Is Adam the vicegerent, successor, caliph, or Khalifa of Almighty Allah on Earth?

Allah exalted he states in the Glorious holy Qur’ân:

And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: “Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth.” They said: “Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, ـ while we glorify You with praises and thanks and sanctify You.” He (Allah) said: “I know that which you do not know.” Qur’an (2:30)

Does that mean that Adam is the vicegerent, successor, caliph, or Khalifa of Allah exalted he on Earth?

Answer:

First before getting into lengthy discussions and to make it easy and simple, one must understand that when we say Adam isthe vicegerent, successor, caliph, or Khalifa of Almighty Allah on Earth, this expression is a metaphoric and must not be taken literally.

In fact, one must start by understanding the terminology used before deciding whether Adam was Allah’s vicegerent, successor, caliph, or Khalifa on earth or not.

Definition:

Vicegerent, successor, caliph, or Khalifa are all synonymous which means these words have the same meaning and technically and logically vicegerent, successor, caliph, or Khalifa would require a predecessor and a successor for him too.

In more detailed words, Allah Exalted He, is the first and last, NO one can precede him nor be his direct or even indirect vicegerent, successor, caliph, or Khalifa, Allah exalted he, king of kings.

Quranic Evidence:

“30. And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: “Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth.” They said: “Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, ـ while we glorify You with praises and thanks and sanctify You.” He (Allah) said: “I know that which you do not know.” 

Quran Surah Al-Baqarah= Chapter the Cow (2:30)

Verse Analysis:

As we can view from the above verse, the angels wondered and asked Allah exalted he, about the wisdom of creating a new creation which might make mischief and therein shed blood. Obviously if the near creation is meant to be literally direct or even indirect vicegerent, successor, caliph, or Khalifa of Allah exalted he, then angels would be blasphemous towards Allah exalted he and that is impossible.

Additionally, the Allah exalted he did NOT specifically say that the new creation is direct or even indirect vicegerent, successor, caliph, or Khalifa on behalf of Allah himself at all.

Surah 2. Al-Baqarah. verse 30

Additional Quranic Evidence:

“O Dawud! Verily, we have placed you as a successor on the earth; so, judge you between men in truth (and justice) and follow not your desire — for it will mislead you from the path of Allah. Verily, those who wander astray from the path of Allah (shall) have a severe torment, because they forgot the Day of Reckoning”

Qur’an Chapter Sad (38:26)

Verse Analysis:

Again, we can easily see here that Allah exalted he has appointed Prophet Dawud=David, as a vicegerent, successor, caliph, or Khalifa without specifying that it is on behalf of Allah exalted he himself at all.  Which eventually means vicegerent, successor, caliph, or Khalifa of a previous Prophet or Human preceded Prophet Dawud (David in English).

Surah 38. Sad. Verse 26

Commentary:

Based on the above-mentioned evidence and from proper Islamic point of view, Adam (and humans) had been appointed vicegerent, successor, caliph, or Khalifa FOR EACH OTHER to inhabit Earth, worship Allah ALONE. To enjoin the good and forbid the bad and abide by Allah’s authentic messages that were delivered by his prophets and messengers, who were sent over the centuries in chronological order.

Prophets come consecutively with some time gaps between each other to remind people of the teachings of Allah exalted he, fulfill and deliver the very same core message, which is worship Allah, do not associate any partners or equals in worship with him and do the religious rituals that have been instructed to do.

Naturally, all the work of all those great prophets and messengers is an integration work complement each other in a a comprehensive way.

Here is a great hadith that depicts the integrated one message of all Prophets and messengers of Allah exalted he as one message, each prophet and messenger come to complete it.

The last of all the Prophets- Our beloved Prophet Muhammed peace be upon him said:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah’s Messenger peace be upon him said:

“My similitude in comparison with the other prophets before me, is that of a man who has built a house nicely and beautifully, except for a place of one brick in a corner. The people go about it and wonder at its beauty but say: ‘Would that this brick be put in its place!’ So I am that brick, and I am the last of the Prophets.”

Reference: Sahih al-Bukhari 3535 In-book reference  : Book 61, Hadith 44

Allah knows Best.

Reference:

Is Jesus Spirit of Allah- Ruhullah- Conception of Jesus and Perverted Missionary Claims

What is the Meaning of the angels prostrating to Adam and Yousuf Brothers prostrating to him?

The Creation of Man

Why did Allah command the angels to bow down before Adam in his presence? Isn’t bowing down considered Shirk=form of polytheism in Islam?