The unique function of finger i.e. Fingertips in Quran. It is to be noted we are talking about discovery of identification of person through tips of his finger not just about the fingerprints.
The Quran mentions the fact the uniqe fact of fingers (fingerprints) i.e. it provides identity of a person
“Yes, We are Able to put together in perfect order the tips of his fingers. Nay! (Man denies Resurrection and Reckoning.) So he desires to continue committing sins. He asks: “When will be this Day of Resurrection?” So, when the sight shall be dazed, And the moon will be eclipsed, And the sun and moon will be joined together (by going one into the other or folded up or deprived of their light, etc.) On that Day man will say: “Where (is the refuge) to flee?” No! There is no refuge!“
If we just swaps the verses we can get the clear meaning of it which is
“On the Day of Judgement the man will run to take refugee but there will be no refugee, he will try to hide but Allah will even be able to recognize him through his fingers i.e. fingerprints (refering to the advance technology)”
This also emphasis on the modern technology of identifying persons with the tips of his/her fingers.
When Science came to know about it.
“This unique attribute of fingers realised that they could be used as a method of identification was discoverd by Nehemiah Graw (1641-1712).
Nehemiah Graw (1641-1712) was one of the first people to study the distinct ridges of the fingerprints, and the science of their study developed through such people as Marcello Malpighi and Thomas Bedwick. The first person to realise that fingerprints were so distinctive they could be used fairly accuratly as a means of identification was Sir William Herschel (1833-1917), but it was Dr Juan Vucetich who started up the worlds first fingerprint buereu in argentina, and this became the first country in 1896 to abolish athropometry as a means of identification, in favour of fingerprints.”
Another documentary says
“There are overlapping claims as to who ought to get the credit; apparently, it was an idea whose time had come. In 1856, Sir William Herschel—an English magistrate in India—began requiring fingerprints on contracts, but it’s not clear that he ever used them to identify criminals.
In 1880, Dr. Henry Faulds of Scotland published a paper on the use of fingerprints for identification, but he was unable to interest law enforcement in the idea. In 1883, Mark Twain’s Life on the Mississippi included the identification of a murderer using a fingerprint.
(He would use the same trick again in his 1894 novel, Pudd’nhead Wilson.) Starting in 1888, Sir Francis Galton began publishing works about fingerprints, identifying patterns, creating a system of classification, and determining that the odds of two people having the same fingerprint were vanishingly small, thus making them suitable for forensic work. The first to actually use his system to convict a criminal was Argentine police officer Juan Vucetich, in 1892.
The Henry classification system, devised by Sir Edward Richard Henry in 1896-7, enabled prints to be classified and sorted; it was adopted by Scotland Yard in 1901, and became the ubiquitous method of classifying fingerprints from then until the computer age.”