Qur’anic injunctions concerning hajj=Pilgrimage

Qur’anic injunctions concerning hajj=Pilgrimage

Mohamad Mostafa Nassar


By Mufti Muhammad Shafi’ (rahimahullah)

And accomplish the Hajj and the  ‚ÄėUmrah for Allah, but if you  are  restricted, then whatever  available of the animal offering. And shave not your heads until  the offering reaches its place. But  if anyone of you is ill, or has some  trouble with his scalp, then there is a ransom through fasting or alms giving.

And when you are safe, then, whoever avails the advantage of the ‚ÄėUmrah alongwith the Hajj, shall make whatever available of the animal offering.

And whoever finds none shall fast for three days during Hajj, and for seven days when you return; thus they are ten in all. This is for him whose family are not residents of  Al-Masjid al-Haram. And fear Allah and be aware that Allah is severe at punishment. The Hajj is (in) the months well-known. So  whoever undertakes Hajj therein, then there is no obscenity, no sin, no quarrel in the Hajj. And whatever good you do, Allah shall  know it.

And take provisions along, for  the merit of provision is to abstain (from asking). And fear Me, O men of understanding. There is no sin on you that you seek the bounty of your Lord (by trading).

Later, when you flow down from ‚ÄėArafat, recite the name of Allah near Al-Mash‚Äôar al-Haram (the Sacred Monument) and recite His name as He has guided you while before it, you were among the astray. Then flow down from where the people flowed, and seek forgiveness from Allah. Certainly Allah is Most-Forgiving, Very-Merciful.

And once you have fulfilled your rites, recite the name of Allah, as you would speak of your forefathers or even with greater fervor. Now among the people there is one who says:¬† ‚ÄúOur Lord, give to us in this world‚Ķ;‚ÄĚ and he, in the Hereafter,¬† has¬† no¬† share.¬†

And there is another among them who says: “Our Lord, give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter and save us from the punishment of Fire!’ For them there is a share of what they have earned, and Allah is swift at reckoning. And recite the name of Allah during the given number of days.

Then whoever is early in leaving after two days, there is no sin on him and whoever remains behind, there is no sin on him, if he is God-fearing. And fear Allah and be sure that you are going to be gathered before Him. [Surah Baqarah 2:196-203]

Injunctions  concerning Hajj  and  ‚ÄėUmrah
The Hajj, with the strong consensus of the entire Muslim Ummah, is a pillar among the cardinal pillars of Islam and an important obligation. It has been clearly emphasised in the many verses of the Holy Qur‚Äôan and in numerous authentic ahadith.

According to the majority opinion, the Hajj became an obligation in the third year of Hijrah, that is, in the year the battle of Uhud was fought, through the verse (and as a right of Allah, it is obligatory on the people to perform hajj of the  House) of Surah Aal ‚ÄėImran (Ibn Kathir). In this verse, conditions of the obligation of Hajj have been stated and a stern warning has been given to those who do not perform Hajj in spite of having the ability to do that.

Out of the eight verses before us, the first verse: And accomplish the Hajj, and the ‚ÄėUmrah for Allah was revealed, as agreed upon by the commentators, pertaining to the event of Hudaybiyyah which took place in the year 7 A.H. This teIls us that the purpose of the verse is not to declare the initial obligation of the Hajj; that has been stated already. Instead, the intention here is to convey some special injunctions governing Hajj and ‚ÄėUmrah.

The Injunction about ‚ÄėUmrah
However, Surah aal ‚ÄėImran which declares Hajj as an obligation restricts itself to Hajj alone; ‚ÄėUmrah is not mentioned there, while the present verse mentions ‚ÄėUmrah, but does not state whether it is basically ‚Äėnecessary‚Äô or ‚Äėobligatory‚Äô. It rather says that a person who begins Hajj or ‚ÄėUmrah by going into¬†Ihram,¬† then,

it becomes¬†wajib¬†or necessary for him to complete that, very much like voluntary prayers or fasting where the rule is that after one starts them, their completion becomes necessary. Therefore, we do not find out from this verse the answer to the question: Is ‚ÄėUmrah¬†wajib, or is it not? It simply tells us that once one starts it, it becomes¬†wajib¬†or necessary for him to complete it.

Ibn Kathir cites, with reference to al-Tirmidhi, Ahmad and al-Bayhaqi, a report from the blessed Companion Jabir that he asked the Holy Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam): ‚ÄėIs ‚ÄėUmrah wajib?‚Äô He said: ‚ÄėWell, not wajib, but that you do it is better and meritworthy.‚Äô¬† (According¬† to¬† al-Tirmidhi, this hadith¬†is¬†hasan¬† sahih).

This is why Imam Abu¬† Hanifah, Imam Malik and others say that ‚ÄėUmrah is not¬†wajib, but a sunnah. Looking back at the statement in the¬†present¬†verse that completing¬†Hajj¬†and ‚ÄėUmrah after¬†one has¬†gone into¬†Ihram becomes¬†wajib¬†or¬†necessary,¬†we face¬†the¬†question¬†as to¬†what happens if,¬†

after¬†entering into the state¬†of¬†Ihram,¬†there¬†comes up some¬†sort of compulsion which¬† makes¬†it impossible¬†to complete¬†the Hajj¬†and¬†‚ÄėUmrah. What¬†has¬†to be¬†done¬†in such cases¬†has¬†been¬†clarified in¬†the succeeding¬†sentence¬†which¬†begins with ‚Äúbut if¬†you¬†are restricted.‚ÄĚ

Rules concerning Ihram
As this¬†verse¬†pertains¬†to¬†the event of Hudaybiyyah¬†where the Holy Prophet¬†(sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)¬†and¬†his¬†Companions¬†were¬†in¬†a¬†state of¬†Ihram¬† and¬† the disbelievers¬† of¬† Makkah¬† had¬† stopped¬† them¬† from¬† entering¬† Makkah¬† and performing¬† ‚ÄėUmrah,¬† thereupon¬† came¬† the¬† injunction¬† that¬† the¬†¬†fidyah¬† or ransom¬† to¬† get¬† released¬† from¬† the¬† Ihram¬† is¬† to¬† offer¬† the¬† sacrifice¬† of¬† an animal,¬† such¬† as,¬† a¬† goat,¬† cow¬† or¬† camel¬† whichever¬† is¬† easy¬† to¬† get.¬†

After  the  sacrifice  has  been  offered,  Ihram  can  be  removed,  but  within  the next  sentence  (And  shave  not  your  heads)  it  has  also been  pointed  out  that  removing  the  Ihram,  which  is  legally  possible only  after  having  shaved  or  close-trimmed  the  hair  on  the  head,  is  not  permissible  until  the  sacrificial  animal  of  the  person  in  a  state  of  Ihram  reaches  its  destined  spot  and  is  actually  slaughtered. 

The¬† expression¬† ‚Äėreaching¬† its¬† place‚Äô,¬† according¬† to¬† Imam¬† Abu¬† Hanifah,¬† means¬† that¬† it¬† should¬† be¬† taken¬† into¬† the¬† sacred¬† precincts¬† of¬† the¬† Haram¬† and¬† slaughtered¬† there.¬† If¬† one¬† cannot¬† do¬† it¬† personally,¬† he¬† can authorise¬† someone¬† else¬† to¬† do¬† it¬† on¬† his¬† behalf.¬†

The¬† situation¬† of¬† being¬† ‚Äėrestricted‚Äô¬† by¬† an¬† enemy¬† is¬† clearly¬† mentioned¬† in¬† this¬† verse.¬† Imam¬† Abu¬† Hanifah¬† and¬† some¬† other¬† jurists¬† are¬† of¬† the¬† view¬† that¬† if¬† somebody¬† is unable¬† to¬† complete¬† Hajj¬† or¬† ‚ÄėUmrah¬† (after¬† wearing¬†¬†Ihram)¬† because¬† of¬† sickness,¬† he¬† can¬† also¬† avail¬† of¬† the¬† concession¬† given¬† by¬† this¬† verse,¬† because¬† the¬† words¬† ‚Äėif¬† you¬† are¬† restricted‚Äô¬† are¬† so¬† general¬† that¬† they¬† include¬† the¬† restriction¬† imposed¬† by¬† sickness¬† also.¬†

The  manner  in  which  the  Holy  Prophet  (sallallaahu  alayhi  wasallam)  has  practiced  the instructions  given  in  the  Holy  Verse  is  sufficient  to  disclose  that  although  it  is  allowed  in  such  an  emergent  situation  to  remove  the  Ihram  after  offering  a  sacrifice, 

yet¬† it¬† will¬† remain¬† obligatory¬† to¬† perform¬† the¬† Hajj¬† or¬† the¬† ‚ÄėUmrah¬† afresh¬† as¬† a¬†¬†qada‚Äô¬† (whenever¬† the¬† circumstances¬† allow¬† to¬† do¬† so). That¬† is¬† why¬† the¬† Holy¬† Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)¬† and¬† his¬† Companions did¬† perform¬† the¬† ‚ÄėUmrah¬† next¬† year¬† as¬† a¬†¬†qada‚Äô¬† for¬† the¬† ‚ÄėUmrah¬† missed¬† by¬† them¬† at¬† Hudaybiyyah.

In  this  verse,  the  shaving  of  the  head  has  been  indentified  as  the  signal  for  removing  the  Ihram  which  proves  that  shaving  the  head  (halq)  or  trimming  the  hair  (qasr) in  a  state  of  Ihram  is  forbidden.  In view  of  this,  the  next  injunction  tells  us  the  way  out  for  one  who  faces  a  compelling  need  to  shave  his  head  in  a  state  of  Ihram.

Shaving  in  the  state  of  Ihram
In  the  text  of  the  Holy  Qur’an,  it  is  said:  if  one  is  forced  to  shave  hair  on  the  head,  or  any  other  part  of  the  body,  because  of  some  ailment  or  irritating  lice,  one  can  do  so  in  proportion  to  the  need,  but  it  has  to  be  redeemed  by  giving  fidyah  in  the  form  of  fasting,  charity  or  sacrifice.  The  place  for  sacrifice  is  fixed;  it  has  to  be  offered  within  the  limits  of  Haram.  There  is  no  such  fixed  place  for  fasting  and  charity;  these  obligations  can  be  accomplished  anywhere.

¬† The¬† number¬† of¬† fasts¬† and¬† the¬† amount¬† of¬† charity¬† find¬† no mention¬† in¬† the¬† words¬† of¬† the¬† Holy¬† Qur‚Äôan,¬† but¬† in¬† a¬† hadith¬† of¬† Sahih al-Bukhari,¬† the¬† Holy¬† Prophet¬† (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)¬† prescribed¬† in¬† a¬† similar¬† situation¬† faced by¬† the¬† noble¬† Companion¬† Ka‚Äôb¬† ibn¬† ‚ÄėUjrah¬† that¬† he¬† should¬† fast¬† for¬† three¬† days¬† or¬† give¬† 1/2¬†¬†sa‚Äô¬†¬†of¬† wheat¬† as¬† charity¬† to¬† six¬† needy¬† persons.¬† This¬† 1/2¬†¬†sa‚Äô¬†¬†comes¬† to¬† approximately¬† 1.632¬† kilograms¬† of¬† wheat¬† or¬† its¬† price¬† in cash.

Combining¬† Hajj¬† and¬† ‚ÄėUmrah¬† during¬† Hajj¬† months
Before¬† the¬† appearance¬† of¬† Islam,¬† the¬† Arabs¬† in¬†¬†Jahiliyyah¬† would¬† not¬† combine¬† Hajj¬† and¬† ‚ÄėUmrah¬† during¬† Hajj¬† months,¬† that¬† is,¬† after¬† the¬† advent¬† of¬† Shawwal.¬† They¬† thought¬† it¬† was¬† a¬† sin.¬† Towards¬† the¬† end¬† of¬† this¬† verse, their¬† misconception¬† was¬† corrected¬† by¬† restricting¬† the¬† prohibition¬† on¬† combining¬† Hajj¬† and¬† ‚ÄėUmrah¬† during¬† the¬† months¬† of¬† Hajj¬† to¬† only¬† those¬† who¬† live¬† within¬† the¬† limits¬† of¬†¬†Miqat¬† because¬† it¬† is¬† not¬† difficult¬† for¬† them¬† to¬† return¬† for¬† ‚ÄėUmrah¬† after¬† the¬† Hajj¬† months.¬†

But,¬† for¬† those¬† coming¬† from¬† outside¬† the¬†¬†Miqat¬† limits,¬† it¬† was¬† declared¬† permissible¬† because¬† it¬† is¬† not easy¬† for¬† them¬† to¬† make¬† a¬† special¬† trip¬† exclusively¬† for¬† ‚ÄėUmrah¬† all¬† the¬† way from¬† such¬† distances.¬†¬†Miqat¬† is¬† one¬† of¬† the¬† several¬† stations¬† appointed¬† by Allah¬† Almighty¬† on¬† every¬† route¬† leading¬† to¬† Makkah¬† from¬† all¬† over¬† the¬† world¬† and¬† it¬† has¬† been¬† made¬† obligatory¬† on¬† everyone¬† proceeding¬† to¬† Makkah¬† to¬† wear¬†¬†Ihram¬† at¬† this¬† point¬† to¬† perform¬† Hajj¬† or¬† ‚ÄėUmrah.¬† Going beyond¬† this¬† appointed¬† place¬† without¬†¬†Ihram¬† is¬† a¬† sin.¬†

That¬† is,¬† combining¬† Hajj¬† and¬† ‚ÄėUmrah‚Äô¬† is¬† permissible¬† only¬† for¬† a¬† person¬† whose¬† family¬† does¬† not¬† live¬† within¬† the¬† environs¬† of¬† al-Masjid al-Haram,¬† or¬† in¬† other¬† words,¬† within¬† the¬† limits¬† of¬† the¬† appointed¬† stations¬† known¬† as¬†Miqat.¬†

However,¬† those¬† who¬† combine¬† the¬† Hajj¬† and¬† ‚ÄėUmrah¬† during¬† the¬† Hajj¬† months¬† are¬† obligated¬† to¬† demonstrate¬† their¬† gratefulness¬† for¬† having¬† been¬† allowed¬† to¬† combine¬† two¬† acts¬† of¬†¬†‚ÄėIbadah.¬† This¬† gratitude¬† is expressed¬† by¬† offering¬† a¬† sacrifice,¬† if¬† one¬† is¬† capable¬† of¬† that.¬†

This  sacrifice may  be  offered  by  slaughtering  a  goat,  cow  or  camel  whichever  is  easy.  But,  one  who  is  financially  incapable  of  doing  so,  he  is  obligated  to  fast  for  ten  days,  the  first  three  within  the  Hajj  days  completing  them  by the  ninth  of  Dhul-Hijjah,  the  rest  of  seven  fasts  he  can  complete  after  the  Hajj  at  a  place  and  time  of  his  choice. 

He  could  do  so  while  living  in  Makkah  or  when  he  returns  home.  If  a  person  fails  to  fast  for  three days  during  the  Hajj  days,  for  him,  in  the  view  of  revered  Companions,  and  Imam  Abu  Hanifah,  offering  a  sacrifice  is  mandatory.  As  soon  as  it  is  possible,  he  can  have  the  sacrifice  offered  in  the  Haram  through  someone  he  knows  [Jassas].

Al-Tamattu’  and Al-Qiran;  the  two  kinds  of  Hajj
Combining¬† the¬† Hajj¬† and¬† ‚ÄėUmrah during¬† Hajj¬† days¬† takes¬† two¬† forms. The¬† first¬† method¬† is¬† to¬† enter¬† into Ihram¬† for¬† Hajj¬† and¬† ‚ÄėUmrah¬† both¬† right¬† from¬† the¬†¬†Miqat.¬† This¬† is¬† known¬† as¬†¬†Al-Qiran¬† in¬† the¬† terminology¬† of hadith.¬† Under¬† this¬† method¬† the¬† release¬† from¬† the¬†¬†Ihram¬† is¬† tied¬† with¬† the release¬† from¬† the¬†¬†Ihram¬† of¬† Hajj.¬†

The¬† pilgrim¬† has¬† to¬† stay¬† in¬† a¬† state¬† of¬† Ihram¬† until¬† the¬† last¬† day¬† of¬† Hajj.¬† Under¬† the¬† second¬† method¬† it¬† is possible¬† to¬† enter¬† into¬†¬†Ihram¬† exclusively¬† for¬† ‚ÄėUmrah¬† from¬† a¬†¬†Miqat¬† and¬† after¬† reaching¬† Makkah¬† al-Mukarramah,¬† and¬† performing¬† the¬† fixed¬† rites¬† of¬† ‚ÄėUmrah¬† one¬† can¬† get¬† out¬† of¬† the¬†¬†Ihram.¬†

After  that,  when  getting  ready  to  go  to  Mina  on  the  eighth  of  Dhul-Hijjah,  he  should  enter  again  into  the  Ihram  of  Hajj  right  within  the  Haram. 

This¬† is¬† technically¬† known as¬†¬†Al-Tamattu‚Äô.¬† Literally,¬† the¬† word¬†¬†Tamattu‚Äô¬†¬†covers¬† both¬† methods¬† since¬† it¬† means¬† ‚Äėto¬† have¬† the¬† benefit¬† of¬† combining¬† Hajj¬† and¬† ‚ÄėUmrah¬† both‚Äô¬† which¬† is¬† equally¬† applicable¬† to¬† both¬† the¬† methods¬† detailed¬† above.¬† The wordings¬† (Then, whoever¬† avails¬† of¬† the¬† advantage)¬† in¬† the¬† present¬† verse¬† of¬† the¬† Holy¬† Qur‚Äôan¬† have¬† been¬† used¬† in¬† this¬† general¬† sense.

The  warning  against  violation  of  rules
The¬† verse¬† 196¬† ends¬† up¬† with¬† the¬† words¬† ‚ÄėFear¬† Allah‚Äô¬† which¬† is¬† a command¬† to¬† adopt¬†¬†Taqwa¬† ‚Äst a¬† Qur‚Äôanic¬† term¬† which¬† has¬† no¬† equivalent¬† in¬† the¬† English¬† language,¬† and¬† denotes¬† the¬† attitude¬† of¬† fearing¬† and abstaining¬† from¬† doing¬† anything¬† against¬† rules¬† set¬† by¬† Allah¬† Almighty.¬†

This  command  has  been  followed  by  a  warning: and  be  aware  that  Allah  is  severe  at  punishment  which  means  that  anyone  who  knowingly  acts  against  the  injunctions  revealed  by  Allah Almighty,  for  him  the  punishment  of  Allah  is  severe. 

The¬† people¬† who¬† go¬† in¬† our¬† days¬† for¬† Hajj¬† or¬† ‚ÄėUmrah¬† are¬† widely¬† negligent¬† of¬† this¬† warning.¬† To¬† begin¬† with,¬† they¬† do¬† not¬† make¬† the¬† necessary¬† effort¬† to¬† find¬† out¬† the¬† rules¬† of¬† Hajj¬† and¬† ‚ÄėUmrah.¬†

Then  a  good  many  do  not  follow  the  rules strictly,  even  if  they  have  the  knowledge.  Bad  guides  or  careless  fellow  pilgrims  sometimes  make  one  miss  the  obligatory  acts,  let  alone  the sunnah  and  the  proper  etiquette  of  the  pilgrimage.  May  Allah  bless  all of  us  with  the  ability  to  correct  what  we  do.

The  Hajj  Months:  Prohibitions
We¬† now¬† move¬† to¬† the¬† second¬† verse¬† out¬† of¬† the¬† eight¬† that¬† deal¬† with¬† the¬† rules¬† of¬† Hajj,¬† which¬† is:¬†‚ÄėThe¬† Hajj¬† is¬† (in)¬† the¬† months¬† well-known‚Äô.¬†The¬† word,¬†¬†ashhur¬† is¬† the¬† plural¬† of¬†¬†shahr¬† meaning¬† the¬† month.¬† It¬† will¬† be¬† recalled¬† that¬† in¬† the¬† previous¬† verse¬† it¬† was¬† said¬† that¬† one¬† who¬† enters¬† into¬†¬†Ihram¬† with¬† the¬† intention¬† of¬† doing¬† Hajj¬† or¬† ‚ÄėUmrah¬† must¬† complete¬† it¬† as¬† prescribed.¬†

Out¬† of¬† these¬† two,¬† there¬† is¬† no¬† fixed¬† date¬† or¬† month¬† for¬† ‚ÄėUmrah¬† which¬† could¬† be¬† done¬† anytime¬† during¬† a¬† year.¬† But,¬† for¬† Hajj,¬† the¬† months¬† and¬† the¬† dates¬† and¬† timings¬† of¬† what¬† one¬† must¬† do¬† are¬† all¬† fixed.¬† It¬† is¬† for¬† this¬† reason¬† that¬† the¬† verse¬† opens¬† with¬† the¬† clarification¬† that¬† the¬† Hajj¬† (unlike¬† ‚ÄėUmrah)¬† has¬† some¬† fixed¬† months¬† which¬† are¬† already¬† known.¬†

The¬† months¬† of¬† Hajj¬† have¬† been¬† the¬† same from¬†¬†Jahiliyyah¬† also;¬† they¬† are¬† Shawwal,¬† Dhul-Qa‚Äôdah¬† and¬† the¬† first¬† ten¬† days¬† of¬† Dhul-Hijjah¬† as¬† it¬† appears¬† in¬† the¬† hadith¬† as¬† narrated¬† by¬† the¬† blessed¬† Companions Abu¬† Umamah¬† and¬† Ibn¬† ‚ÄėUmar¬† [Mazhari].

That  the  Hajj  months  begin  from  Shawwal  means  that  it  is  not  permissible  to  enter  into  the  Ihram  of  Hajj  before  it.  According  to  some  Imams,  the  Hajj  would  simply  not  be  valid  with  a  pre-Shawwal  Ihram. Imam  Abu  Hanifah  rules  that  the  Hajj  thus  performed  will  be considered  valid,  but  it  will  be  makruh  (reprehensible) [Mazhari].

The  verse  197, stresses  upon  the  etiquette  of  Hajj  and  makes  it  necessary  for  everyone  in  the  state  of  Ihram  to  strictly  abstain  from  three  things:  rafath,  fusuq  and  jidal,  which  are  being  explained  here  in  some  detail.

A  comprehensive  word,  Rafath  includes  marital  intercourse,  its prelimineries,  including  an  open  talk  about  love-making.  All  these  things  are  forbidden  in  the  state  of  Ihram.  However,  an  indirect  or  implied  reference  to  the  act  of  love-making  is  not  prohibited.

Literally  fusuq  means  ‚Äútransgression‚ÄĚ.  In  the  terminology  of  the  Holy  Qur‚Äôan,  it  means  ‚Äėdisobedience‚Äô,  the  general  sense  of  which includes  all  sins.  Early  commentators  have  taken  it  here  in  this  general  sense  of  the  word  but  the  blessed  Companion  ‚ÄėAbdullah  ibn  ‚ÄėUmar  has  interpreted  the  word  ‚Äėfusuq‚Äô  here  to  mean  only  the  acts  which  are  prohibited  and  impermissible  in  the  state  of  Ihram.  It  is  obvious  that  this  interpretation  is  more  suitable  to  the  occasion  because  the  prohibition  of  sins  as  such  is  not  peculiar  to  Ihram;  they  are  forbidden  under  all  conditions.

Things  which  are  not  sins  in  themselves  but  do  become  impermissible  because  of  the  Ihram  are  six  in  number. 

(1) Marital  intercourse, its  prelimineries,  even  lovetalk. 
(2) Hunting  land  game,  either  hunting  personally  or  guiding  a  hunter. 
(3)  Cutting  hair  or  nail. 
(4) Using  perfume. 

These  four  things  are  equally  impermissible  for  men  and women  both  when  in  a  state  of  Ihram.  The  remaining  two  baslcally concern  men: 

(5) Wearing  stitched  clothes. 
(6) Covering  the  head  and the  face.  According  to  Imam  Abu   Hanifah  and  Imam  Malik,  it  is  also  not  permissible  for  women  to  cover  their  face  while  in  a  state  of  Ihram, therefore,  this  too  is  included  in  the  common  Ihram  prohibitions.

The¬† first¬† of¬† the¬† above¬† six¬† things,¬† that¬† is,¬† intercourse¬† and¬† its¬† correlatives,¬† though¬† included¬† under¬†¬†fusuq,¬† has¬† yet¬† been¬† separated¬† from¬† it,¬† and¬† has¬† been¬† introduced¬† separately¬† through¬† the¬† word¬†¬†Rafath, stressing¬† thereby¬† the¬† importance¬† of¬† abstaining¬† from¬† it¬† when¬† in¬† a¬† state of¬†¬†Ihram.¬† This¬† is¬† because¬† ‚Äėamends‚Äô¬† can¬† be¬† made¬† for¬† the¬† contravention of¬† other¬†¬†Ihram¬† prohibitions¬† through¬†¬†kaffarah¬† (expiation).¬†

But,¬† should¬† one¬† fall¬† into¬† the¬† misfortune¬† of¬† indulging¬† in¬† intercourse¬† before¬† the¬†Wuquf¬† of¬†¬†‚ÄėArafat¬† (stay¬† in¬† ‚ÄėArafat)¬† Hajj¬† itself¬† becomes¬† null¬† and¬† void¬† and¬† a¬† fine¬† in¬† the¬† form¬† of¬† a¬† sacrifice¬† of¬† a¬† cow¬† or¬† camel¬† becomes¬† obligatory¬† and¬† the¬† Hajj¬† will¬† have¬† to¬† be¬† performed¬† all¬† over¬† again.¬† Because¬† this aspect¬† was¬† so¬† important,¬† the¬† text¬† has¬† mentioned¬† it¬† expressly.

The¬† word¬†¬†‚Äėjidal‚Äô¬†¬†means¬† an¬† effort¬† to¬† upturn¬† the¬† adversary,¬† therefore,¬† a¬† rough¬† altercation¬† or¬† quarrel¬† is¬† known¬† as¬†jidal.¬† This¬† word¬† being¬† very¬† general,¬† some¬† commentators¬† have¬† taken¬† it¬† in¬† the¬† usual¬† general¬† sense, while¬† others,¬† keeping¬† in¬† view¬† the¬† place¬† of¬† Hajj¬† and¬† the¬† importance¬† of¬†¬†Ihram,¬† have¬† particularized¬† the¬† sense¬† of¬†¬†jidal¬† here¬† with¬† a¬† specific¬† quarrel.¬†

In¬† the¬† age¬† of¬† ignorance,¬† people¬† differed¬† about¬† the¬† prescribed¬† place¬† of¬†¬†Wuquf¬† (staying).¬† Some¬† thought¬† staying¬† in¬† ‚ÄėArafat¬† was¬† necessary,¬† while¬† others¬† insisted¬† that¬† Muzdalifah¬† was¬† the¬† prescribed¬† place¬† to¬† stay¬† and,¬† therefore,¬† did¬† not¬† consider¬† going¬† to¬† ‚ÄėArafat¬† as¬† necessary.¬†

They  even  claimed  that  it  was  where  Sayyidina  Ibrahim  (alayhissalaam)  had  stayed. Similarly,  they  differed  in  the  timings  of  the  Hajj  as  well.  Some  would  do  their  Hajj  in  Dhul-Hijjah  while  some  others  would  do  it  earlier  in Dhul-Qa’dah  and  then,  they  would  all  quarrel  among  themselves around  the  subject  and  charge  each  other  of  having  gone  astray. 

The Holy¬† Qur‚Äôan¬† said¬†¬†La jidal,¬† no¬† quarrel,¬† and¬† put¬† an¬† end¬† to¬† all¬† quarrels.¬† What¬† was¬† proclaimed¬† was¬† the¬† truth¬† ‚Äst the¬† obligatory¬† stay¬† has¬† to¬† be¬† made¬† in¬† ‚ÄėArafat,¬† then,¬† the¬† necessary¬† stay¬† in¬† Muzdalifah,¬† and¬† Hajj¬† has¬† to¬† be¬† performed¬† in¬† no¬† other¬† days¬† but¬† those¬† of¬† Dhul-Hijjah.¬† Once¬† the¬† divine¬† command¬† is¬† there,¬† quarreling¬† is¬† forbidden.¬†

According  to  this  interpretation,  the  prohibition  given  in  the  verse  is  restricted  to  those  acts  only  which  are  normally  permissible,  yet,  they  have  been  forbidden  because  of  the  Ihram,  just  as  the  permissible  acts  of  eating  and  drinking  are  forbidden  in  the  state  of  Fasting  and  Salah  only.

But  some  commentators  have  taken  fusuq  and  jidal  in  the  general  sense.  According  to  them  even  though  the  fisq  and jidal  are  sins,  and  deplorable  at  all  places  and  under  all  conditions,  but  their  sin  becomes  all  the  more  grave  in  the  state  of  Ihram. 

If¬† one¬† could¬† think¬† about¬† the¬† blessed¬† days¬† and¬† the¬† sacred¬† land¬† of¬† the¬† Haram¬† where¬† everyone¬† comes¬† to¬† perform¬†¬†‚Äėibadah¬† at¬† its¬† best¬† with¬† fervent¬† chants¬† of¬†¬†Labbayk,¬† telling¬† their¬† Lord¬† ‚ÄėHere¬† we¬† are¬† at¬† Your¬† call‚Äô,¬† with¬† the¬† garment¬† of¬†¬†Ihram¬†reminding¬† them¬† all¬† the¬† time¬† that¬† the¬† pilgrim¬† is¬† devoted¬† to¬† his¬† act¬† of¬†¬†‚Äėibadah¬† within¬† the¬† sight¬† of¬† Allah,¬† how¬† could¬† one¬† stoop¬† to¬† do¬† what¬† is¬† prohibited¬† by¬† Allah;¬† obviously,¬† under¬† such¬† condition,¬† any¬† act¬† of¬† sin¬† or any¬† act¬† of¬† entanglement¬† with¬† dispute¬† turns¬† into¬† sinfulness¬† at¬† its worst.

Taking  this  general  sense  into  account,  one  can  see  the  wisdom  behind  the  prohibition  of  obscenity,  sin  and  quarrel  as  the  place  and  time  of  Hajj  have  their  peculiar  conditions  in  which  one  might  fall  a victim  to  these  three.  There  are  times  when  one  has  to  stay  away  from  his  family  and  children  for  a  long  time  in  a  state  of  Ihram. 

Then,¬† men¬† and¬† women¬† perform¬† Hajj¬† rites¬† at¬†Mataf¬† (the¬† place¬† around¬† the¬† Ka‚Äôbah¬† where¬†¬†tawaf¬† is¬† made)¬† and¬†¬†Mas‚Äôa¬† (place¬† between¬† Safa¬† and¬† Marwah¬† were¬†¬†Sa‚Äôy¬† is¬† made)¬† and¬† at¬† ‚ÄėArafat,¬† Muzdalifah¬† and¬† Mina¬† with hundreds¬† and¬† thousands¬† of¬† people¬† coming¬† in¬† contact¬† with¬† each¬† other.¬† In¬† such¬† an¬† enormous¬† gathering¬† of¬† men¬† and¬† women,¬† it¬† is¬† not¬† so¬† easy¬† to¬† control¬† one‚Äôs¬† inner¬† desires,¬† therefore,¬† Allah¬† Almighty¬† has¬† first¬† taken¬† up¬† the¬† prohibition¬† of¬† obscenity.¬†

Then,  since  so  many  people  are  around  at  a  given  time,  all  deeply  devoted  to  performing  their  prescribed  rites,  there  are  also  occasions  where  sins  such  as  theft  creep  in,  therefore, came  the  instruction:  La  fusuq  (no  sin). 

Similarly,  during  the  entire  Hajj  trip,  there  are  many  incidents  where  people  could  get  to  quarrel  with  each  other  because  they  are  cramped  for  space  or  for  some  other reason.  The  injunction:  la  jidal  (no  quarrel)  is  to  eliminate  such  possibilities.

The¬† eloquence¬† of¬† the¬† Qur‚Äôan The¬† words¬† in¬† the¬† verse: translated¬† literally¬† as¬†¬†‚Äėthen¬† there¬† is¬† no¬† obscenity,¬† no¬† sin,¬† no¬† quarrel‚Ķ‚Äô¬†¬†are¬† all¬† words¬† of negation,¬† that¬† is,¬† all¬† these¬† things¬† are¬† not¬† there¬† in¬† Hajj,¬† although¬† the¬† object¬† is¬† to¬† forbid¬† them,¬† which¬† could¬† have¬† taken¬† the¬† form¬† close¬† to saying¬† ‚Äst do¬† not¬† be¬† obscene,¬† do¬† not¬† be¬† sinful¬† and¬† do¬† not¬† quarrel.¬†

But,  the  possible  prohibitive  lmperative  has  been  replaced  here  by  words  of  negation  and  thereby  the  hint  has  been  given  that  such  doings  have  no place  in  Hajj  and  cannot  even  be  imagined  in  that  context.

After  proclaiming  basic  Ihram  prohibitions,  the  sentence: And  whatever  good  you  do, Allah  shall  know  it instructs that  abstaining  from  sins  and  the  contravention  of  the  Ihram  during the  blessed  days  of  Hajj  and  at  sacred  places  is  not  enough.  Taking  a  step  farther,  one  should  consider  this  occasion  to  be  something  that comes  once  in  a  lifetime,  therefore, 

it¬† is¬† all¬† the¬† more¬† necessary¬† that¬† one¬† should¬† make¬† an¬† effort¬† to¬† stay¬† devoted¬† to¬†¬†‚Äėibadah,¬† the¬†¬†Dhikr¬† (also¬† transliterated¬† as¬†¬†‚ÄėThikr‚Äô,¬† or¬†¬†‚ÄėZikr‚Äô,¬† meaning¬† ‚Äėremembrance‚Äô)¬† of Allah¬† and¬† good¬† deeds.¬† The¬† assurance¬† given¬† is¬† that¬† every¬† act¬† of¬† virtue¬† and¬† every¬† demonstration¬† of¬† goodness¬† from¬† a¬† servant¬† of¬† Allah¬† shall¬† be¬† in¬† the¬† knowledge¬† of¬† Allah¬† and,¬† of¬† course,¬† shall¬† be¬† rewarded¬† generously.

The¬† sentence¬† that¬† follows¬† immediately:¬†¬†‚ÄėAnd¬† take¬† provisions¬† along,¬† for¬† the¬† merit¬† of¬† provision¬† is¬† to¬† abstain¬† (from asking)‚Äô¬† aims¬† to¬† correct¬† those¬† who¬† leave¬† their¬† homes¬† for¬† Hajj¬† and¬† ‚ÄėUmrah¬† without¬† adequate¬† preparation¬† claiming¬† that¬† they¬† do¬† so¬† because¬† they¬† have¬† trust¬† in¬† Allah.¬† Obviously,¬† they¬† have¬† to¬† ask¬† for¬† help¬† on¬† their¬† way,¬† or¬† worse¬† still,¬† they¬† themselves¬† go¬† through¬† privation¬† and suffering¬† and¬† in¬† the¬† process,¬† bother¬† others¬† as¬† well.¬†

Hence,  the  instruction  has  been  given  that  provisions  needed  for  the  proposed  trip  for  Hajj  should  be  taken  along.  This  is  not  against  tawakkul  or  trust  in Allah;  it  is  rather,  the  very  essence  of  tawakkul,  which  conveys  the  sense  that  one  should  first  acquire  and  collect  the  means  and  resources  provided  by  Allah  Almighty  to  the  best  of  one’s  capability and, 

then,  place  his  trust  (tawakkul)  in  Allah.  This  is  the  exact explanation  of  tawakkul  reported  from  the  Holy  Prophet  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).  Forsaking  all  efforts  to  acquire  means  of  subsistence  (tark  al-asbab) and  calling  it  tawakkul  is  sheer  ignorance.

Trading  or  earning  during the  Hajj
Verse¬† 198:¬†‚ÄėThere¬† is¬† no¬† sin¬† on¬† you¬† that you¬† seek¬† the¬† bounty¬† of¬† your¬† Lord¬† (by¬† trading)‚Äô¬† was¬† revealed¬† in¬† a¬† particular¬† background¬† of¬† the¬†¬†Jahiliyyah¬† when¬† the¬† people¬† of¬† Arabia¬† had distorted¬† all¬† rules¬† of¬† worship¬† and¬† social¬† dealings¬† by¬† injecting¬† in¬† them¬† all¬† sorts¬† of¬† absurd¬† customs¬† rendering¬† acts¬† of¬† devotion¬† into¬† amusement. They¬† would¬† not¬† even¬† spare¬† the¬† sacred¬† rites¬† of¬† Hajj¬† when¬† they¬† added¬† to¬† them¬† ridiculous¬† doings¬† out¬† of¬† their¬† wild¬† imagination.¬†

In  the  great gathering  at  Mina  they  would  set  up  special  bazaars,  hold  exhibitions,  and  put  up  trade  promotion  devices.  But  after  the  appearance  of  Islam  when  Muslims  were  obligated  with  Hajj,  all  these  absurd  customs were  eliminated. 

The  noble  Companions,  who  would  stake  anything  to  seek  the  pleasure  of  Allah  and  to  follow  the teachings  of  His  Messenger,  started  suspecting  the  validity  of  even  the  acts  of  trading  or  working  for  wages  during  Hajj  days. 

They¬† thought that¬† earning¬† in¬† this¬† manner¬† is¬† an¬† outgrowth¬† of¬† the¬† age¬† of¬† ignorance,¬† may¬† be¬† Islam¬† shall¬† forbid¬† it¬† absolutely,¬† so¬† much¬† so,¬† that¬† a¬† certain¬† person¬† came¬† to¬† the¬† blessed¬† Companion¬† ‚ÄėAbdullah¬† ibn¬† ‚ÄėUmar¬† and asked.¬† ‚ÄėWe¬† are¬† in¬† the¬† business¬† of¬† renting¬† our¬† camels.¬† We¬† have¬† been¬† doing¬† it¬† since¬† long.¬† People¬† hire¬† our¬† camels¬† to¬† go¬† for¬† their¬† Hajj.¬† We¬† go with¬† them¬† and¬† perform¬† our¬† Hajj.¬†

Is¬† it¬† that¬† our¬† Hajj¬† will¬† not¬† be¬† valid?‚Äô¬† Sayyidina¬† ‚ÄėAbdullah¬† ibn¬† ‚ÄėUmar¬† said:¬† ‚ÄėSome¬† one¬† came¬† to¬† the¬† Holy Prophet¬† (sallallaahu¬† alayhi¬† wasallam)¬† and¬† asked¬† the¬† same¬† question¬† you¬† are¬† asking¬† me.¬† The¬† Holy¬† Prophet¬† (sallallaahu¬† alayhi¬† wasallam)¬† not¬† reply¬† to¬† his¬† question¬† at¬† that¬† particular¬† time¬† until¬† the¬† verse:¬†¬†And¬† take¬† provisions¬† along, for¬† the¬† merit¬† of¬† provision¬† is¬† to¬† abstain¬† (from¬† asking).¬†

And¬† fear¬† Me,¬† O¬† men¬† of¬† understanding.¬† There¬† is¬† no¬† sin¬† on¬† you¬† that¬† you¬† seek¬† the bounty¬† of¬† your¬† Lord¬† (by¬† trading).¬†was¬† revealed.¬† Then,¬† he¬† called¬† for¬† that¬† person¬† and¬† said,¬† ‚ÄėYes,¬† your¬† Hajj¬† is¬† valid.‚Äô

In  short,  this  verse  makes  it  clear  that  a  person,  who  earns  some  profit  by  trading,  or  wages  by  working,  incurrs  no  sin.  However,  the  practice  of  the  disbelievers  of  Arabia  whereby,  they  had  turned  the Hajj  into  a  trade  fair  was  reformed  through  two  simple  words  of  the  Qur’an  to  the  effect  that  they  can  earn  if  they  have  to, 

but¬† let¬† them¬† earn¬† what¬† they¬† do¬† as¬† a¬† favour¬† and¬† blessing¬† of¬† Allah¬† Almighty,¬† and¬† be¬† grateful¬† for¬† it,¬† never¬† making¬† it¬† a¬† material¬† exercise¬† of¬† minting¬† money.¬† The¬† words,¬†Fadhlumir Rabbikum,¬†‚Äėthe¬† bounty¬† of¬† your¬† Lord‚Äô¬†point¬† out¬† to¬† this¬† factor.

Then,  the  expression:  La Junaaha Alaykum  preceding  the  words  referred  to  above  means  that  ‚Äėthere  is  no  sin  on  you‚Äô  in  this  indulgence  in  earning  which  has  a  built-in  hint  that  avoiding  this  indulgence  too,  if  possible,  is  still  better  because  it  affects  the  ideal  of  perfect  sincerity  so  desirable  in the  Hajj.

This  whole  issue,  in  fact,  revolves  round  the  original  intention  of  a  person.  If  his  basic  intention  is  to  earn  money  through  trading  or employment  but  he  has  decided  to  perform  the  Hajj  as  an  adjunct,  or  both  the  intentions  are  equally  kept  in  mind,  then,  this  is  contrary  to  the  ideal  of  sincerity  and  it  will  reduce  the  reward  of  Hajj  and  the  blessings  of  Hajj  would  not  fall  to  his  lot  as  they  normally  would. 

And  should  it  be  that  he  leaves  his  home  with  the  basic  intention  to  perform  his  Hajj,  but  runs  into  unforeseen  problems  accidentally  resulting  in  a  shortage  of  Hajj  expenses  or  needs  of  subsistence,  he  then,  could  go  for  a  little  earning  through  trading  or  employment  to  offset  his  shortage  of  need-oriented  funds. 

This¬† is,¬† in¬† no¬† way,¬† contrary¬† to¬† the¬† ideal¬† of¬† sincerity.¬† However,¬† for¬† one¬† who¬† has¬† to¬† do¬† so,¬† it¬† is¬† much better¬† that¬† he¬† leaves¬† the¬† five¬† special¬† days¬† of¬† Hajj¬† rites¬† free¬† of¬† any¬† engagement¬† in¬† trading¬† or¬† employment.¬† Instead,¬† he¬† should¬† devote¬† these¬† days¬† to¬† nothing¬† but¬†¬†‚Äėibadah¬† and¬†¬†dhikr¬† of¬† Allah.¬† This¬† is¬† the reason¬† why¬† some¬† ‚Äėulama‚Äô¬† have¬† ruled¬† that¬† trading¬† or¬† employment¬† during¬† these¬† special¬† days¬† of¬† Hajj¬† are¬† forbidden.

Staying in  ‚ÄėArafat  and  Muzdalifah:
The  next  statement in  the  same  verse  (198) is: 

Later,  when  you  flow  down  from  ‚ÄėArafat,  recite  the  name  of  Allah  near  al-Mash‚Äôar  al-Haram  (the  Sacred  Monument)  and  recite  His  name  as  He  has  guided  you,  while  before  it,  you  were  among  the  astray. 

The  verse  tells  us  that,  on  the  way  back  from  ‚ÄėArafat,  it  is  necessary  (wajib)  to  stay  overnight  in  Muzdalifah  and  to  recite  the  name  of  Allah  there,  specially  as  taught.

Literally,  ‚ÄėArafat  is  plural  in  number.  This  is  the  name  of  a particular  plain.  Its  geographical  boundries  are  well-known.  This  plain  is  located  outside  the  limits  of  Haram.  All  hujjajj  (Hajj  pilgrims)  must  reach  and  stay  there  between  noon  (zawal) and  sunset  (ghurub)  hours.  This  is  the  most  important  obligation  of  Hajj  for  which,  if  missed  out,  there  is  no  alternative  in  the  form  of  kaffarah  (expiation) or  fidyah  (ransom). 

Several  causes  have  been  cited  for  the  name,  ‚ÄėArafat.  Out  of  these,  the  clearer  explanation  is  that  ‚ÄėArafat  is  a  plain  where  man  gets  to  know  his  Lord  and,  through  his  ‚Äėibadah  and  dhikr,  learns  how  to  get  closer  to  Him,  and  in  addition  to  that,  Muslims  from  the  East  and  the  West  meet  and  know  each  other  by  direct  contact.

Emphasis¬† has¬† been¬† laid¬† in¬† the¬† text¬† on¬† the¬† stay¬† near¬† al-Mash‚Äôar al-Haram¬† on¬† the¬† way¬† back¬† from¬† ‚ÄėArafat¬† after¬† having¬† spent¬† the¬† day¬† there¬† and¬† after¬† having¬† departed¬† the¬† plain¬† soon¬† after¬† sunset.¬† Al-Mash‚Äôar¬† Al-Haram¬† is¬† the¬† name¬† of¬† a¬† mountain¬† which¬† is¬† located¬† in Muzdalifah.¬† The¬† word,¬† ‚Äėal-mash‚Äôar‚Äô¬† means¬† ‚Äėsign‚Äô¬† or¬† ‚Äėsymbol‚Äô,¬† and ‚Äėharam¬† being¬† ‚Äėsacred‚Äô,¬† the¬† name¬† signifies¬† that¬† this¬† mountain¬† is¬† a sacred¬† monument¬† to¬† Islam.¬†

The¬† plain¬† adjacent¬† is¬† called¬† Muzdalifah.¬† It is¬† necessary¬† (wajib)¬† to¬† spend¬† the¬† night¬† on¬† this¬† plain¬† and¬† offer¬† the¬† combined¬† prayers¬† of¬† Maghrib¬† and¬† ‚ÄėIsha‚Äô¬† at¬† one¬† time¬† in¬† Muzdalifah.¬† The Qur‚Äôanic¬† expression:¬†¬†‚Äėrecite¬† the¬† name¬† of¬† Allah¬† near¬† al-Mash‚Äôar¬† al-Haram‚Äô¬†¬† certainly¬† includes¬† all¬† kinds¬† of¬† the¬† remembrances¬† of¬† Allah,¬† but¬† here¬† it¬† particularly¬† means¬† the¬† offering¬† of¬† two¬† prayers¬† at¬† one¬† time,¬† that¬† is,¬† offering¬† Maghrib¬† with¬† ‚ÄėIsha‚Äô.¬†

This¬† is¬† the¬† special¬† act¬† of¬† ‚Äėibadah¬† peculiar¬† to¬† the¬† plain¬† of¬† Muzdalifah.¬† Perhaps, the¬† sentence¬† that¬† follows:¬†‚Äúrecite¬† his¬† name¬† as¬† He¬† has guided¬† you‚Ä̬† is¬† indicative¬† of¬† this¬† aspect.¬†

It¬† is¬† said¬† that¬† one¬† should¬† remember¬† Allah¬† and¬† recite¬† His¬† name¬† in¬† the¬† manner¬† He¬† has¬† taught¬† without¬† adulterating¬† it¬† with¬† personal¬† opinions¬† because¬† personal deduction¬† would¬† have¬† demanded¬† that¬† the¬†¬†Salah¬† of¬† Maghrib¬† be¬† offered¬† at¬† the¬† time¬† set¬† for¬† it¬† and¬† the¬† Salah¬† of¬† ‚ÄėIsha‚Äô¬† at¬† its¬† own¬† time.¬† But,¬† on that¬† day,¬† Allah¬† Almighty¬† favours¬† that¬† the¬†¬†Salah¬† of¬† Maghrib¬† be¬† delayed¬† and¬† offered¬† along¬† with¬† ‚ÄėIsha‚Äô.¬†

From  the  Qur’anic  statement  cited  above, recite  His  name  as  He  has  guided  you’,  we  see  the  emergence  of  yet  another  basic  ruling  that  man  is  not  independent  in  worshipping  and remembering  Allah,  that  is,  he  cannot  worship  Him  as  he  wishes  and  he  cannot  remember  Him  as  he  chooses. 

Instead,¬† every¬†¬†‚Äėibadah¬† and¬†¬†dhikr¬† of¬† Allah¬† demands¬† the¬† observance¬† of¬† special¬† rules¬† of¬† etiquette.¬† These¬† have¬† to¬† be¬† performed¬† as¬† stipulated;¬† doing¬† it¬† otherwise¬† is¬† not permissible.¬†

Then,  Allah  Almighty  does  not  like  any  substraction  or addition,  nor  any  change  in  its  prescribed  time  or  place,  even  though  the  change  may  lead  to  an  increase  in  the  act  of  worship.  It  is  observed  that  people  tend  to  add  some  features  in  voluntary  prayers 

and  acts  of  charity  from  their  side  without  having  any  reason  approved  by  the  Shari’ah,  and  going  a  step  farther,  they  take  it  upon  themselves  as something  necessary  while  Allah  and  His  blessed  Messenger  did  not  declare  it  as necessary,  and  last  but  not  the  least,  such  people  have  the audacity  to  regard  those  who  do  not  do  all  that  as  in  error. 

This  verse  exposes  their  false  position  by  saying  that  such  additional  forms  of  worship  reflect  the  practice  of  Jahiliyyah  when  the  disbelievers  had  used  their  personal  opinions  and  choices  to  concoct  forms  of  worship  and  had  limited  the  serious  act  to  few  customs.

The¬† third¬† verse¬† (199):¬†¬†Then,¬† flow¬† down¬† from¬† where¬† the¬† people¬† flowed,¬† and¬† seek¬† forgiveness¬† from¬† Allah.¬† Certainly, Allah¬† is¬† Most-Forgiving,¬† Very-Merciful¬†¬†was¬† revealed¬† in¬† a¬† particular¬† background.¬† The¬† Quraysh¬† of¬† Arabia¬† being¬† the¬† custodians¬† of¬† the¬† Ka‚Äôbah¬† enjoyed¬† a¬† unique¬† position¬† of¬† influence¬† and distinction¬† in¬† the¬† country.¬† During¬† the¬† days¬† of¬†¬†Jahiliyyah,¬† while¬† everyone¬† went¬† to¬† ‚ÄėArafat,¬† the¬† Quraysh¬† would,¬† in¬† order¬† to¬† demonstrate¬† their¬† unusual¬† importance,¬† stop¬† at¬† Muzdalifah¬† and¬† stay¬† there.¬†

They¬† said¬† that,¬† being¬† the¬† custodian¬† of¬† the¬† Ka‚Äôbah¬† and¬† the¬† care-takers¬† of¬† the¬† Haram,¬† it¬† was¬† not¬† proper¬† for¬† them¬† to¬† go¬† out¬† of¬† the¬† limits¬† of¬† the¬† Haram.¬† Since¬† Muzdalifah¬† is¬† located¬† within¬† the¬† sacred¬† limits¬† of¬† the¬† Haram¬† and¬† ‚ÄėArafat¬† is¬† out¬† of¬† it,¬† they¬† would¬† seize¬† upon¬† the¬† excuse,¬† stay¬† in¬† Muzdalifah¬† and¬†¬† it¬† was¬† from¬† there¬† that¬† they¬† came¬† back.¬† The¬† truth¬† was¬† that¬† they¬† loved¬† to¬† show¬† off¬† their¬† pride¬† and¬† arrogance¬† and¬† made¬† it¬† a¬† point¬† to¬† keep¬† common¬† people¬† at¬† a¬† distance.¬†

Their¬† erroneous¬† conduct¬† thus¬† apprehended,¬† Allah¬† Almighty¬† commanded¬† them¬† to¬† go¬† where¬† everyone goes,¬† that¬† is,¬† into¬† the¬† plain¬† of¬† ‚ÄėArafat,¬† and¬† then,¬† return¬† from¬† there¬† with¬† everyone¬† else¬† (it¬† will¬† be¬† noted¬† that¬† in¬† the¬† accompanying¬† translation¬† of the¬† text,¬† the¬† Qur‚Äôanic¬† word¬†¬†afidu¬† has¬† been¬† rendered¬† into¬† English¬† literally¬† with¬† the¬† word,¬† ‚Äėflow‚Äô¬† which¬† succinctly¬† suggests¬† mingling¬† with¬† the¬† multitude,¬† something¬† shunned¬† by¬† the¬† Quraysh¬† of¬†¬†Jahiliyyah).

To  begin  with,  behaving  special  and  staying  disconnected  from others  is  a  standing  act  of  arrogance  which  must  almost  always  be  avoided,  particularly  during  the  days  of  Hajj  where  the  garment  of  Ihram  and  the  homogeneity  of  place  and  purpose  teach  the  lesson  that all  human  beings  are  equal,  the  distinction  of  rich  and  poor,  learned  and  ignorant,  big  and  small  does  not  exist  here,  therefore,  such  display  of  assumed  distinction,  and  that  too  in  a  state  of  Ihram,  further increases  the  degree  of  crime.

Human  equality  in  practice
This  statement  of  the  Holy  Qur’an  teaches  us  an  important principle  of  social  living  which  demands  that  the  people  of  a  higher  status  should  not  cut  off  their  relations  with  those  of  a  lower  status;  they  should  rather  behave  like  members  of  a  large  family  in  their  different  forms  of  subsistence,  stay  and  movement. 

This  creates  mutual  brotherhood,  concern  and  love,  removes  the  walls  between  the rich  and  the  poor,  the  employer  and  the  employee.  It  was  during  his  last  sermon  of  Hajj  that  the  Holy  Prophet  (sallallaahu  alayhi  wasallam)  openly  declared  for  all  times  to  come  that  no  Arab  is  superior  to  non-Arab  and  no  white person  is  superior  to  a  black  person.  Superiority  depends  on  Taqwa  and  Itibah  (the  fear  of  Allah  and  the  obedience  to  His  command).

Therefore,  those  who  wanted  to  establish  a  distinct  status  for  themselves  by  staying  at  Muzdalifah,  contrary  to  the  rest,  were  told  that  this  act  of  theirs  was  a  sin  and  they  must  seek  forgiveness  for  it  so  that  Allah  Almighty  may  forgive  them  and  bless  them  with  His mercy.

The  Prohibition  of  Jahili customs  at  Mina
In¬† the¬† verses¬† 199 to¬† 201,¬† some¬†¬†Jahili¬† customs¬† have¬† been¬† corrected.¬† One¬† of¬† these¬† was¬† that¬† the¬† Arabs¬† of¬† the¬† Jahiliyyah¬† would,¬† once¬† they¬† had¬† finished¬† their¬† rites¬† at¬† ‚ÄėArafat¬† and¬† Muzdalifah¬† and¬† performed¬† their¬†tawaf¬† and¬† sacrifice¬† and¬† stay¬† in¬† Mina,¬† hold¬† gatherings¬† to¬† recite¬† poetry¬† and¬† to¬† eulogize¬† the¬† achievements¬† of¬† their¬† forefathers.¬†

Such  gatherings were  obviously  devoid  of  the  remembrance  of  Allah.  It  was  strange  that  they  elected  to  waste  such  blessed  days  in  activities  which  were  of  no  consequence  in  relation  to  what  they  were  supposed  to  do  there. 

Therefore,  they  were  told  that,  as  soon  as  they  have  completed  their  Ihram  rites  and  come  to  stay  at  Mina,  they  should  dedicate  their  stay  to  the  remembrance  of  Allah  and  leave  out  the  practice  of  indulging  in  the  reminiscences  of  their  forefathers,  specially  the  boastful  claims  about  their  achievements.  Better  still  was  to  remember  Allah,  not  them,  and  that  too  with  greater  attachment  and  fervor. 

There¬† was¬† nothing¬† like¬† being¬† engaged¬† in¬† the¬†¬†dhikr¬† of¬† Allah.¬† So,¬† the¬† Holy¬† Qur‚Äôan¬† guides¬† Muslims¬† to¬† shun¬† the¬† customs¬† coming¬† from¬† the¬† age¬† of¬† ignorance, specially¬† in¬† the¬† great¬† days¬† of¬† Hajj¬† they¬† have¬† been¬† blessed¬† with,¬† which are¬† exclusively¬† reserved¬† for¬†¬†‚Äėibadah¬† and¬†¬†dhikr¬† and¬† have¬† merits¬† and¬† blessings¬† of¬† their¬† own,¬† a¬† gift¬† from¬† Allah¬† which¬† may¬† not¬† be¬† available¬† again¬† if¬† lost¬† through¬† carelessness.

In  addition  to  that,  the  Hajj  is  a  special  act  of  worship  which  one  gets  to  perform  only  after  a  long  and  generally  exacting  journey,  separation  from  family  and  business  and  great  expense  of  money  and  time.  That  unforeseen  circumstances  prevail  is  not  a  far-out  prospect.  It  is  quite  possible  that  one  fails  to  achieve  the  long-cherished objective  of  Hajj,  inspite  of  all  efforts  and  expenses. 

Now,  if  Allah  Almighty  has,  in  His  infinite  grace,  removed  all  impediments  and  one  has  accomplished  his  Hajj  obligation  by  successfully  performing  all required  rites,  then,  the  occasion  calls  for  gratitude  whlch  further  demands  that  one  should  keep  busy  in  remembering  Allah,  avoid  wasteful  gatherings,  engagements  or  conversations.  Compared  with  the  time  spent  by  the  people  of  Jahiliyyah  in  forefather  tale-telling  which  brought  them  no  benefit  here,  or  there,  the  thing  to  do  here  is  the  dhikr  of  Allah  which  is  all  radiance  and  benefit  for  this  world,  and  for  the  Hereafter. 

No  doubt,  contemporary  Muslims  do  not  follow  the custom  of  Jahiliyyah  any  more  by  holding  poetic  recitals  to  eulogize  their  family  trees,  but  there  are  thousands  of  Muslims  from  all  over  the  world  who  still  spend  out  these  precious  days  of  Hajj  in  wasteful gatherings,  entertainments,  amusements,  shoppings  and  similar  other  pursuits  of  personal  satisfaction.  This  verse  is  enough  to  warn  them.

Some¬† commentators¬† have¬† explained¬† this¬† verse¬† by¬† dwelling¬† upon¬† the¬† analogy¬† of¬† ‚Äėfather‚Äô¬† used¬† here,¬† in¬† some¬† detail.¬† They¬† say¬† that¬† one¬† should¬† remember¬† Allah¬† as¬† one¬† remembered¬† his¬† father¬† during¬† his¬† childhood¬† when¬† he¬† was¬† dependant¬† on¬† his¬† father¬† for¬† everything.¬†

If  man were  to  think  when  he  is  young,  adult  and  rational,  is  he  not  far  more  dependant  on  Allah  Almighty  at  all  times  and  under  all  conditions,  certainly  much  more  than  a  child  was  on  his  father?  As  for  the boastful  claims  about  the  honour  of  their  fathers,  something  the  people of  Jahiliyyah  used  to  make,  this  verse  eliminates  that  too  by  saying that  real  honour  comes  through  the  dhikr  of  Allah.   [Ruh  al-Bayan]

Moderation  in  religious  and  worldly  pursuits
Besides  what  the  people  of  Jahiliyyah  used  to  do  during  their  stay  at  Mina,  some  of  them  had  another  habit  during  the  Hajj.  Normally,  they  would  be  engaged  in  acts  of  devotion  to  Allah,  yet  when  it  came  to making  a  prayer,  they  would  focus  all  their  attention  to  praying  for  worldly  needs,  such  as,  comfort,  wealth,  honour  and  their  likes,  showing  no  concern  for  the  life  to  come.  It  was  to  correct  this  sort  of  approach  in  supplication  that  it  was  said  that  there  are  people  who would  use  the  great  occasion  of  Hajj  to  pray  for  the  insignificant  gains of  the  present  life  and  forget  the  Hereafter. 

For  such  people  the Hereafter  holds  nothing  because  their  conduct  shows  that  they  have gone  through  the  obligation  of  Hajj  merely  in  a  formal  manner,  or have  done  it  to  earn  prestige  in  their  society.  To  please  Allah  and  to earn  salvation  in  the  Hereafter  are  objectives  alien  to  them.   

It  may  be  noted  at  this  point  that  the  verse  mentions:  Our  Lord,  give  to  us  in  this  world‚Ķ. which  does  not  include  the  word,  ‚Äúgood‚ÄĚ.  This  indicates  that  they  do  not  care  to  have  what  is  really  good  even  in  this  mortal  world,  on the  contrary,  they  are  so  drunk  with  their  craze  for  material  things  that  nothing  short  of  a  constant  fulfilment  of  their  desires  would  satisfy  them.  They  just  do  not  bother  to  check  if  it  is  good  or  bad, procured  rightly  or  wrongly  or  what  people  think  about  them.

This  verse  extends  a  serious  warning  to  those  Muslims  as well  who  prefer  to  pray  for  their  material  ends  only  even  at  the  unique  time  of  Hajj  and  at  places  so  sacred,  devoting  most  of  their  concerns  towards that  goal. 

There  are  many  rich  people  who  themselves  pray,  or  request  others  they  hold  in  esteem  to  pray  for  them,  not  for  deliverance  from  the  accounting  of  the  Akhirah,  but  for  increase  in  their  wealth,  growth  in  business,  and  for  other  worldly  concerns. 

There  are  many  who,  by  their  profusion  in  waza’if  and  nawafil (voluntary  acts  of  worship),  come  to  believe  that  they  are  very  devoted,  pious  and  special.  In  reality,  hidden  behind  this  facade  is  the  same  love  of  the  mundane  life. 

Then,  there  are  respected  people  who  maintain  relations  with  pious  elders  of their  time,  as  well  as  show  their  regard  for  deceased  saints  and  walls,  but  the  prevailing  aim  of  such  relationships  is  the  vague  hope  that  their  du’a  and  ta’widh  (prayers  and  spiritual  charms)  will  work  for  them,  wordly  hardships  will  stay  away,  and  their  belongings  shall  be blessed. 

For  such  people  too,  this  verse  has  special  instructions.  Stressed  here  is  the  fact  that  this  whole  affair  rests  in  the  hands  of Allah  who  is  All-Knowing  and  All-Aware. 

Everyone¬† must¬† assess¬† his¬† or¬† her¬† deeds,¬† specially¬† the¬† intention¬† behind¬† whatever¬† is¬† done¬† during¬† the¬† Hajj¬† or¬† Umrah,¬† which¬† includes¬† all¬†¬†waza‚Äôif,¬† nawafil,¬† du‚Äôa¬† and¬†¬†salah. Then,¬† towards¬† the¬† later¬† part¬† of¬† the¬† verse,¬† Allah¬† Almighty¬† refers¬† to¬† His¬† virtuous¬† and¬† favoured¬† servants¬† ‚Äst may¬† be¬† some¬† of¬† them¬† are¬† less¬† prosperous¬† in¬† a¬† material¬† way¬† ‚Äst by¬† saying:

And  there  is  another  among  them  who  says:  ‚ÄúO  our  Lord,  give  us  good  in  this  world  and  good  in  the  Hereafter  and  save  us from  the  punishment  of  Fire.‚ÄĚ  

The  word:  hasanah  used  here  is  inclusive  of  all  that  is  good, inwardly  or  outwardly.  For  instance,  hasanah  or  ‚Äėgood  in  this  world‚Äô  shall  include  personal  and  family  health,  increase  and  benedictory sufficiency  (barakah)  in  lawful  livelihood,  the  fulfilment  of  all  needs,  virtuous  deeds,  desirable  morals,  beneficial  knowledge,  honour  and  prestige,  strength  of  faith,  guidance  into  the  straight  path  and  perfect sincerity  in  ‚Äėibadat.  Similarly,  hasanah  or  ‚Äėgood  in  the  Hereafter‚Äô  shall  cover  everything  from  the  Paradise,  with  its  countless  and  endless  blessings  to  the  pleasure  of  Allah  Almighty  and  the  privilege  of  seeing  Him.

In  short,  this  du‚Äôa  is  a  compedium  of  all  prayers  in  as  much  as  it  encompasses  the  entire  range  of  man‚Äôs  wordly  and  other-worldly objectives.  Apart  from  enjoying  peace  in  the  world,  and  peace  in  the  Hereafter,  the  verse,  refers  in  the  end  to  the  safety  from  ‚Äėthe punishment  of  Fire‚Äô  as  well.  It  was  for  this  reason  that  the  Holy  Prophet  (sallallaahu  alayhi  wasallam)  used  to  pray  with  these  words  very  frequently:

Rabbana¬† Atina¬† fid-dunya hasanah,¬† wa¬† fil-‚ÄėAkhirati¬† hasanah,¬† wa¬† qina¬† ‚Äėadhaban-nar.

Our  Lord,  give  us  good  in  this  world  and  good  in  the  Hereafter and  save  us  from  the  punishment  of  Fire.

It¬† is¬†¬†masnun¬† to¬† make¬† this¬† prayer¬† particularly¬† while¬† making¬†¬†tawaf.¬† This¬† verse¬† also¬† corrects¬† those¬† ignorant¬† dervishes¬† (so¬† called¬† mystics)¬† who¬† think¬† that¬† real¬†‚Äėibadah¬†¬†lies¬† in¬† praying¬† for¬† the¬† Hereafter¬† alone¬† and¬† claim¬† that¬† they¬† do¬† not,¬† on¬† that¬† count,¬† care¬† much¬† about¬† the¬† mortal world.¬† In¬† reality,¬† such¬† a¬† claim¬† is¬† false,¬† for¬† man¬† depends¬† on¬† fulfilling¬† his¬† worldly¬† needs¬† not¬† only¬† for¬† his¬† life¬† and¬† sustenance,¬† but¬† also¬† for performing¬† the¬† acts¬† of¬† worship¬† and¬† obedience.¬† Without¬† these,¬† serving¬† the¬† objectives¬† of¬† faith¬† would¬† become¬† impossible.¬†

Therefore,  the  blessed  practice  of  the  prophets  of  Allah  has  been  that  they  prayed  to  Allah  for  the  good  of  both  the  worlds.  One  who  thinks  that  praying  to  Allah  for  the  fulfillment  of  his  worldly  needs  is  against  the  norms  of  piety  and  spiritual  dignity  is  unaware  of  the  great  station  of  prophethood,  and  ignorant  of  man’s  own  role  in  this  mortal  world. 

So,  what  is  required is  that  one  should  not  focus  all  his  attention  on  his  material  needs  as  if  they  were  the  very  purpose  of  life,  but  he  should,  along  with  it,  show  far  more  concern  for  what  would  happen  to  him  in  the  Hereafter,  and pray  for  it.

In  the  concluding  part  of  this  verse,  the  end  of  the  other  class  of  people  who  pray  for  the  good  of  the  dunya  (mortal  world)  and  Akhirah  (Hereafter)  both  has  been  stated  by  saying  that  they  will  be  rewarded in  both  the  worlds  for  their  correct  and  righteous  conduct  and  for  their prayers. 

Following  that,  it  has  been  said:  And  Allah  is  swift  at  reckoning  because  His  all-pervading  knowledge  and  most  perfect  power  is  sufficient  to  access  the  life-long  deeds  of  each  and every  person  who  ever  breathed  in  His  creation;  for  this  He  needs  none  of  those  computing  mechanisms  and  means  on  which  only  man  depends. 

So,  the  time  will  soon  come  when  He  shall  make  man  account  for  what  he  did,  and  it  will  be  on  the  basis  of  that  accounting  that  he  will  spread  out  His  reward  and  punishment.

The  emphasis  on remembering Allah  in  Mina
In  the  last  of  the  eight  verses  relating  to  injunctions  about  Hajj, 1 that  is,  And  recite  the  name  of  Allah  in  the  given number  of  days,  the  Hajj  pilgrims  have  been  asked  to  engage  themselves  in  the  remembrance  of  Allah  so  that  their  Hajj  meets  a perfect  ending  and  their  post-Hajj  life  becomes  correct  and  fruitful.

These  ‚Äėgiven  number  of  days‚Äô  refer  to  ayyam  al-tashrik  during  which  it  is  necessary  (wajib)  to  say  takbir  (which  is, Allahu Akbar  Allahu Akbar  Laa Ilaha Illallaahu Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar Wa Lillah Ilhamd)

Immediately  following  is  a  clarification  of  the  duration  of  stay  at  Mina  and  the  deadline  for  throwing  pebbles  at  the  three  Pillars.  This  was  an  issue  debated  by  the  people  of  Jahiliyyah.  Some  thought  it  was necessary  to  stay  at  Mina  upto  the  13th  of  Dhul-Hijjah  and  throw  pebbles  at  the  three  Pillars.  According  to  them,  to  come  back  from  Mina  on  the  12th  was  impermissible  and  those  who  did  so  were  sinners. 

Similarly,¬† others¬† regarded¬† coming¬† back¬† on¬† the¬† 12th necessary,¬† and¬† staying¬† there¬† through¬† the¬† 13th,¬† a¬† sin.¬† Both¬† were¬† corrected¬† in¬† this verse¬† by¬† saying:¬† ‚ÄėThen¬† whoever¬† is¬† early¬† (in¬† leaving)¬† after¬† two¬† days¬† there¬† is¬† no¬† sin¬† on¬† him¬† and¬† whoever¬† remains¬† behind,¬† there¬† is¬† no¬† sin¬† on¬† him¬† ‚Ķ‚Äô¬†¬† thereby¬† proving¬† that¬† both¬† parties¬† calling¬† each¬† other¬† sinners¬† are¬† involved¬† in¬† excess¬† and¬† error.

The  correct  position  is  that  Hajj  pilgrims  have  the  option  of  acting  on  either  of  the  two  permissions.  However,  it  is  better  and  preferable  to  stay  there  through  the  third  day  (that  is,  13th  of  Dhul-Hijjah). Jurists  say  that  one  who  leaves  Mina  before  sunset  on  the  second  day  (i.e.  12th  of  Dhul-Hijjah),  it  is  not  necessary  for  him  to  do  his  ramy (throwing of  pebbles  on  the  three  Pillars) for  the  third  day. 

But,  should the  sun  set  while  he  is  still  in  Mina,  it  does  not  remain  anymore  permissible  for  him  to  leave  Mina  until  he  has  done  his  ramy  for  the  third  day.  However,  the  ramy  for  the  third  day  has  a  special  concession that  it  can  also  be  done  between  the  post-morning  and  pre-noon  hours.

If¬† we¬† look¬† at¬† the¬† manner¬† in¬† which¬† the¬† choice¬† of¬† returning¬† from¬† Mina¬† has¬† been¬† given¬† to¬† the¬†¬†Hujjaj¬† ‚Äst no¬† sin¬† if¬† they¬† return¬† on¬† the¬† second day¬† and¬† no¬† sin¬† if¬† they¬† return¬† on¬† the¬† third¬† day¬† ‚Äst we¬† shall¬† realize¬† that¬† all¬† this¬† is¬† for¬† the¬† convenience¬† of¬† one¬† who¬† fears¬† Allah¬† and¬† obeys¬† His¬† commands,¬† for¬† he¬† really¬† deserves¬† the¬† Hajj,¬† as¬† said¬† elsewhere¬† in¬† the¬† Holy¬† Qur‚Äôan:¬†Allah¬† Almighty¬† accepts, (acts¬† of¬† prayer¬† and¬† worship)¬† only¬† from¬† those¬† who¬† are¬† God-fearing¬† and obedient.¬†

Now,  one  who  has  been  involved  in  sins  much  before  Hajj,  continued  being  negligent  even  during  the  Hajj  and  was  callous  enough  not  to  abstain  from  sins  even  after  Hajj,  his  Hajj  is  certainly  not  going  to  be  of  any  good  to  him,  although,  the  formal  obligation  has  been  validly  fulfilled,  releasing  him  from  the  possible  crime  of  not  having  performed  the  Hajj.

Closing¬† this¬† eight-verse¬† unit,¬† it¬† was¬† said:¬†‚ÄúAnd¬† fear¬† Allah¬† and¬† be¬† sure¬† that¬† you¬† are¬† going¬† to¬† be¬† gathered¬† before¬† Him‚ÄĚ,¬†¬† where¬† He¬† shall¬† make¬† you¬† account¬† for¬† all¬† your¬† open¬† and¬† hidden¬† deeds¬† and¬† give¬† you¬† the¬† reward¬† and¬† punishment¬† for¬† these.¬†

This  last  line  is  really  the  essence  of  all  Hajj  injunctions  given  in  these  verses.  It  means  that  one  should  keep  fearing  Allah  during  the  special  days  of  the  Hajj  guarding  oneself  from  any  shortcoming  in  the  prescribed  acts  of  Hajj,  as  he  should  keep  fearing  Allah  after  the  Hajj  guarding  himself  against  any  pride  of  performance,  and  keep  abstaining  from  sins  because,  on  the  day  human  deeds  shall  be  weighed  on  the  Balance,  his  sins  will  eat  away  his  good  deeds,  that  is,  they  will  nullify  the  effect  and  weight  of  those  good  deeds. 

In¬† a¬† hadith¬† about¬† the¬† great¬†¬†‚Äėibadah¬† of¬† Hajj,¬† it¬† has¬† been¬† said¬† that¬† one¬† who¬† returns¬† after¬† having¬† accomplished¬† his¬† Hajj,¬† is¬† so¬† cleansed¬† of¬† his¬† sins¬† as¬† if¬† he¬† was¬† born¬† on¬† that¬† day.¬† This¬† is¬† why¬† those¬† performing¬† Hajj¬† have¬† been¬† instructed¬† to maintain¬† the¬† quality¬† of¬†¬†Taqwa,¬† (that¬† vital¬† sense¬† of¬† responsibility¬† before¬† Allah).¬† Being¬† one¬† who¬† has¬† been¬† purified¬† from¬† sins,¬† it¬† is necessary¬† to¬† take¬† all¬† possible¬† precautions¬† against¬† what¬† tempts¬† man¬† to¬† fall¬† into¬† sin¬† so¬† that¬† one¬† can¬† earn¬† the¬† best¬† of¬† both¬† the¬† worlds,¬† the¬†¬†dunya¬† and¬† the¬†¬†Akhirah.¬†

If¬† this¬† is¬† not¬† done¬† and¬† the¬† performer¬† of¬† Hajj¬† goes¬† back¬† to¬† a¬† life¬† of¬† sin,¬† even¬† after¬† such¬† a¬† cathartic¬† experience,¬† he¬† shall¬† find¬† that¬† the¬† elimination¬† of¬† his¬† past¬† sins¬† by¬† forgiveness¬† is¬† not¬† going¬† to¬† be¬† of¬† any¬† use¬† to¬† him.¬† Contrary¬† to¬† this,¬† the¬† ‚Äėulama¬† have¬† said¬† that¬† one¬† who returns¬† from¬† his¬† Hajj¬† with¬† his¬† heart¬† free¬† from¬† the¬† love¬† of¬†¬†dunya¬† and¬† attracted¬† to¬† the¬† concern¬† for¬† the¬† Akhirah,¬† his¬† Hajj¬† is¬† accepted¬† and¬† his¬† sins¬† are¬† forgiven¬† and¬† his¬† prayers¬† are¬† answered.¬†

From  place  to  place during  the  Hajj,  people  pledge  their  obedience  to  Allah  before  His  House,  how  can  these  pledges  be  thoughtlessly  broken  after  the  Hajj?  If  those  who  are  lucky  to  perform  their  Hajj  are  a  little  more  mindful of  this  factor,  they  might  stay  by  their  solemn  pledge  later  on.

A  pious  elder  said:  ‚ÄėWhen  I  returned  from  Hajj,  it  was  by  chance that  a  suggestion  of  sin  crept  into  my  heart  whereupon  I  heard  a  voice from  the  Unseen:  Didn‚Äôt  you  perform  the  Hajj?  Didn‚Äôt  you  perform  the Hajj?  This  voice  became  a  wall  between  me  and  that  sin.  Allah Almighty  protected  me. 

As  against  this,  there  is  the  case  of  another  pious  man  from  Turkey,  who  was  a  disciple  of  the  famous  Maulana  Jami’.  He  was  in  such  an  unusual  state  of  spiritual  excellence  in  his  normal  life  that  he  used  to  observe  a  halo  of  radiance  over  his  head.  He  went  to  perform  his  Hajj,  but  after  his  return  he  discovered  that  he  has  lost  that  unusual  state  totally.  He  talked  about  it  to  his  master,  Maulana  Jami’. 

He¬† said:¬† ‚ÄėBefore¬† your¬† Hajj,¬† you¬† had¬† the¬† gift¬† of¬† humbleness,¬† you¬† wept¬† before¬† Allah¬† thinking¬† of¬† yourself¬† as¬† a¬† sinner.¬† After¬† your¬† Hajj,¬† you¬† became¬† proud¬† and¬† picked¬† up¬† the¬† airs¬† of¬† someone¬† righteous,¬† spiritually¬† elevated.¬† Therefore,¬† this¬† very¬† Hajj¬† of¬† yours¬† became¬† the¬† cause¬† of¬† your pride¬† and¬† that¬† is¬† why¬† you¬† lost¬† that¬† state¬† of¬† radiance.‚Äô

The¬† emphasis¬† on¬†¬†Taqwa¬† (the fear¬† of¬† Allah)¬† towards¬† the¬† conclusion of¬† Hajj¬† injunctions¬† has¬† yet¬† another¬† secret.¬† It¬† goes¬† without¬† saying¬† that¬† Hajj¬† is¬† a¬† great¬† act¬† of¬†¬†‚Äėibadah.¬† Once¬† it¬† has¬† been¬† accomplished,¬† that eternal¬† adversary¬† of¬† man,¬† the¬† Satan,¬† generally¬† injects¬† into¬† man‚Äôs¬† heart¬† the¬† thought¬† of¬† self-righteousness¬† which¬† simply¬† ruins¬† all¬† his¬† deeds.¬†

Therefore,¬† the¬† final¬† word¬† said¬† was¬† about¬† the¬† need¬† to¬† fear¬† Allah¬† and¬† the necessity¬† to¬† obey¬† Him,¬† not¬† only¬† before¬† the¬† Hajj¬† and¬† during¬† the¬† Hajj,¬† but¬† also¬† after¬† the¬† Hajj¬† when¬† one¬† must¬† become¬† much¬† more¬† particular¬† in¬† fearing¬† Allah¬† and¬† alert¬† in¬† abstaining¬† from¬† sins¬† by¬† conscious¬† effort,¬† lest¬† all¬† that¬† one¬† has¬† done¬† in¬† the¬† form¬† of¬† the¬†¬†‚Äėibtidah¬† of¬† Hajj¬† goes¬† waste.
O¬† Allah,¬† give¬† us¬† the¬† ability¬† to¬† do¬† what¬† You¬† love¬† and¬† are pleased¬† with¬† ‚Äst in¬† word,¬† deed¬† and¬† intention.