The Historicity of the Prophet Muhammed


Whether or not the Prophet Muhammed existed something many sought to find the answer. Even though this is a very silly question to ask many have convinced themselves that the Prophet Muhammed historically never existed.

That however contradicts reality since there is over-whelming undeniable historical evidence which absolutely with 100% certainty gives us proof that the Prophet Muhammed is a real historical figure.

Anyone who is skeptical about the existence of the Prophet Muhammed’s existence must be equally skeptical about other historical figures such as Genghis Khan, Alexander the great, Buddha, Confucius, and countless others.

While there being no reason to reject the existence of the Prophet Muhammed i still will provide some evidence proving his historical presence.

1 Historical texts and dating:

There are many people who lived close during the Prophet has mentioned by name. This will be a list of them.

Doctrina Iacobi Nuper Baptizati, 13–20 AH / 634–640 CE:

Written by a Christian apologist, this anti-Jewish tract illuminates the story of the forced conversion of a Palestinian Jewish merchant named Jacob to Christianity. After reading the scriptures, instead of resenting his forced baptism, he recognizes the truth of his newly found faith and is eager to share his experience with other Jews. Though it is quite clear this is a fictitious account designed for apologetic purposes, the historical details of contemporary events accurately recounted by the anonymous author reveals some quite startling information – the appearance of a new Prophet among the Saracens.

When the candidatus was killed by the Saracens, I was at Caesarea, and I set off by boat to Sykamina. People were saying “the candidatus has been killed,” and we Jews were overjoyed.

And they were saying that the prophet had appeared, coming with the Saracens, and that he was proclaiming the advent of the anointed one, the Christ who was to come. I, having arrived at Sykamina, stopped by a certain old man well-versed in scriptures, and I said to him:

“What can you tell me about the prophet who has appeared with the Saracens?”

He replied, groaning deeply: “He is false, for the prophets do not come armed with a sword.

Truly they are works of anarchy being committed today and I fear that the first Christ to come, whom the Christians worship, was the one sent by God, and we instead are preparing to receive the Antichrist.

Indeed, Isaiah said that the Jews would retain a perverted and hardened heart until all the earth should be devastated. But you go, master Abraham, and find out about the prophet who has appeared.”

So, I, Abraham, inquired and heard from those who had met him that there was no truth to be found in the so-called prophet, only the shedding of men’s blood. He says also that he has the keys of paradise, which is incredible.

[1] Seeing Islam as Others Saw It: A Survey and Evaluation Of Christian, Jewish And Zoroastrian Writings On Early Islam, 1997, op. cit., p. 57

A Record of The Arab Conquest of Syria, 15-16 AH / 637 CE:

This much faded note is preserved on folio 1 of BL Add. 14,461, a codex containing the Gospel according to Matthew and the Gospel according to Mark. This note appears to have been penned soon after the battle of Gabitha (636 CE) at which the Arabs inflicted a crushing defeat of the Byzantines.

Wright was first to draw attention to the fragment and suggested that “it seems to be a nearly contemporary notice”, a view which was also endorsed by Nöldeke. 

The purpose of jotting this note in the codex appears to be commemorative as the author appears to have realized how momentous the events of his time were. The words “we saw” are positive evidence that the author was a contemporary.

The author also talks about olive oil, cattle, ruined villages, suggesting that he belonged to peasant stock, i.e., parish priest or a monk who could read and write. It is worthwhile cautioning that the condition of the text is fragmentary and many of the readings unclear or disputable. The lacunae are supplied in square brackets.

And in January, they took the word for their lives (did) [the sons of] Emesa [i.e., Ḥimṣ)], and many villages were ruined with killing by [the Arabs of] Muhammad and a great number of people were killed and captives [were taken] from Galilee as far as Bēth […] and those Arabs pitched camp beside [Damascus?]

[…] and we saw everywhe[re…] and o[l]ive oil which they brought and them.

And on the t[wenty six]th of May went S[ac[ella]rius]… cattle […] […] from the vicinity of Emesa and the Romans chased them […] and on the tenth [of August] the Romans fled from the vicinity of Damascus […] many [people] some 10,000.

And at the turn [of the ye]ar the Romans came; and on the twentieth of August in the year n[ine hundred and forty-]seven there gathered in Gabitha […] the Romans and great many people were ki[lled of] [the R]omans, [s]ome fifty thousand […]

[2] The Seventh Century in The West-Syrian Chronicles Including Two Seventh-Century Syriac Apocalyptic Texts, 1993, Liverpool University Press: Liverpool (UK), pp. 2-3; Also see R. G. Hoyland, Seeing Islam as Others Saw It:

A Survey and Evaluation of Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian Writings On Early Islam, 1997, op. cit., pp. 116-117.

There are certain observations to be made here. The phrase “turn of the year” signifies that the beginning of the note refers to the year 634-5 CE. The people of Emesa “took the word for their lives”, an expression for surrendering on terms of tolerance, confirmed by oaths.

Then there was a battle in Palestine with the “Arabs of Muhammed” in which many villages were ruined and people from the region of Galilee and Beth Sacharya(?), southwest of Jerusalem were taken captive. Then the Arabs laid siege to Damascus (as read by Nöldeke).

In May, 635 CE, a Byzantine general of the rank of sakellarious was in the region of Emesa. His name according to the Byzantine sources was Theodor. Apparently, he was unable to lift the siege.

The next battle took place in Gabitha, a town to the north of the river Yarmuk in the Golan massif.

The date of the battle is 20th August AG 947 = 636 CE / Rajab 15 AH, which agrees with the best Arab date for the battle of Yarmuk. As mentioned earlier, the fragmentary nature of this note has resulted in scholars advising caution.

Thomas The Presbyter, 19 AH / 640 CE:

The 8th century BL Add. 14,643 was published by Wright who first brought to attention the mention of an early date of 947 AG (635-6 CE). 

The contents of this manuscript have puzzled many scholars for apparent lack of coherence as it contains an assembly of texts with diverse nature. In relation to Islam and Muslims, there are two important dates mentioned in this manuscript.

AG 945, indication VII: On Friday, 4 February, [i.e., 634 CE / Dhul Qa‘dah 12 AH] at the ninth hour, there was a battle between the Romans and the Arabs of Muhammed [Syr. tayyāyē d-Mḥmt] in Palestine twelve miles east of Gaza.

The Romans fled, leaving behind the patrician YRDN (Syr. BRYRDN), whom the Arabs killed. Some 4000 poor villagers of Palestine were killed there, Christians, Jews, and Samaritans. The Arabs ravaged the whole region.

AG 947, indication IX: The Arabs invaded the whole of Syria and went down to Persia and conquered it; the Arabs climbed mountain of Mardin and killed many monks there in [the monasteries of] Kedar and Benōthō. There died the blessed man Simon, doorkeeper of Qedar, brother of Thomas the priest.

[3] The Seventh Century in The West-Syrian Chronicles Including Two Seventh-Century Syriac Apocalyptic Texts, 1993, op. cit., pp. 18-19; Also see R. G. Hoyland, Seeing Islam as Others Saw It: A Survey and Evaluation Of Christian, Jewish And Zoroastrian Writings On Early Islam, 1997, op. cit., p. 119 and p. 120.

It is the first date above which is of great importance as it provides the first explicit reference to Muhammed in a non-Muslim source. The account is usually identified with the battle of Dathin. According to Hoyland, “its precise dating inspires confidence that it ultimately derives from first-hand knowledge”.

This means that the time period between the death of Muhammed (June, 632 CE) and the earliest mention of him (4th February, 634 CE) is slightly over a year and half!

Jerusalem 32 – An Inscription Mentioning Witnessing by Three Disciples Of Prophet Muhammed, 32 AH / 652 CE:

.. dhimmat Allāh wa ḍamān rasūlih.

… the protection of God and guarantee of His Messenger.

[4] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/jerus32.html

Sebeos, Bishop of The Bagratunis, 40’s AH / 660’s CE

One of the most interesting accounts of the early seventh century comes from Sebeos who was bishop of the House of Bagratunis.

From this chronicle, there are indications that he lived through many of the events he relates. He maintains that the account of Arab conquests derives from the fugitives who had been eyewitnesses thereof.

He concludes with Mu‘awiya’s ascendancy in the Arab civil war (656-61 CE), which suggests that he was writing soon after this date. Sebeos is the first non-Muslim author to present us with a theory for the rise of Islam that pays attention to what the Muslims themselves thought they were doing. As for Muhammed, he has the following to say:

At that time a certain man from along those same sons of Ismael, whose name was Mahmet [i.e., Muhammed], a merchant, as if by God’s command appeared to them as a preacher [and] the path of truth. He taught them to recognize the God of Abraham, especially because he was learnt and informed in the history of Moses.

Now because the command was from on high, at a single order they all came together in unity of religion. Abandoning their vain cults, they turned to the living God who had appeared to their father Abraham.

So, Mahmet legislated for them: not to eat carrion, not to drink wine, not to speak falsely, and not to engage in fornication. He said: ‘With an oath God promised this land to Abraham and his seed after him forever.

And he brought about as he promised during that time while he loved Ismael. But now you are the sons of Abraham and God is accomplishing his promise to Abraham and his seed for you. Love sincerely only the God of Abraham and go and seize the land which God gave to your father Abraham. No one will be able to resist you in battle because God is with you.

[5] The Armenian History Attributed to Sebeos Part – I: Translation and Notes, pg. 95-96. [6] Hagarism: The Making of The Islamic World pp. 6-7 [7] Medieval and Modern Perspectives on Muslim-Jewish Relations p. 89.

A Chronicler of Khuzistan, 40’s AH / 660’s CE:

This is an anonymous and short Nestorian chronicle that aims to convey church as well as secular histories from the death of Hormizd son of Khusrau to the end of the Persian kingdom. Because of its anonymity, it is known to scholars as the Khuzistan Chronicle, after its plausible geographical location or Anonymous Guidi, after the name of its first editor.

Amid his entry on the reign of Yazdgird, the chronicler gives a brief account of the Muslim invasions:

Then God raised up against them the sons of Ishmael, [numerous] as the sand on the sea shore, whose leader (mdabbrānā) was Muhammed (mḥmd). Neither walls nor gates, armour or shield, withstood them, and they gained control over the entire land of the Persians. Yazdgird sent against them countless troops, but the Arabs routed them all and even killed Rustam. Yazdgird shut himself up in the walls of Mahoze and finally escaped by flight.

He reached the country of the Huzaye and Mrwnaye, where he ended his life. The Arabs gained countrol of Mahoze and all the territory.

They also came to Byzantine territory, plundering and ravaging the entire region of Syria. Heraclius, the Byzantine king, sent armies against them, but the Arabs killed more than 100,000 of them.

[8] The Reign of Heraclius (610-641): Crisis and Confrontation, 2002, Groningen Studies in Cultural Change, Peeters Publishers, p. 71

P. Nessana 77 – Earliest Papyrus Mentioning Dhimma, 60s AH / 680s CE:

.. li-ahli Nessana dhimmat Allāhi wa dhimmat rasūlihi.

… [ ] due to him payment, and the people of Nessana have the protection of God and the protection of His mess[eng]er.

[9] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/papyri/pness77

A Lead Seal in The Name of Caliph ʿAbd Al-Malik Ibn Marwān, 65-86 AH / 685-705 CE:

Lā ilāha illa-Allāh waḥdahu la sharīka lahu Muhammed rasūl Allāh …

There is no god but God alone without partner and Muhammed is the Messenger of God …

[10] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/seal2.html

A Half Syrian Ral in The Name of Caliph ʿAbd Al-Malik Ibn Marwān, 65-86 AH / 685-705 CE:

Bism Allāh Lā ilāha illa-Allāh waḥdahu Muhammed rasūl Allāh …

In the name of God. There is not but God He is one, Muhammed is the Messenger of God …

[11] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/weight7

Drachm Of ʿAbd al-Malik Ibn ʿAbd Allāh, Zubayrid Governor of Bīshāpūr, 66 AH / 685-686 CE:

Obverse margin: bism Allāh / Muhammed rasūl / Allāh (“In the name of God, Muhammed is the Messenger of God”).

[12] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/drachm1

Anonymous Arab-Sassanian Coin from Kirmān, 70 AH / 689 CE:

Obverse field: Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust without the name of governor. Instead, it is occupied by Middle Persian legend MHMT PGTAMI Y DAT (“Muhammed is the Messenger of God”).

[13] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/drachm31

Transitional Arab-Sassanian Coin of Governor ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Ibn ʿAbd Allāh Ibn Āmir, 72 AH / 691-92 CE:

Reverse field: The legend in Middle Persian reads – YZDT’ -I BR’ ‘LH ’HRN YZDT’ L‘YT’ MḤMT’ PTGMBI Y YZDT’ (“One God, but He, another god does not exist. Muhammed is the Messenger of God”).

[14] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/drachm32

Anonymous Arab-Sassanian Coinage of Syrian Origin Under ʿAbd al-Malik, 72 AH / 691 CE

:

Obverse field: Written in Arabic to downwards to the right of the bust: Muhammed rasūl Allāh (“Muhammed is the Messenger of God”).

[15] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/drachm13

Tombstone Of ʿAbāssa Bint Juraij, 71 AH / 691 CE:

.. ahl al-Islām muṣībatahum bi al-nabī Muhammed ṣallā-Allāhu alayhi wa-sallam… wa tashhadu lā ilāha illā-allāh waḥdahu lā sharīka lahu wa anna Muhammedan ‘abduhu wa rasūlahu, ṣallā-Allāhu alayhi wa-sallam.

The greatest calamity of the people of Islām is that which has fallen them on the death of Prophet Muhammed, may God grant him peace…. [she died] confessing that there is no god but God alone without partner and that Muhammed is His servant and His apostle, may God grant him peace.

[16] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/abasa.html

The Arabic Islamic Inscriptions on The Dome of The Rock In Jerusalem, 72 AH / 692 CE:

Outer Octagonal Arcade

Muhammed rasūl Allāh ṣallā-Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam… Muhammed rasūl Allāh inna allāha wa malā’ikatahu yusallūna ʿala al-nabīyi yā ayyuhā al-ladhīna āmanū ṣallū ʿalayhi wa sallimū taslīman… Muhammed rasūl Allāh ṣallā-Allāhu ʿalayhi wa malā’ikatahu wa rusulu wa al-taslīman ʿalayhi wa raḥmat Allāh… Muhammed rasūl Allāh ṣallā-Allāhu ʿalayhi wa taqabbal shafāʿatahu yawm al-qiyamah… Muhammed rasūl Allāh ṣallā-Allāhu ʿalayhi.

Muhammed is the Messenger of God; may God grant him peace… Muhammed is the Messenger of God. Verily God and His Angels bless the Prophet; O you who believe, bless him and salute him with a salutation!  Muhammed is the Messenger of God, the blessing of God be on him and the angels and His prophets, and peace

be on him, and may God have mercy… Muhammed is the Messenger of God, the blessing of God be on him. May He accept his intercession on the Day of Judgment [on behalf of his people] … Muhammed is the Messenger of God; the blessing of God be on him.

Inner Octagonal Arcade

Muhammed ʿabd-Allāhi wa rasūluhu inna allāha wa malā’ikatahu yusallūna ʿala al-nabīyi yā ayyuhā al-ladhīna āmanū ṣallū ‘alayhi wa sallimū taslīman ṣallā-Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam ʿalayhi wa raḥmat Allāh.

Muhammed is the servant of God and His Messenger. Verily God and His Angels bless the Prophet; O you who believe, bless him and salute him with a salutation! The blessing of God be on him, and peace be on him, and may God have mercy.

[17] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/DoTR.html

The Copper Plaque Inscriptions at The Dome of The Rock in Jerusalem, 72 AH / 692 CE:

Northern Portal

Muhammed ʿabd-Allāhi wa rasūluhu arsalahu bi-l-huda wa dīn al-ḥaqq liyudhhiru ʿala al-dini kullahi wa-law karih-al-mushrikūn. Āmannā billāhi wa mā unzila ila Muhammed wa mā ūtiya al-nabīyūna min rabbihim lā nufarriqu bayna aḥadin minhum wa naḥnu lahu muslimūn. ṣallū ʿalayhi Muhammed ʿabduhu wa nabīyahu wa al-salām ʿalayhi wa raḥmat Allāhi wa barakātuhu wa magfiratuhu wa riḍawānahu.

Muhammed is the servant of God and His Messenger whom He sent with guidance and the religion of truth that He might make it prevail over all religions even if the associators are averse.

We believe in God and that which was revealed unto Muhammed and that which the Prophets received from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and unto Him we have surrendered.

The blessing of God be upon Muhammed, His servant and His prophet, and peace be upon him and the mercy of God and His blessing and His forgiveness and His acceptance.

Eastern Entrance

… an ta-ṣallī ʿala Muhammed ʿabdika wa nabīyika wa tataqabbala shafā’atahu fī ummati ṣallū ʿalayhi wa al-salām ʿalayhi wa raḥmat Allāhi wa…

… that You bless Muhammed Your servant, your prophet, and that You accept his intercession for his people, the blessing of God be upon him, and peace be upon him and the mercy of God and…

[18] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/copper.html

 The Arab-Byzantine “Three Standing Imperial Figures” Dīnār From the Time of Umayyad Caliph ʿAbd al-Malik, 72-74 AH / 692-694 CE:

bism Allāh lā-ilaha il-Allāh waḥdahu Muhammed rasūl Allāh.

In the name of God. There is no god but God alone. Muhammed is the Messenger of God.

[19] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/dinar4

The ʿAqabah Inscription from The Time Of ʿAbd al-Malik, 73 AH / 692-693 CE:

Bism Allāh al-raḥmān al-raḥīm lā ilāha il-l-allāh waḥdahu la sharīka lahu Muhammed rasūl Allāh …

In the name of God the Compassionate the Merciful. There is no god but God alone without partner and Muhammed is the Messenger of God …

[20] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/malik5.html

Aniconic Silver Coins (“Reformed Coinage”), Minted by The Umayyad Caliph ʿAbd al-Malik, From 77 AH / 696 CE:

Reverse margin: Muhammed rasūl Allāh arsalahu bi-l-huda wa dīn al-ḥaqq liyudhhiru ʿala al-dini kullahi wa-law karih-al-mushrikūn

Muhammed is the Messenger of God whom He sent with guidance and the religion of truth that He might make it prevail over all religions even if the associators are averse.

[21] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/drachm6

Experimental Aniconic Silver Coins Minted by The Umayyad Caliph ʿAbd al-Malik, 78 AH / 697-698 CE

Obverse margin: Muhammed rasūl Allāh arsalahu bi-l-huda wa dīn al-ḥaqq liyudhhiru ʿala al-dini kullahi wa-law karih-al-mushrikūn

Muhammed is the Messenger of God whom He sent with guidance and the religion of truth that He might make it prevail over all religions even if the associators are averse.

[22] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/drachm35

An Inscription Mentioning the Rebuilding of Al-Masjid Al-arām, 78 AH / 697-698 CE:

Shahida al-Rayyān bin ʿAbd Allāh innahu lā ilāha il-l-allāh wa shahida anna Muhammedan rasūl Allāh…

Al-Rayyān b. ʿAbdullāh testifies that there is no God, but God and he testifies that Muhammed is the Messenger of God…

[23] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/haram1.html

An Inscription Mentioning Supplication for Intercession of Prophet Muhammed, 80 AH / 699-700 CE:

Allāhumma ṣallī ʿala Muhammed al-nabī wa taqabbala shafāʿatahu fī ummati…

O Lord, bless Muhammed, the Prophet, and accept his intercession on behalf of his community…

[24] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/hisma7.html

A Unique Arab-Sassanian Fals from Veh-az-Āmid-Kavād (Arrajān), 83 AH / 702-703 CE:

Obverse margin: Muhammedun rasūlu’llāhi wa’lladhīna yatlūna maʿahu ashiddāʾu ʿalā’l-kuffāri ruḥamāʾu baynahum

Muhammed is the Messenger of God, those who recite with him are severe [in their dealings] with the unbelievers, compassionate among themselves.

[25] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/fals3

Inscription In a Mosque in Damascus, Built by Caliph Walīd, 86-87 AH / 705-706 CE:

… rabbuna-Allāhu waḥdahu wa dīnunā al-islām wa nabīyyunā Muhammed ṣallā-allāhu alayhi wa sallam.

… Our Lord is God alone, and our religion is Islam, and our prophet is Muhammed, may God grant him peace.

[26] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/walid.html

Aniconic Gold Coins (“Reformed Coinage”), From The ‘Mine of The Commander of The Faithful’, 89 AH / 708 CE:

Reverse margin: Muhammed rasūl Allāh arsalahu bi-l-huda wa dīn al-ḥaqq liyudhhiru ʿala al-dini kullahi wa-law karih-al-mushrikūn.

Muhammed is the Messenger of God whom He sent with guidance and the religion of truth that He might make it prevail over all religions even if the associators are averse.

[27] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/dinar6

A Byzantine Weight Validated by Al-Walīd, c. 90 AH / 708-709 CE:

Reverse Margin / Centre: Bism Allāh Muhammed rasūl Allāh al-Wafā’ lillāh….

In the name of God. Muhammed is the Messenger of God. Equity is God’s…

[28] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/weight6

Arab-Latin Coinage – Bilingual Gold Solidus from Africa, 98 AH / 716-717 CE:

Reverse field: Muhammed rasūl Allāh

Muhammed is the Messenger of God.

[29] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/latin2

Arab-Latin Coinage – Bilingual Gold Solidus from Spain, 98 AH / 716-717 CE:

Reverse field: Muhammed rasūl Allāh

Muhammed is the Messenger of God.

[30] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/latin7

And this are only some of the archaeological dating only from the 1st century-2nd century of Islam alone.

There are countless other examples of these. For more please visit the following link: 

https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/earlysaw [31]

2 Orientalists on the Historicity of the Prophet Muhammed

Patricia Crone says:

There is no doubt that Mohammed existed, occasional attempts to deny it notwithstanding. His neighbours in Byzantine Syria got to hear of him within two years of his death at the latest; a GREEK TEXT written during the Arab invasion of Syria between 632 and 634 MENTIONS that “a false prophet has appeared among the Saracens” and dismisses him as an impostor on the ground that prophets do not come “with sword and chariot”.

It thus conveys the impression that he was actually leading the invasions…If such a revised date is accurate, the evidence of the Greek text would mean that Mohammed is the only founder of a world religion who is attested in a contemporary source. 

But in any case, this source gives us pretty irrefutable evidence that he was a historical figure. 

[32] https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/mohammed_3866jsp/

Mohammed is also mentioned by name, and identified as a messenger of God, four times in the Qur’an… We can be reasonably sure that the Qur’an is a collection of utterances that he made in the belief that they had been revealed to him by God.

The book may not preserve all the messages he claimed to have received, and he is not responsible for the arrangement in which we have them. They were collected after his death – how long after is controversial. But that he uttered all or most of them is difficult to doubt.

[33] Ibid.

She continues to say:

On the Islamic side, sources dating from the mid-8th century onwards preserve a document drawn up between Mohammed and the inhabitants of Yathrib, which there are good reasons to accept as broadly authentic; Mohammed is also mentioned by name, and identified as a messenger of God, four times in the Qur’an.”

[34] Ibid.

And finally, she says:

We probably know more about Mohammed than we do about Jesus (let alone Moses or the Buddha), and we certainly have the potential to know a great deal more.

[35] Ibid.

Fred Donner also made some statements regarding this.

He said:

For example, an early Syriac source by the Christian writer Thomas the Presbyter, dated to around 640 – that is, just a few years after Muhammed’s death – provides the earliest mention of Muhammed and informs us that his followers made a raid around Gaza.

This, at least, enables the HISTORIAN TO FEEL MORE CONFIDENT that Muhammed is not completely a fiction of later pious imagination, as some have implied; WE KNOW THAT SOMEONE NAMED MUHAMMED DID EXIST, and that he LED some kind of MOVEMENT.

And this FACT, in turn, gives us greater confidence that further information in the massive body of traditional Muslim materials may also be rooted in HISTORICAL FACT. The difficulty is in deciding what is, and what is not, factual.

[36] Muhammed and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam pg. 53

For example, meticulous study of the text by generations of scholars has failed to turn up any plausible hint of anachronistic references to important events in the life of the later community, which would almost certainly be there had the text crystallized later than the early seventh century C.E.

Moreover, some of the Qur’an’s vocabulary suggests that the text, or significant parts of it, hailed from western Arabia.  

So, we seem, after all, to be dealing with a Qur’an that is the product of the earliest stages in the life of the community in western Arabia…The fact that the Qur’an text dates to the earliest phase of the movement inaugurated by Muhammed means that the historian can use it.” 

[37] Muhammed and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam pg. 56

3 The Prophet Muhammed’s grave:

The Prophet Muhammed’s observable tomb is the biggest sign of his historical existence.

I’m not going to talk about this much since it really does not need that much explanation.

But if anyone is interested to read about it then visit this link

here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_Dome#Tomb_of_Muhammed [38]

There [in medina] also lies the grave of his companions, wives, and family alongside with hundreds of people who met him.

It’s the biggest sound of his documented historical existence.

Allah knows Best.

Sources:

Muslim Allegations hunters

[1] Seeing Islam as Others Saw It: A Survey and Evaluation of Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian Writings on Early Islam, 1997, op. cit., p. 57

[2] The Seventh Century in The West-Syrian Chronicles Including Two Seventh-Century Syriac Apocalyptic Texts, 1993, Liverpool University Press: Liverpool (UK), pp. 2-3; Also see R. G. Hoyland, Seeing Islam as Others Saw It: A Survey and Evaluation of Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian Writings on Early Islam, 1997, op. cit., pp. 116-117.

[3] The Seventh Century in The West-Syrian Chronicles Including Two Seventh-Century Syriac Apocalyptic Texts, 1993, op. cit., pp. 18-19; Also see R. G. Hoyland, Seeing Islam as Others Saw It: A Survey and Evaluation of Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian Writings on Early Islam, 1997, op. cit., p. 119 and p. 120.

[4] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/jerus32.html

[5] The Armenian History Attributed to Sebeos Part – I: Translation and Notes, pg. 95-96.

[6] Hagarism: The Making of The Islamic World pp. 6-7

[7] Medieval and Modern Perspectives on Muslim-Jewish Relations p. 89

[8] the Reign of Heraclius (610-641): Crisis and Confrontation, 2002, Groningen Studies in Cultural Change, Peeters Publishers, p. 71

[9] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/papyri/pness77

[10] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/seal2.html

[11] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/weight7

[12] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/drachm1

[13] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/drachm31

[14] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/drachm32

[15] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/drachm13

[16] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/abasa.html

[17] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/DoTR.html

[18] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/copper.html

[19] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/dinar4

[20] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/malik5.html

[21] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/drachm6

[22] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/drachm35

[23] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/haram1.html

[24] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/hisma7.html

[25] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/fals3

[26] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/walid.html

[27] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/dinar6

[28] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/weight6

[29] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/latin2

[30] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/coins/latin7

[31] https://www.islamic-awareness.org/history/islam/inscriptions/earlysaw

[32] https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/mohammed_3866jsp/

[33] Ibid.

[34] Ibid.

[35] Ibid.

[36] Muhammed and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam pg. 53

[37] Muhammed and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam pg. 56

[38] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_Dome#Tomb_of_Muhammed

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