Islamic Perspective on Modern Theories of Atheism
Mohamad Mostafa Nassar
Three modern theories of atheism tried to explain start of the Universe and to address the existential questions.
To get a better grasp of how existentialism looks at life, here are examples of existential questions:
Who am I?
What is my real nature or identity?
What is the meaning of life?
What is the meaning of existence?
What is my greater purpose?
What is death?
What happens when I die?
Is there a god?
Atheists claims that they base their views to scientific facts based on the following three theories:
They consider this model because it is useful for two matters, first they claim that this model indicate that the universe is eternal with no beginning which means it wa not created from nothing.
Secondly the Universe with its content from space, time, substance, and energy exited from trillions of trillions of years without a beginning, which in their view gives the chance in their view an opportunity to occur. Despite Isaac newton himself did not reach the assumption of the nonexistence of a God like those who follow his theory.
This theory is attributed to Charles Darwin, this theory relies heavily on the first theory of Steady state universe model for Isaac newton. Because it allows the random chance to design an intelligent design, this theory of Charles Darwin promotes that life came from no life by chance from the accumulations some chemical elements which contributed to the formation of a primitive live cell.
Then this cell starts to mutate and develop under certain elements or circumstances, contributing to the development and evolution of planets from that evolved cell, animals, and humans. The Family Monkeys is one of the evolution results which consist of five types, humans are one of those five types.
First laid out by Sigmund Freud in the late 19th century, Sigmund Freud denied in this theory the existence of the soul with all possible ways. He linked by sex and vast majority of his physiological analyses, it worth mentioning that Sigmund Freud attempted to commit suicide several times towards the end of his life.
Before people were able to examine the authenticity and credibility of those above-mentioned theories of atheism, additional theories started to surface based on those theories without any examination and a trend start to gain momentum calling for considering atheism as the solution for human suffering, claiming that atheism is a legitimate fact came because of modern experimental empirical science.
Arrogance of some of the atheists reached unbelievable blasphemous level where they put Is God dead as the front-page titles on Time magazine.
Some sociologists contributed to that farce by declaring that God does not exist, and religion is the opium of the masses, therefore it is a must for humanity to start to make new rules, laws, and new sociopolitical system to look after all aspects of life far from any previous religious regimes.
Three Social Atheistic theories start to surface because of the above-mentioned theories
The summary of this theory is there is no God and life is substance, people are partners in everything and no individual ownership
Second: Marxism, the German philosopher Friedrich Engel, Engels developed what is now known as Marxism together with Karl Marx. In 1848, Engels co-authored The Communist Manifesto with Marx
The summary of his theory: There is No God and life is a substance too like Karl Marx but best race to lead humanity is the Aryan race.
Third: Theory of Capitalism: Moneylenders and bank owners were the people behind this theory, the summary of this theory is the expansion of the individual ownership, idolize matristic things such as money and unsupervised freedom, which basically make it in opposition the two above theories when it comes to ownership, yet all share the atheistic beliefs.
Based on those three social atheistic theories which were built on the original three theories of atheism that tries to address the existential questions and how the Universe started. Protests start to happen across different countries around the world, ended up with the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in October 1917
And the evolvement of the capitalism in the Western World.
Quickly Nazism started to fall apart after more than fifty-five million persons were killed because it in World War two. Later the socialism started to fall apart as well after more than forty million people were killed during the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, the complete fall of the socialism happened when the former Soviet Union start to collapse around late 1980s and early 1990s.
Currently in 2021 we are witnessing in front of our eyes the collapse of the capitalism as described by many Economists. Those above-mentioned atheistic theories that tried to introduce atheism as a solution and replacement for religion especially the true religion of Islam, ended up with social, political, and economic disasters and complete chaos the whole world has suffered from and still suffering till today around the world.
Islam view on the Creation of the Universe
In Surah Al-Mulk=Chapter the Sovereignty:
“˹He is the One˺ Who created seven heavens, one above the other. You will never see any imperfection in the creation of the Most Compassionate.1 So look again: do you see any flaws? Then look again and again—your sight will return frustrated and weary. And indeed, we adorned the lowest heaven with ˹stars like˺ lamps, and made them ˹as missiles˺ for stoning ˹eavesdropping˺ devils, for whom We have also prepared the torment of the Blaze” Quran (67:3-5)
The Glorious holy Quran and authentic tradition= Sunnah of Prophet Muhammed peace be upon him clearly mentions these three things Earth, seven skies and our sky and makes distinctions between them. Describing our sky is different from the other skies that humanity did not go to.
What we see is the lower part of the first sky which is part of the seven skies. Linguistically and from Arabic language point of view word sky also can mean something high above us such as the layers of Gas surrounding Earth or clouds etc. which to use is part of the lower layer of the first sky.
Surah Al-Mulk=Chapter the Sovereignty about Earth:
He is the One Who smoothed out the earth for you, so move about in its regions and eat from His provisions. And to Him is the resurrection ˹of all˺. Quran (67:15)
First sky definition from an Islamic perspective:
The first sky from an Islamic perspective is what usually physicists and Astronomy scientists refer to the Universe, Galaxies, stars, planets, suns and moons, Islam consider such their referral to all these things as a reference to the lower parts of the first sky. They have no idea about the broader seven skies as it is part of unseen that Allah Exalted, He told us about. This Universe has what the physicists and Astronomy scientists termed as The Fabric of the Cosmos
Translation by Dr. Ghali
“And (by) the heaven comprising interwoven tracks” Qur’an (51:7)
The Hubble Deep Field, an extremely long exposure of a relatively empty part of the sky, provided evidence that there are about 125 billion (1.25×1011) galaxies in the observable universe.
In our time, science has achieved a lot of advancements, currently we have giant (from our human perspective) telescopes, satellites, various types of infrared rays. Mathematicians, physicists, and Astronomy scientists were able to use certain methods and mathematical formulates to reach some estimation that current visible Universe is potentially up to 5% only, 95% of invisible gaps between galaxies has what scientists describe as dark energy.
When Isaac Newtown discovered the gravity of the earth about three hundred years ago, he described the universe in using the available tools at his time. The milky way galaxy was the universe to Isaac Newton, firstly, he did not know about other galaxies. Secondly, he thought that the cosmos or universe is eternal without a start or an end, without a time of start or creation, and no time for the disappearance of this universe.
Such theory was named by the Static Universe Obviously this theory had been proven to be wrong. In the past this theory was admired by a lot of atheists including Charles Darwin because in their opinion it allows for life exist by the random chance and evolution over a long time provided within this static permanent universe theory. Obviously, this theory is a failure because modern science discovered that this universe had a beginning.
Is the current acceptable theory by scientists that explains the beginning of the universe. 13.8 billion years ago roughly the known visible universe consists of almost two trillion galaxies
was compress in one point and there was no place or time, there was no gravity, nor nuclear powers small or big.
All the sudden the explosion of this point started making the big bang theory as we know it today the temperature of the explosion was around 5.5 billion Fahrenheit degree
The late Stephen Hawking who occupied the chair of Isaac Newton in University of Cambridge, indicated that after a big hot smoke consist of sub-atomic particles/quarks took place after the big bang occurred. The smoke started to largely expand.
Scientists estimate that after the first 100 seconds of the big bang occurred the Universe was in the size of our current solar system now and continued to expand until it started to reach the universe, we know it today. It is worth mentioning that the Glorious Qur’an tells us that the Universe still expands.
Allah exalted he says:
“We built the universe with ˹great˺ might, and We are certainly expanding ˹it˺. Qur’an (51:47)
Some scientists estimate that was about a billion universe like our current universe suddenly disappeared, but the scientists are unable to determine where did that one billion universes go.
Scientists have hypotheses about the vanishing of one billion Universe
Half a billion of universes was consist of certain type of substance and the other half a billion of that universe was consist of an anti-substance, each one of them collided with the other resulting in the totally disappearance of that whole one billion of Universes.
The hot smoke following the big bang, continued to expand, gradually the temperature started to go down from 5.5 billion Fahrenheit degree, during this cooling down process. The protons started to develop, which means the beginning of the developments of atoms. Scientists estimate that hydrogen element is the first elements to exist.
The hydrogen element has the smallest atom which consist of one proton and one electron, gravity started to work and allowed for atom to work around a centre in the middle and eventually form the stars including the giant stars, some of those stars are much bigger than our sun with many thousands of times.
Stephen Hawking said that there is no scientific explanation for how gravity worked at the time with those atoms or elements yet.
In the process of the formation of giant stars, and because of the huge temperatures along with pressures, compression of protons and neutrons inside those stars. Chemical reactions occurred resulting the fusion between hydrogen atom with another hydrogen atom to form helium, and so forth, the process kept going forming many other elements.
Many elements started to concentrate in the centre of those stars, reaching the stage of producing the iron element which is considered one of the heavy elements. When the circumstances were suitable within the centre of the stars to produce the iron.
Iron element is different from other elements and when the iron element started to cover the core of the stars, it acted as shields. Scientists usually depict the star core. And the layers surrounding the core like an onion has a core and multilayers intertwined together. Iron stopped the fusion process of elements within the stars, when this fusion process stopped, it resulted in the increase of the pressures and temperature, which made the giant stars to explode.
Scientists call the giant stars that explodes by name of Supernova
Giant stars contained various elements of hydrogen, hilum, carbon, oxygen elements and many other elements, until we reached the iron element, as we stated before the iron element stopped the fusion process of elements within the stars, it resulted in the increase of the pressures and temperature, which made the giant stars to explode this is called supernova.
As a result of those huge explosions many elements start to form and appear such as the silver, gold, copper, zinc and all elements heavier than iron start to form and appear because of the explosion of the giant stars=supernova.
One of the scientists said if you see a gold ring do look down on it, because it has originated in supernova very long time ago.
The formation of our Solar System
The sun is our star in our solar system, is the sun like the giant stars? No, because the other giant stars included of the hydrogen element in ancient times. Our sun age is about 4.5 billion years roughly. The supernova leftovers, such as hot fiery rocks, iron, gold, copper, and zinc, of course all of them mixed. Along with gravity contributed to the formation of our sun.
The heavier elements had been consolidated at the centre of the solar system because of the gravity, this explains that the lighter elements had formed the light planets that are consist of Gas on the outskirts of the solar system like Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto these planets are called gas planets, because they are consist of light mix of gas.
While the four planets closest to the sun —Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars—are called terrestrial planets. These planets are solid and rocky like Earth (terra means “earth” in Latin). The four planets that are more distant from the sun—Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune—are called gas giants.
The sun was greater, bigger but after some time temperature start to increase, nuclear reactions and explosions occurred and rays coming out of it.
The formation of our Earth planet
As a result of supernova explosions stones, rocks and cosmic dust start to appear in the solar system, those stones, rocks, and cosmic dust were colliding with each other and sticking together while rotating around the sun which is the centre of the solar system. If we look at the asteroid belt surrounding Mars it gives us an idea about how tour Earth was initially formed. Other four planets closest to the sun were formed with the same concept.
When our Earth planet start to take the shape of a spinning ball, the gravity started to attract, hot high temperature rocks, asteroids, and meteoroids from the sky. The meteoroids brought the hot melting iron element along with other elements as well with it to the Earth as it hits the Earth.
Due to the heaviness of the iron element, it dived into the core of the Earth, while the lighter elements start to go to the surface of the Earth forming the outer layers of the Earth, these outer layers started to cool down and the temperatures went down. Scientists estimate the time length of that process around twenty-five million years. During that process the Earth was like a fiery furnace allowing the melting of all those elements in the stones, rocks, and different areas of the Earth, Scientists call it Magma
The heaviest elements went to the core of the Earth as usual such as the iron and nickel elements, the quantity of the iron element contained in the core of Earth now, is double the moon right now roughly.
The iron has magnetic power, when the core of the Earth turned to be full of Iron, along with the spinning of the earth, an electromagnetic power emanated from, making the iron core of the earth like a huge magnetic power.
Obviously, the magnet is diploe which means it has poles and electromagnetic field. This can be explained when we look at the north pole and south pole on our Earth planet.
Such electromagnetic field of the Earth has similarity what Mars Planet, since Mars planet had been formed in a similar way like our Earth. But Mars has no iron core like our Earth which means Mars has no magnetic nature. The magnetic nature of our Earth helps in dispersing the solar winds which the sun sends because of the nuclear explosions within it.
The solar winds can remove the layers of atmosphere around the Earth, but the electromagnetic field of the Earth shifts the Solar winds away from removing the different protective gas layers of the Earth known by the Earth atmosphere and direct the solar winds somewhere else. Therefore, the electromagnetic field of the Earth protects the atmosphere of the Earth which protects the Earth itself too.
Unlike Mars has no electromagnetic field which resulted in losing its protective atmosphere which made life impossible on it.
Volcanos were discharging very heavy amounts of poisonous gases forming what looked like foggy clouds. Hydrogen, nitrogen, smoke, and Carbon dioxide. Ozone and Oxygen were not available at the time, the Ultraviolet (UV) is a form lethal of electromagnetic radiation, which used to come from outside of Earth. All that did not allow for circumstances of life to exist.
After this stage Scientists disputed and stated that there was a planet similar to the size of Earth by the name Theia collided with our Earth our ended up in fusion between Theia and the Earth resulting in the formation of our current Earth Planet.
Scientists think that when Theia collided and fused with our Earth, that during that process parts of the Earth scattered in the space and formed the moon. The Moon has influenced the surface of the Earth in particular the tide (Oceans)
Scientists estimate that the influence of the moon on the tide (Oceans) on the surface of Earth was much stronger that nowadays because the moon was closer to the Earth, plus the spinning of Earth was faster and the day length was six hours only.
The moon influence on the surface of the Earth has been a positive influence such as the dislocation of the Earth’s crust, also the moon made the spinning of the Earth to slow down, resulting of making the length of the day goes from six hours to twenty-four hours.
Scientists have two opinions about the origin of water on Earth, the first view is that volcanos could be the source of water since volcanos had and even still have water vapour. The other view that Commits hit the Earth and meteoroids came from it which had sources of water.
Commencement of Life on Earth
When circumstances start to be suitable for the existence for life an Earth became inhabitable, Allah Exalted he created many things such as planets, animals, and many other creations such dinosaurs and of course humanity represented in our father Adam and Eve.
Allah Exalted in the Glorious Qur’an mentioned our sky and the rest of the seven skies, clouds were described occasionally by sky, linguistically that is correct as much as Arabic language is concerned. Therefore, clouds and atmosphere are parts of the sky. But if we to specify and say our world’s sky, then we referee to space where the sun, moon, planets etc. But beyond that would go under the higher seven skies, this type of distinguishing is available in the Glorious Qur’an.
Modern Science tells us that our world’s sky took about 13.8 billion years to be created or reach the current shape we know it nowadays. But the Glorious Qur’an tells us that to six days to eb created, is there contradictions?
The length of the day does not mean twenty-four-hour period which we humans have divided up in recent hundreds of years. The length of the day in the Glorious holy Qur’an varies based on the context of the Qur’anic verses are talking about and as explained by authentic commentary=Hadith of Prophet Muhammed peace be upon him.
The Glorious Qur’an confirms that the first sky (our sky as known to us in science) was created before that creation of Earth planet and that is what the modern science is telling us.
The Glorious Qur’an tells us that the rest of the seven skies were created after that in the last two days = periods=stages of the creation. From Islamic perspective those skies are part of the unseen that modern science and humanity know nothing about except what the Glorious Qur’an tells us about.
Allah Exalted He tells us in the Glorious Qur’an:
“Ask ˹them, O Prophet˺, “How can you disbelieve in the One Who created the earth in two Days? And how can you set up equals with Him? That is the Lord of all worlds. Surah Fussilat= Chapter Explained in Detail Qur’an (41:9)
Allah knows Best.
Almighty Allah is the highest and most knowledgeable, and the attribution of knowledge to him is the safest.
Right from Almighty Allah and wrong from me and Satan
Prepared by Mohamad Mostafa Nassar-
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Arrogance is not only a sign of insecurity, but also a sign of immaturity. Mature and fully realised persons can get their points across, even emphatically without demeaning or intimidating others.