayyad Governor Al-岣jj膩j Ibn Y奴suf,聽c.聽75 AH / 695 CE.

This is a unique coin weight in bronze was issued by the authority of the Umayyad governor al-岣jj膩j ibn Y奴suf. Walker identified it as a weight of six mithq膩ls (= six d墨n膩rs, in modern terms 25.5 gms). It weighs 25.14 gms, very close to Walker’s suggested six mithq膩ls.

A Glass聽Dirham聽Weight In The Name Of Mu岣mmad Ibn Marw膩n, 73-91 AH / 692-709 CE.

This standard weight was issued by Mu岣mmad bin Marw膩n while he was serving as Governor of the North, where he would have been in charge of implementing the Umayyad coinage reform of 77-78 AH. This piece would have acted as the control tool against which the mint could validate the standard weight of its precious metal coinage. It is certainly the earliest surviving documentary evidence of the famous seven to ten ratio between the weight of the mithqal and the dirham, a standard which has survived in the traditional usage ever since that time.

A Glass Half聽D墨n膩r聽Weight In The Name Of Caliph 士Abd Al-Malik Ibn Marw膩n, 65-86 AH / 685-705 CE.

This glass half d墨n膩r weight may be from the latter part of Caliph 士Abd al-Malik ibn Marw膩n’s rule when coinage reforms came into effect, for the gold coinage, in 77 AH / 696-697 CE.

A Half Syrian聽Ra峁璴聽In The Name Of Caliph 士Abd Al-Malik Ibn Marw膩n, 65-86 AH / 685-705 CE.

Colour unknown. Diameter unknown. Weight =175.50 gm.

A Glass聽D墨n膩r聽Weight In The Name Of 士Abd Al-士Az墨z Ibn Marw膩n,聽c. 86 AH / 705 CE.

The weight of 士Abd al-士Az墨z ibn Marw膩n’s (r. 65-86 AH / 685-705 CE) glass piece, 4.29 gms, shows that it must be dated to the latter part of his governorship in Egypt, for it is clearly on the standard introduced for the d墨n膩r in 士Abd al-Malik’s coinage reform, which came into effect, for the gold coinage, in 77 AH / 696-697 CE. The standard is normally calculated at 4.25 gms. Other than the coins themselves it is one of the earliest, perhaps the earliest, of the documents we possess for the standard of the reform d墨n膩r.

A Byzantine Weight Validated by Al-Wal墨d,聽c.聽90 AH / 708-709 CE.

This weight is a circular disk of diameter 35.5 mm and thickness 7 mm with a two-grooved tooled profile.

A Bronze Weight Of Sa士墨d Ibn 士Abd Al-Malik,聽c. 126 AH / 744 CE.

This disc type weight is well known to have been used under Byzantine rule in the sixth century. Only one half of the weight survives.

3. Miscellaneous

D墨n膩r Minted By King Offa, 157 AH / 774 CE.

Albeit not an Islamic coin, this unique d墨n膩r or the gold coin of King Offa of Mercia is generally considered as one of the rarest and most remarkable coins in the world. This piece is considered to be a copy of an Arab d墨n膩r of the year 157 AH issued by caliph al-Mans奴r, and was issued in, or more probably, subsequently to the year 774 CE.

Dated Muslim Texts From 1-72 AH / 622-691 CE: Documentary Evidence For Early Islam.

The corpus of dated Muslim texts until 72 AH / 691 CE for the study of early Islam.

Dated Texts Containing The Qur鈥檃n From 1-100 AH / 622-719 CE.

The corpus of dated texts containing the Qur’an from 1-100 AH / 622-719 CE proving the early codification of the Qur’an in Arabic.

Dated Texts Mentioning Prophet Mu岣mmad From 1-100 AH / 622-719 CE.

The corpus of dated non-scriptural Muslim and non-Muslim texts mentioning Prophet Muhammad from the first Islamic century.

4. External Links

The Maskukat Collection. This is perhaps the most comprehensive collection of Islamic coins on the web. The arrangement of material is chronological.

Arab-Sasanian (Or Early Muslim) Coinage. Not as comprehensive as the above collection, this site has coins containing different epigraphic material. It also has very useful tables of the聽Arab-Sassanian mints聽and聽Arab-Sassanian ornamentation.