Al-Ibaadiyyah- Ibadi Cult

Al-Ibaadiyyah- Ibadi Cult

Mohamad Mostafa Nassar



Who are the Ibadis?


Praise be to Allah.

1 โ€“ Definition. 

The Ibadis are a group of Khaarijis who are named after their founder, โ€˜Abd-Allah ibn Ibaad al-Tameemi. They claim that they are not Khaarijis, and they deny this origin. But the truth is that they are not extreme Khaarijis like the Azraqis.

But they agree with the Khaarijis in many issues such as denying the divine attributes, saying that the Qurโ€™aan is created, and allowing rebellion against oppressive rulers. 

2 โ€“ After whom are the Ibadis named? 

Their first founder was โ€˜Abd-Allah ibn Ibaad from the tribe of Banu Murrah ibn โ€˜Ubayd ibn Tameem.  He was named after Ibaad which is a village in al-Yamaamah known nowadays as al-โ€˜Aarid. โ€˜Abd-Allah was a contemporary of Muโ€™aawiyah and died at the end of the reign of โ€˜Abd al-Maalik ibn Marwaan. 

3 โ€“ Their most important beliefs: 

ยทFrom their books it seems that they deny the divine attributes, and they agree to a large extent with the Muโ€™tazilah in the misinterpretation of divine attributes. But they claim that their views are based on sound evidence, when they interpret the divine attributes in a metaphorical sense, which explains the meaning without likening Allah to His creation.

But the truth of this matter is the view of Ahl al-Sunnah waโ€™l-Jamaaโ€™ah, who follow the evidence and affirm the names and attributes of Allah as He Himself has affirmed them, without denying them, discussing how, they are, misinterpreting them or likening Allah to His creation.

ยทThey deny that the believers will see Allah in the Hereafter.

ยทThey misinterpret some matters having to do with the Hereafter and deny that they are real, such as the Balance (Meezaan) and the Siraat.

ยทThe attributes of Allah are not additional to His Essence; they are His Essence.

ยทThe Qurโ€™aan in their view is created, and they agreed with the Khaarijis in that. Al-Ashโ€™ari said in Maqaalaat al-Islamiyyeen, โ€œAll the Khaarijis say that the Qurโ€™aan was created.โ€ Maqaalaat al-Islamiyyeen, 1/203.

ยทIn their view the one who commits a major sin is a kaafir in the sense of being ungrateful to Allah or being a hypocrite.

ยทIn their view people fall into three categories:

– Believers who are sincere in their faith

– Mushriks whose shirk is obvious

– People who have affirmed belief in Tawheed and Islam, but who do not adhere to its practices and acts of worship, so they are not mushriks because they have affirmed belief in Tawheed, but they are not believers either because they do not adhere to the requirements of faith.

So, they are included with the Muslims in rulings having to do with this world, because of their affirmation of Tawheed, and they are included with the mushriks in rulings having to do with the Hereafter because they were not sincere in their faith and they went against the requirements of Tawheed. 

ยทThey believe that those of the people of the qiblah who differ from them are kaafirs but not mushriks; it is permissible to marry them and inherit from them. Their weapons, horses and anything that may be used for war is permissible as war booty and everything else is haraam.

ยทThe one who commits a major sin is a kaafir and when he is committing sin and persisting in it, he cannot be admitted to Paradise if he has not repented, for Allah does not forgive major sins unless those who commit them repent before death.

ยทThey call the one who commits a major sin a kaafir, claiming that this is kufr in the sense of ingratitude to Allah or in the sense of hypocrisy, not in the sense that he is a kaafir who is beyond the pale of Islam.

Ahl al-Sunnah waโ€™l-Jamaaโ€™ah on the other hand call such a person disobedient or a sinner. Whoever dies in such a state โ€“ according to Ahl al-Sunnah โ€“ is subject to the will of Allah: if He wills, He will forgive him by His grace, and if He wills, He will punish him by His justice until he is cleansed of his sin, then he will be moved to Paradise.

But the Ibadis say that the sinner will abide in Hell forever, so in this regard they agree with the rest of the Khaarijis and Muโ€™talizah who say that the sinners will abide in Hell forever.

ยทThey deny that there will be any intercession for the sinners who are believers in Tawheed, because sinners โ€“ in their view โ€“ will abide in Hell forever, so there can be no intercession for them to be brought forth from Hell.

ยทSome of them criticized the caliph โ€˜Uthmaan ibn โ€˜Affaan, Muโ€™aawiyah ibn Abi Sufyaan and โ€˜Amr ibn al-โ€˜Aas (may Allah be pleased with them).

Allah knows Best.